Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Reviewer Prelims Essay

Limitations to Economic Models Models: > an abstract generalization of how relevant facts actually relate to one another. > simplified pictures of reality 1. Liberal Use of Assumptions 2. Ceteris Paribus – Everything else remains constant 3. Short Run – Long Run > Short Run is a time range within which output can be adjusted only by changing the amounts of variable inputs remain unchanged. > Long run is a time period that is long enough to permit changes in all inputs both fixed & variable. ** Fixed – constant/doesn’t change ** Variable – varies 4. The Use of Graph > Visual representations of the relationship between 2 variables. ** Cartesian Plane – Rene Descartes Y axis – Independent|Cause X axis – Dependent|Effect Approaches 1. Positive based on facts use to describe an occurrence of an event objective answ. the question, What is? Or What will be? 2. Normative based on opinion subjective / judgmental predictive answ. the question, What ought to be? Or What should be? Branches of Economics MACRO – broad – birds eye view – aggregate demand and supply – contributions made by different sectors in the economy MICRO small / individual – particular / specific – demand and supply – detailed – close-up view – Implications of Scarcity 1. The need to make choice a. Opportunity b. Benefit or Punishment c. Value Judgment Opinion 2. Rationing Device 3. Competition Four Economic Resources Capital – physical or human capital Land – natural resources (surface | beneath) Labor – blue collar or white collar – is an effort – human skills Entrepreneur – 4 functions: > Initiative > Business Policy > Innovator > Risk Taker 1. Availability of Resources Products > Goods – tangible > Services – intangible Two Parties – producer – demanders (customers) 2. Level of Production Two Approaches – Mkt. Aggregation (macro) – Mkt. Segmentation (micro) 3. Manner, Methods and Techniques Procedure of Productions 3 Methods a. Capital – Intensive (capital > labor) b. Labor – Intensive (labor > capital) c. Intermediate – Production (capital = labor) 4. Target Clients / Customer 2 Methods a. Direct (modern) Networking and Direct Selling b. Indirect (traditional) Manufacturer ïÆ'   Advertiser ïÆ'   Wholesaler ïÆ'   Retailers ïÆ'   Consumer 5. Price – reasonable Profitable ïÆ'   Producers ïÆ'   Profit ïÆ'   Cost Affordable ïÆ'   Consumers ïÆ'   Cost Basic Economic Activities 1. Production Inputs ïÆ'   Procedures ïÆ'   Outputs Classification of Products 1. Basic 2. Luxury 3. Public 4. Free 5. Economic Needs 2. Distribution – Reach Two Methods of Distribution a. Non-conventional – cheapest but slowest b. Conventional – expensive but fast 3. Exchange Barter Sytem Medium of Exhange Legal Tender – Philippine peso Non-legal tender – Foreign currency COMMUNICATIONS Communication > Commun (oe) > Communis – common > Communicare – to share Communication Effectiveness Words – 7% Non-Verbal – 93% : Vocal – 38% | Visual – 55% Vocal > rate: phasing of voice > voice quality > voice pitch Visual > oculesics (sight) > haptics (touch) > kinetics (body movement) > accecories > chronemics > olfactics (hearing) > proxemics (special) ** Public Domain ** General Knowledge **Jargons – the technical terminology or characteristics idiom of a special activity or group. Communication Barrier 1. Poor word choice 2. Differing connotations 3. Inappropriate inferences (conclusions) 4. Grammar, Spelling, Punctuation and sentence structure 5. Wrong type of message 6. Poor appearance of the sender of the oral message 7. Poor appearance of written message 8. Distracting environmental factors 9. Receiver incapable of receiving message 10. Poor listening 11. Lack of interest 12. Lack of knowledge needed to understand 13. Different cultural perceptions 14. Language difficulty 15. Emotional state 16. Bias SOCIOLOGY Capacity to shift from one perspective to another Self-experience ïÆ'   wider society Self-centric views ïÆ'   acceptance and understanding of others History of Sociology 19th century French revolution * democratic views starts to sprung Industrialization * capitalist vs. laborers * rise of machinery * social-problems – Scientific revolution Pioneers of Sociology 1. Auguste Comte Father of sociology Coined the term socio(companion) and logy(study) 2. Herbert Spencer â€Å"Society is a product of evolution† Social Darwinism influenced him Sociobiologist were not accepted in modern society 3. Karl Marx Employed sociological inquiry with himself Conflict perspective History of the have and have nots 4. Emile Durkheim Father of Modern Sociology Social facts The degree of social integration 5. Max Weber Contradicting the political and economic ideas of Karl Marx Social interaction concept â€Å"rise of Protestantism was a major contributor to the progress of capitalism and industrialization† Culture – way of life Material and Non-material culture Beliefs and traditions Modern/popular culture – personality Social Perspectives: 1. Social Funtionalist Theory – Functionalists believe that society is held together by social consensus, in which members of the society agree upon, and work together to achieve, what is best for society as a whole. 2. Social Interaction Theory (symbolic interactionalism – which focuses on how people act according to their interpretations of the meaning of their world. 3. Social Conflict theory – which focuses on the negative, conflicted, ever-changing nature of society. THEOLOGY Living Like Jesus The Jesus of history and of being human Living like Jesus is COMPLICATED and PROBLEMATIC because of his supernatural state It is a HUGE responsibility to live like him FOUR R’s 1. Rebel A non-conformist; who do not abide He was defiant He was extraordinary because of his differing beliefs 2. Reformist A person who goes for something better 3. Revolutionary A dreamer and an active worker Doesn’t leave anything to chance Never works alone 4. Radical Who do not think and act like the rest Someone who challenges a particular order Jesus was RADICAL-MINDED, LIBERAL-MINDED and PRACTICAL-MINDED Liberating A HERO who is DARING A carpenter Analytical Pragmatic Innovator Jesus’s time Gross injustice that was fed by monstrous greed Impoverished sufferings Patriarchal culture Jesus was BREAKTHROUGH-MINDED Broke away from the way people think during his time MORALITY – value Something that is important to us Actions are always a product of choices Exclusive to human actions Human beings are rational beings Reasoning is a product of intelligence 3 Font principles of Christian Morality 1. Person 2. Context 3. Acts and Consequences Order means survival Survival is everybody’s interest Society comes together to create a system of support If one’s freedom ends, somebody’s freedom begins Co-existence demands Respect Christianity is a success story Thought-fullness People find ways to co-exist with one another People make agreement and collective decisions to have ORDER in the community Order is beauty and beauty is life ** Schechems, Samaria At the well of Schechem he met a woman Ostrasize – excluded/isolated; nobody relates to you ** The Rational being is the Moral Being Base from FREEDOM A moral person is someone who is free to do what he/she likes(chooses to do) for as long as he/she does not infringe Infringe – violates the freedom of others Freedom is not absolute Responsible Freedom – freedom is a responsibility Penology â€Å"penal† ENGLISH Business English Communicative Competence Knowledge of the Language Ability to use the Language Writing Speaking Listening Reading Tasks: 1. Types of Letters 2. â€Å"Simulated Company† Name Logo Slogan/motto Nature of Business Vision/Mission 3. Business Application Letter Curriculum Vitae Bio-data Resume Standard Formal English No errors No contractions Correct tenses Diction Mechanics Spelling Abbreviations Capitalizations Syllabications Punctuations ** Simulation – business / company – Social Responsibility ** Figures of Speech = Tropes Parts of a Letter: 1. Date Line. – The month, day, and year the letter is typed. 2. Inside Address. – The name and address of the person to whom the letter is being sent. 3. Salutation. – An opening greeting such as Dear Ms. Jones. 4. Body. – The text of the letter. 5. Complimentary Closing. – A closing to the letter such as Sincerely or Yours truly. 6. Signature. – The writer’s signature. 7. Writer’s Identification. – The writer’s typed name and address. FILIPINO Masining / Malikhaing Pagpapahayag Inilipat sa GEC s2004 Dating Retorika na ayon sa CHED memo #59, s1996 Mga Paksa: 1. Kalikasan at simula ng Retorika 2. Masining na pagpapahayag (pasulat at pasalita) 3. Kritikal na pagbasa sa mga sulatin 4. Pagsulat ng 4 na uri ng pagpapahayag Pagsasalaysay Paglalarawan Paglalahad Pangangatwiran 2 uri ng Pagpapahayag: 1. Traditional 2. Conventional (makabago) Talambuhay: 1. Talambuhay ng sarili 2. Talambuhay ng ibang tao Paksa: 1. Paksa 2. Pagkalap ng impormasyon 3. Pagbabalangkas 4. Pagbasa 5. Muling pagsulat 6. Publikasyon/paglilimbay Paraan – istilo, wika , karakter, angkop sa bumabasa, angkop sa tema, paglalarawan ng karakter Dipinisyon 1. Maanyong Dipinisyon – uri/klase 2. Dipinisyong Pasanaysay – Kontrasyon ** Retorika – magaling na tagapagsalita Classical Greek Rethoric 1. Corax – Ama ng Greek Rhetoric Bahagi ng Talunmpati 1. Proem 2. Narrative/Narration 3. Statement of Argument 4. Refutation/opposing argument 5. Summary/Conclusion ** Proem – pagpapakilala sa nilalaman ng talumpati ** Summary – buong punto o buod ng paksa 2. Tisias – estudyante ni Corax Bahagi ng Talumpati 1. Prologue 2. Narrative 3. Argument 4. Epilogue ** Prologue – pagkuha sa atensyon ng takapakinig habang sinasabi ang introduksyon 3. Aristotle Bahagi ng Talumpati 1. Exordium 2. Narratio 3. Divisio (argument) 4. Confirmatio (affirmative) 5. Confutatio (refutation) 6. Conclusio ** Exordium – pagkakaroon ng interaksyon sa tagapagsalita at sa takapakinig mula sa introduksyon Medieval Rhetoric 1. Cicero 5 Canons of Rhetoric 1. Inventio (invention) 2. Despositio (arrangement) 3. Elocotiu (style) 4. Memoria (memory) 5. Action (delivery) ** Inventio – paksa, audience, sitwasyon ** Despositio – balangkas ** Elocotiu – figures of speech ** Memoria – kaisipan 2. Quintillian â€Å"Good man speaking well† Karakter ng isang speaker Tinaguriang Roman Wiseman 3. Tertullian Unang nagtranslate ng Holy Scripture Ama ng Latin Christianity Nagsulat ng Latin Christian Literature Nag-introduce sa Holy Trinity 4. Lucian Satirist Native speaker ng barbarian 5. Hermogenes Griyegong rhetoric Legal documents Ang retorika ay ang pagkakaroon ng mahusay na pagsasalita 6. Capella Prose Narrative Didactic method 7. St. Augustine 8. Cassiodorous Letter writing 9. Isidore Encyclopedia of Human Knowledge Dialectic approach 10. Al Quin Parliamentary Procedure Civic 11. Bede Poetry / poetic way of writing 12. Nother Labeo Latin ïÆ'   German Literature 13. Boethius

Yet Do I Marvel

Yet Do I Marvel â€Å"Yet Do I Marvel† a sonnet by Countee Cullen, is written in iambic pentameter. Its rhyming scheme is arranged in two, four line stanzas, abab and cdcd, ending with a six-line stanza, eeffgg. This poem is written in first-person, the voice of a Black man and uses a variety of tones; confusion, anger and sarcasm, to portray it’s message; The poem begins with the poet’s voice affirming the belief that God is good, well meaning, but admits God has left him with out explanation for understanding the reasons behind the justice or injustices, which make up God’s will. Comparisons with in the poem are made to illustrate the lack of sense in God’s design. The line, The buried mole continues to be blind, would seem to be an inexplicable injustice against a creature that has done no wrong. Then the line, Why flesh that mirrors him must some day die, would seem an unjust end for a being God created in his likeness. Cullen’s next comparisons allude to two mythical gods sentenced to suffer for eternity for their heinous crimes, Make plain the reason tortured Tantalus Is baited by the fickle fruit, declare If merely brute caprice dooms Sisyphus To struggle up a never-ending stair, there would seem to be no need of explanation for the justness of their fate (â€Å"Encyclopedia Mythica†). The poems last stanzas are the need for reaffirmation of faith in God’s divine plan as we have not the wisdom to be more than his instrument, To catechism by a mind too strewn, With petty cares to slightly understand, What awful brain compels His awful hand. That leaves the poet concluding that despite the racial indignities and senseless injustices performed against blacks who speak out, he must accept what it is God’s will which is, To make a poet black, and bid him sing! Countee Cullen was a pivotal force in the Afro-American arts movement of his time, known as Harlem Renaissance. Cullen’s use of racial themes in this verse are reflective of a black urban consciousness for change, brought about by America's racial climate during the 1920s and black American disillusionment after World War 1 (â€Å"Cullen, Countee†). Countee Cullen while an out spoken agent for change drew criticism for his works when he chose as his model the classical verse forms of John Keats rather than rely on the rhythms and idioms of his black American heritage (â€Å"African American Literature†), It was Cullen’s belief that use of more traditional forms to structure his poetic message would allow art to transcended race and minimize the distance between black and white people (â€Å"Cullen, Countee† ). Yet Do I Marvel Biography Online: Encyclopedia Mythica http://www. mythweb. com/index. html African American literature. † Encyclop? dia Britannica. Encyclop? dia Britannica Online. Encyclop? dia Britannica, 2010. Web. 19   Apr. 2010   http://www. search. eb. com. prxy1. ursus. maine. edu/eb/article-232356 Cullen, Countee. † Encyclop? dia Britannica. Encyclop? dia Britannica Online. Encyclop? dia Britannica, 2010. Web. http://www. search. eb. com. prxy1. ursus. maine. edu/eb/article-9028151

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

How does Charlotte Bronte build up tension?

Charlotte Bronte wrote Jane Eyre in 1847. Throughout this novel Bronte criticises and challenges some views and believes that she experienced herself within the injustice of the Victorian society. In this essay I am going to use chapter 23 to show how tension is built up in terms of language, feelings and symbols. Firstly, I'm going to include a brief summery of the plot and at the same time highlight the main characters I'll be working with. Secondly, I will include the history of the time the book was written in and comment on how it links with the story. Finally, I am going to point out and explain the many different techniques Bronte uses to build up tension. Jane Eyre opens with the narrator, the adult Jane Eyre recalling her childhood experiences growing up as an orphan at Gateshead, the home of her unfriendly aunt, and her children. Jane is always wrongly punished, she was even sent away to Lowwood charity school where pupils are treated appallingly. There she passes six years as a student, then two as a teacher. After that Jane becomes a governess at Thornfield, owned by Mr. Rochester. Jane falls in love with her master and Rochester asks Jane to marry him, she agreed. On the day of their marriage Jane discovers that Rochester is already married, she then refuses to be Rochester's mistress and leaves Thornfield. Later she becomes a teacher at a new local school; she also meets her three cousins. St John [her cousin] proposes marriage to Jane; however she refuses as she still loves Rochester. Finally, she returns to her master to find out that he has been maimed and blinded when his first wife burned down Thornfield and killed her self. The novel ends with Rochester's marriage to Jane and a description of the happy life ahead of them. The main characters I'll be mentioning in this essay are Jane Eyre and Edward Rochester. The heroine and narrator of the novel, Jane is an intelligent, honest, plain-featured young girl forced to compete with oppression, inequality, and hardship. She has also developed a sense of right and wrong from an early age. Despite being naive and innocent she is still able to look after her self and became very independent. On the other hand, Edward Rochester is a passionate man with a dark secret that provides much of the novel's suspense. He was a very unhappy man when we first met him, however his pure love for Jane eventually changes him back to the man he was. By the end of the book his blinded and crippled state was used to metaphors his loss of arrogance and pride. Charlotte Bronte is attacking the social injustices that were present in the nineteenth century. She successfully does this and clearly portrays what life was like at the time the book is set. Today, men and women are treated equally, which was certainly not the case in the nineteenth century. Women, in the nineteenth century were treated as if they were inferior to men, ‘Seating himself in an armchair, he intimated by a gesture that I was to approach and stand before himi. At that time also, very few occupations were open to those who had to support themselves. Marriage was too seen to be the only desirable goal for women, and was taken very seriously as a financial or a business deal. Poor girls such as Jane had very few options open to them apart from using their education as a source of strength. Social status was very important in the nineteenth century. Class divisions were far more fixed and pronounced than they are today. In the novel, Jane is very conscious that, socially, she is inferior to many of those with whom she associates in spite of being a ‘lady'. At that time, money only can determine where anyone can fit on the social ladder. Therefore, the theme of respect being earned and not deserved due to one's bank balance is important in this novel. In this novel Bronte uses many ways to build up tension particularly in chapter 23. The most recurring and effective method is her use of ‘Pathetic Fallacy', which is the use of natural description to convey inner feelings or the status of the character. For example, in chapter 23 she uses a lovely night for the proposal to echo and reinforce Jane's happiness â€Å"the nightingale's song was then the only voice of the hour†. In contrast, Bronte uses a â€Å"heavy shower† in chapter 37 to convey Jane's pain and sorrow at seeing her master and loved one in that state. Yet, charlotte Bronte used the sudden change in weather at the end of chapter 23 to signify that Jane and Rochester's union is not right. One of the numerous ways in which Bronte builds up tension is her use of hints and clues which relates to things happening later in the novel. In the quote â€Å"the great horse-chestnut at the bottom of the orchard had been struck by lightning in the night, and half of it split away† Bronte used the chestnut tree which symbolises Jane and Rochester's future union in marriage separated into two by a bolt of lightening- a symbol of either God's unhappiness about Rochester's deed or Bertha coming between them- to hint to us that something is going to stop the couple from getting married later on. I think that this is very effective way to build up apprehension as the reader will wonder what kind of thing is going to break the great love between them; hence it is a good way to keep people reading until they find out. Later on in chapter 37 Mr. Rochester is comparing himself with the â€Å"the old lightening-struck chestnut tree† which reminds the reader that what happened was exactly as foreshadowed in chapter 23. The way Bronte uses questions to convey the status of power in both chapter 23 and 37 builds up a great deal of apprehension for the reader. In chapter 23 Rochester is asking Jane many questions he very well know their answers, â€Å"you must have become in some degree attached to house? † and â€Å"we have been good friends, Jane; have we not? † These questions and many others show clearly that Mr. Rochester is using his powerful position as Jane's employer to tease her, and since she is dependent on him for her living she can't by any mean treat him in the same way he treats her. This would draw the readers into the story by setting up expectations of what will happen later on, as they know that Jane had always refused to be dominated and that resulted in angry outbursts against people trying to control her. In the early chapters she returned the same bad treatment back to her cruel cousin. And in chapter 6, we see that again when she says: â€Å"when we are struck at without a reason, we should strike back again very hard†, this shows Jane's strong believe in standing up to oppression and undeserved cruelty, which is what is happening again in chapter 23. During their conversation, Rochester tells Jane she'll soon need to leave Thornfield forever because he's finally decided to marry Blanche Ingram. Teasingly Rochester also tells her of a governess position, undertaking the education of the five daughters of Mrs. Dionysius O'Gall of Bitternutt Lodge in Ireland, â€Å"indeed I have already, through my future mother-in-law, hearted of a place that I think will suit you†¦.. you'll like Ireland , I think: they're such warm-hearted people there, they say† . Here you can notice that Rochester is torturing Jane with the idea of marrying another. However, I personally think that his behavior could be interpreted in a different way; since Rochester is a proud man he forced Jane into confessing her real feelings in order to be sure that his suspicions are correct, still I think there are many other ways to do so which are not as unkind. Mr. Rochester tells Jane that he feels as though they are connected by a â€Å"cord of communion. † Jane sobs-â€Å"for I could repress what I endured no longer,† she tells us, â€Å"I was obliged to yield. Jane confesses her love for Rochester, and to her surprise, he proposes marriage. Yet she believes that Rochester may be still playing with her feelings, that he may see her as an automaton, â€Å"a machine without feelings†; because she is â€Å"poor, obscure, plain, and little,† he may mistakenly think she is also â€Å"soulless and heartless. † At this point, she speaks to him beyond the â€Å"medium of custom, conventionalities,† even flesh, and her spirit addresses his spirit in a relationship of equality. Again, Jane creates equality by moving the relationship outside of the material world, and into the spiritual: At â€Å"God's feet,† they can stand side-by-side, rather than with Rochester leading, Jane following. This section of chapter 23 creates lots of tension for the reader as they will set up expectations as what reactions will Mr. Rochester make. Rochester convinces Jane that he only brought up marrying Blanche in order to arouse Jane's jealousy; when she reads the truth in his face she accepts his proposal. He then savagely declares that God has sanctioned their union, so he doesn't care what society thinks of the relationship. However, it is also important to note that nowhere in Jane Eyre are society's boundaries bent, Jane is Rochester's intellectual, but not his social, equal; Jane is also hesitant to marry Rochester because she senses that she would feel indebted to him for â€Å"condescending† to marry her. Ultimately, Jane is only able to marry Rochester as his equal because she has almost magically come into her own inheritance from her uncle. After achieving independence by finding a family in the Riverses and wealth in her inheritance, Jane is now free to return to Rochester to complete her triumph. Additionally, because Rochester has been blinded by the fire and has lost his manor house at the end of the novel, he became dependent upon Jane to be his â€Å"prop and guide. † it is clear now that Mr. Rochester has become weaker while Jane has grown in strength-Jane claims that they are equals, but it is obvious that she is more powerful than him. This can also be seen noticeably in the way she teases Rochester with her answers in chapter 37. â€Å"his appearance-I forgot the description you gave me of his appearance; – a sort of raw curate†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. To provoke him Jane answers:†St John dresses well. He is a handsome man: tall, fair, with blue eyes, and a Grecian profile. † This is very entertaining and apprehensive for the readers in the same time. The reader will feel happy that Jane is now powerful enough to return the same teasing Rochester did in chapter 23, but at the same time the reader will be wondering about the Rochester's reaction. However, Rochester welcomes Jane back with open arms, realising that he will never possess her the way he once wanted to, but that she, in fact, will end up possessing him. The opening of chapter 38 without a doubt will shock readers in the 19th century as well as readers nowadays. Jane says: â€Å"Reader, I married him†. This proves how powerful and controlling Jane has become; she did not say usual stereotypes like â€Å"we got married† or â€Å"he married me†, which illustrates that she did not only become more powerful financially but also on the gender bases. The fact that Jane is the narrator creates a huge amount of anxiety to the reader. This is because the reader will wonder where she is in the future and what happened to her. This as a result will make the reader more attached to the book to find out. To conclude, I think that Jane Eyre is an interesting book that will appeal to readers both now and in the 19th century as some of the injustices are still occurring today. Bronte used many techniques in this book to build up tension. For example she uses the method of ‘Pathetic Fallacy' as well as many symbols to create suspense. She also uses aspects from the history of her time like class boundaries, equality very effectively to make the reader more anxious. Another way in which Bronte creates tension is by using the shifts in power between Jane and Rochester.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Reflecting on what Amal tells us, discuss the ways in which Map of Essay

Reflecting on what Amal tells us, discuss the ways in which Map of Love comments on the following common assumptions about gender relations - Essay Example Some things have not changed, and this is evident in the gender roles that are discussed in the context of both British and Egyptian society. The Map of Love is a story of love written by a woman, as only a woman could tell it. Never lacking in emotion or intrigue, the book shows that history can repeat itself in strange ways. It is the story of two tales of love, about a century apart. Going back to 1901, we see that Anna Winterbourne has been recently widowed and is strangely attracted to an Egyptian nationalist by the name of Sharif Pasha Al-Barudi. At the time the Middle East was under British control. The ever dutiful Anna had been relegated to a life at home while her husband was stationed in Sudan. When he develops a sickness and cannot be nursed back to health, she becomes despondent and melancholy. Despite her best efforts, she finds a chasm between them which she cannot reduce, and ends up blaming herself†¦Ã¢â‚¬  if she had loved him better, perhaps he would have not needed to go to the Sudan. If she had understood him better, perhaps she could have nursed him back to health† (Souief, 2000, 41). The Victorian rules and attitude show that the woman’s place in the British household of 1900 was not far from that of a rudimentary society such as Egypt. No wonder she decides to travel to a new and distant country in search of adventure, and in the process is attracted to the young and robust nationalist. It is an escape from a life of emptiness and drudgery. This Victorian despondency is also seen in Charlotte Parker Gilman’s ‘The Yellow Wallpaper’ and Kate Chopin’s ‘The Story of an Hour’- but each chooses to deal with it in an entirely different way. Moving forward to the present, we see that Isabel too has fallen in love with Amal’s brother Omar but he is not reciprocating his thoughts or feelings. Aware of his Arabic traditions, he prefers to send Isabel to his sister Amal rather than help

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Zoot suit riots Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Zoot suit riots - Essay Example Zoot suit riots This was due to the fact that the Mexican immigrants were perceived as a direct threat to the lives of Americans, since they were often implicated in matters concerning crime and gang violence. Despite the wrongfulness of the American stereotype of the local Hispanic population, the fact that they were present in the United States and that they had made a life for themselves in their adopted country against all odds that were set against them put local public opinion in opposition to them. The fact that members of the American navy, many of whom had never set foot in Los Angeles, chose to attack members of the Hispanic population in the city, with wide public support is among some of the worst racist incidents to happen in the United States. It is possible that the feeling of losing control had become almost unbearable for the white population because of the growing confidence of Mexican Americans in their new environment. The Mexican Americans had come to the United States with barely anything to their names but by the 1940s, they were becoming an increasingly prosperous people, since they took advantage of almost every opportunity that came their way to make it in their adopted country. For quite a large number of them, their coming to America and starting their lives anew, away from the poverty prevalent in their home country was indeed the achievement of the American dream. The growing prosperity and presence of Mexican Americans in Los Angeles, as well as in other parts of the United States may have been behind the motivation of the American servicemen to attack these people in what became known as the zoot suit riots.

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Marketing Strategies on Innocent Smoothies Article

Marketing Strategies on Innocent Smoothies - Article Example The formula and process used in making the product made the company instantly gain its own identity from other similar products. As a result of the company’s unique marketing strategy, the London-based drinks company was able to double its profit annually. (BBC News, 2007) For the purpose of this study, the researcher will concentrate on examining the marketing techniques used by the company upon positioning its product line in the market. To enable the researcher to understand how the company was able to increase the expected company’s profit up to  £100 million in 2007 (Innocent, 2008b), the researcher will analyze Innocent’s market segmentation strategy by analyzing the personal comments made by the key stakeholders, the customers, suppliers and investors in terms of being able to establish a strong brand name in the marketplace within a short span of nine (9) years. Innocent Drinks has been producing Innocent smoothies made from the fine recipe for all ages. Among the common smoothie flavours offered by Innocent Drinks include: the combination of: (1) cranberries & raspberries; (2) strawberries & bananas; (3) blackberries, raspberries & boysenberries; (4) oranges, bananas & pineapples; (5) mangoes & passion fruit; and (6) pineapples, bananas & coconuts. (Innocent, 2008c) In order to maintain the product-life-cycle of Innocent smoothies, the company continuously produce different new recipes to be sold to the public under ‘Our Smoothie of the Month’ or ‘Seasonal Smoothie’. (Innocent, 2008c, 2008 f) In line with this matter, Innocent Drinks started by selling only 3 different receivers in 1999 and ended up with 30 different recipes in 2007. (Innocent, 2008b) Basically, it is necessary for Innocent Drinks to introduce new flavors regularly in order to maintain and capture a bigger share in the local market even before the company reaches the maturity stage.

Friday, July 26, 2019

Case 2 scientific investigation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Case 2 scientific investigation - Essay Example w Lo and Dmitry Repin, the two scholars utilized psycho physiological equipment to evaluate heart rate, skin conductance and blood pressure on traders executing real-time trading. Results showed that the experienced traders had a lower physiological reactivity to disturbing and abrupt information. Additionally, Oblechner (2004) discovered "emotional stability is equally important for a successful trader." Traders whose emotional reactions to losses and gains on the extreme positive or negative side show poor trading performance meaning a negative relation between emotional reactivity and successful trading behavior. (Lo and Repin, 2005) Overconfident traders have a tendency of trading too frequently and appear to ignore danger signs concerning their positions. According to Biais et al., 2001, overconfidence is related to sub-par performance amongst traders in an experimental environment and that overconfident traders stay with underachieving stock for a long time and sell their winning stocks too early leading to underperformance in the market. Self-awareness is an increased consciousness of ones own emotional and physical state. Traders who have self-awareness have logical reasoning behind all their behaviors and choices. Traders with self-awareness have a high emotional intelligence associated with long term success rate. (Biais et al,

Individual assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Individual - Assignment Example After a thorough discussion the group members converged in common inference that communication among employees is vital in an organization in order to maintain a proper work flow. In an organization each employee is a part of a bigger employee network. The work allocation must be communicated among the employees in order to have a clear idea of the work progress in the desired direction. Communication among employees has evolved over the years, from verbal and written communication to email and instant messaging. Even though the mode of communication has changed to ease off our efforts at workplace, it also has put a significant effect at our personal life. This essay reflects on the concept of checking work emails all the time and how email communication has changed the way we communicate at our workplace. I will also discuss about the group members’ individual contribution in the discussion and how I have inferred my opinion from the group activity. In order to collect relevant theories regarding organizational communication and the use of email communication in work place, the group members collected several articles from relevant journals. From the collected data, we tried to highlight the important factors and outcomes related to a proper organizational communication. One of my colleagues pointed out that Spaho (2011) has emphasized on the importance of organizational communication, and how it is an important factor for the organization’s success. He mentioned that miscommunication or poor communication can lead to poor relationship between the managers and the employees, which in turn can result in internal conflicts. I further added my opinion that a proper communication from the managers gives the right direction to the employees, which results in increase in their efficiency. Likewise, regular communication from the employees’ end also

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Thoreau's views of Nature is primarily subjective in which he Essay

Thoreau's views of Nature is primarily subjective in which he identified himself as a part of Nature whereas those of Darwin and - Essay Example His political view seems to be much closer to the concept of Individualism but at the same time, it is of dangerous effects in terms of the line he drew through the chapters like Civil Disobedience. As any other writer, Thoreau’s writings may bear resemblance to the thoughts of different authors. To see through him from the perspective of an individualist thinker in comparison with some other individualistic ideologists is interesting. John Locke, a prominent English writer and philosopher of the 17th century who questioned the divine rights of the King, triggered a revolution of theorization in the field of political and philosophical thoughts. Locke is strictly an empiricist, who holds the view that the experience of the senses is pivotal in pursuit of knowledge. In this sense, when we turn back to Thoreau and his practical experiment with the simplicity of life in Walden Pond, can we find any similarities or dissimilarities between Thoreau and Locke? Or can we say that did the views propounded by Thoreau derive from the Locke’s writing? This research paper is an attempt to look into Thoreau’s thoughts on nature from this viewpoint. Does Thoreau’s Views of Nature Stem from Locke’s Writings? Let’s start with a quote used by Thoreau in his essay titled Where I Lived and What I lived for. â€Å"I am monarch of all I survey; My right there is none to dispute† (Thoreau retrieved from Thoreau asserts that man is supreme in constituting his understanding of nature as we see in the philosophy of empiricism. From these words, it is obvious that Thoreau believes that human beings are absolutely free to lead their life in nature as they wish and a particular government or a law cannot reign over the free will of them. Again in the essay titled Civil Disobedience, one of the most controversial and influential essays by him which inspired the great social thinkers like Mahatma Gandh i and Tolstoy, â€Å"I heartily accept the motto , that government is best which governs least(Thoreau. Retrieved from†. We can a draw a line connecting the main thought of both of the citations, which accentuates man’s freedom in the state of nature. In this regard, he is obliged to Locke’s views of nature as we read the essay titled Of the State of Nature: TO understand political power right, and derive it from its original, we must consider,what state all men are naturally in, and that is, a state of perfect freedom to order their actions, and dispose of their possessions and persons, as they think fit, within the bounds of the law of nature, without asking leave, or depending upon the will of any other man. (Locke. retrieved from Here, we can see the meeting points of the ideology of both the writers and it is most probable that Thoreau’s views must have shaped from Lockeà ¢â‚¬â„¢s thoughts. According to individualistic ideology man is supreme and above another’s restrictions. The above-mentioned wordings of the both of the writers assert the same line of thought in different manner. It is easy to infer from this similarity in thought that Thoreau should have forged his conception of nature and human freedom from the individualistic ideologists like Locke. Through the analysis of The Second Treatise of Government by Locke it is obvious that he upholds the view that sovereignty is secured in the hands

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Public policy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words

Public policy - Essay Example But they are a happy and hospitable people. It is a common public policy to smile and be hospitable to any foreigner who comes in and visit one of their islands. The Filipinos are proud of their race. They smile when they see a tourist: that’s tourism policy number one. Tourism has been a flourishing industry in the Philippines and an attractive business venture because of its beautiful scenic spots, baroque churches, white beaches and various heritage sites, a legacy of the hundreds of years of Spanish colonization, and subsequently the American colonization which led to the Philippine independence on June 12, 1898. However, the Philippine tourism industry has passed through various stages of decay and then development. If public policies had been enforced to the letter, the Philippines could have been the number one tourist destination in Asia because of its rich heritage, historic spots, rich natural resources, and a hospitable people willing to receive any guests who have entered into their shore lines. Tourism was used for political purposes during the regime of President Ferdinand Marcos. Tourism policies during Marcos’s time were concentrated on government efforts to gain support from foreign governments, especially during the period when he declared martial law. There was no popular support or cooperation from the local community who had mixed feelings of fear, hatred and remorse over the dictatorship. Human rights violations were rampant. Resorts, hotels and other business establishments were owned by Marcos ‘cronies’. Rebel groups started to surface, and there almost anarchy in the streets. People power led by Corazon Aquino, wife of the martyred opposition leader Benigno Aquino Jr. led to the toppling of the dictatorship. Tourism was totally down at that time. (Gray, 2008, p. 369) When the dictator Marcos was overthrown by a people-power revolt, Corazon ‘Cory’ Aquino took over, and once again, her government used

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Economic Growth Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Economic Growth - Essay Example However, the United States still displays the highest growth rate in this period as shown in the left panel of Figure 2. The rest of the world also displayed increasing growth rate, but at a much slower pace than the seven biggest economies which resulted to a wider gap between the real GDP per person among these countries as shown in the right panel of Figure 2. The rest of Asia, on the other hand, as represented by Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan South Korea, and China also showed tremendous gains in their economies as shown by their real GDP per person growth depicted in Figure 3. China, the world's newest economic superpower, showed an exponential growth in its real GDP. A question, prompted by the above, is what are the underlying causes of economic growth' Furthermore, why is it that some countries grow faster than others' Is trade a major engine of economic growth' Or is it foreign direct investments' A major goal of this paper is to debate the effectiveness foreign direct investments and trade in fostering economic growth, and in the end answer the question on whether 'developing countries are right to increasingly shift resources towards attracting foreign direct investment rather than promoting trade in their objective to achieve economic growth'' Admittedly, these questions must be answered amidst ... The shift in economic policies is often on the reallocation of economic resources to finance activities geared toward attracting foreign direct investments rather than the other needs of those nations. Figure 3 Economic Growth in Asia Source: See Figure 2 Economic theories postulate that, for economic growth to be persistent economies must pursue three activities - these activities generate ongoing economic growth: saving and investment in new capital, investment in human capital, and discovery of new technologies. From these three activities emerged different economic growth theories, however, these theories are not the topic of this reading, but rather foreign direct investments and trade. International trade promotes the development of comparative advantage in the global economy, allows for the trade of similar goods - for example, United States imports automobiles and at the same time exports other types of automobiles, the diversity of taste of people is given an outlet, and economies of scale is enhanced. Trade has a very important role in promoting and sustaining long term economic growth that foreign direct investment doesn't (Kurgman and Obsfeld; Marrewijk, Ottens and Schueller). Nonetheless, the role of foreign direct investment in the development process can not be underscored either. Hence, developing countries had shifted a considerable amount of their resources into attracting foreign direct investments or FDIs. For example, in the Sub-Saharan Africa, governments have shifted policies to attract FDIs. Fiscal holidays and tax holidays are awarded generously to investors. Moreover, investors often require that the country improve its property rights in favor of the FDI and improve

Monday, July 22, 2019

The Indictment of the United States in John Steinbecks The Grapes of Wrath Essay Example for Free

The Indictment of the United States in John Steinbecks The Grapes of Wrath Essay The Grapes of Wrath is a novel written by John Steinbeck. In the bulk of modern literature, it is consider a masterful epic unmatched in the realm of the written word. The novel centers around a family of workers who are immigrants The Joads. When the novel takes place they are in California attempting to survive the scarce conditions of the depression. Steinbeck monitors and recounts the ups and downs of the family and their experiences in United States. The Grapes of Wrath is an indictment of the United States because much of the plot is Steinbecks commentary on the rampant capitalism which literary sucked the land and the people dry during the 1930s. The story is based on real life excerpts of John Steinbecks field research. The real life conflict was created by greedy business men, and lending institutions which bought up land and employed workers to farm. The majority of these workers were lower class immigrant families that were paid so little that their struggles have often been paralleled to that of slavery which plagued the United States in the 16th and 17th centuries. The old adage was particularly relevant when examining this novel, as the rich get richer, the poor end up dead worked to death. Steinbeck is not casual in his assault of capitalism and it not fearful to express his disgust for the supposed American dream. He has a clear political viewpoint and asserts: the great fact: when property accumulates in too few hands it is taken away. And that companion fact: when a majority of the people are hungry and cold they will take by force what they need. And the little screaming fact that sounds throughout all history: repression works only to strengthen and knit the repressed. (333). A major theme developed by Steinbeck in The Grapes of Wrath is his believe that the survive of the lower class is based on their dedication to family. His approach is a delicate mixture of Marxism and Socialism, both of which promote cooperative living. In the context of the time, Steinbecks beliefs were not just controversial but also dangerous. The United States went through a two periods in which the government hunted after individuals they considered unamerican, the 1920s and the 1950s. This novel was written in the the 1930s. However, Steinbeck intricately weaves a tale of family strife, struggle, and survival, in The Grapes of Wrath, which has become a beloved and honored classic since its publication. Steinbecks depiction of the devastating conditions during the 1930s is historically accurate. In particular, Steinbeck articulately describes what a Dust Bowl actually is and how it was created. He explains that the great plains experienced the greatest droughts ever during the great depression. The Dust Bowl was created due to lack of rain and also the over use of the land. Once pieces of land are over farmed they lose their nutrients and crops will not grow. These areas, once plush with grass and trees became â€Å"virtual deserts. † It was this drought which forced families, hungry and tired, to see out new hope in the west. The west promised folks clean and cheap living, and with access to regular work. Steinbeck describes the Dust Bowl in the following way, â€Å"The wind increased, steady, unbroken gusts. The dusts from the roads fluffed up and spread out and fell on the weeds besides the fields . . .the sky was darkened by the mixing dust, and the wind felt over the earth, loosened the dust, and carried it away. † For the people living in these devastated lands, this was a very accurate account as to what the â€Å"weather† was like for weeks and months. There are two general groups of people at conflict in the novel the rich bosses and the labor force. Steinbeck writes heart wrenching characters of the lower class which are just barely surviving. These workers are victimized by the greedy upper classes, their bodies treated like commodities. The audience can feel nothing but empathy for these immigrant workers who toil the land drawing figures in the dust with bare toes, (10), while the men that own the land [sit] in their cars to talk out of the window, (43), making money on the backs of the poor folk. Steinbeck explains that these capitalists have never done a day of hard work in their life and their only motive in using big earth augers into the ground for soil tests (43) is to squeeze more money from the land they own. Steinbeck is also quick to point out that farmers and these land owners are different. While landowners corrupt the land leaving it near death with their iron penes [and] orgasms set by gears [rape] methodically, [rape] without passion. (50). Whereas the farmer works with the land keeping it healthy. He explains A bank isnt like a man. Or an owner with fifty thousand acres, he isnt like a man either. Thats the monster. (46). Steinbeck does offer an alternate choice to this capitalistic nightmare which is represented by the Weedpatch Camp. This a town in which folks elect their own cops (400), and everyone who lives and works in the town has say about the choices are made. It is within Weedpatch, that all people including immigrant are treated fairly and with kindness. Steinbeck asserts that it is socialism that ensures that there is respect, and equality between all its citizens. It is in Weedpatch that Joads family ends up and while their struggle is not over, at least their victimization is. Steinbeck fully explores the cruel experiences that many migrant workers had to face in the 1930s and continue to face today. Steinbeck accurately and historically portrays the perils which many family has to overcome in the newly capitalistic culture in the United States.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Disney Animation And Child Development

Disney Animation And Child Development Disney animated films captivate the imagination of an abundance of people with mesmerizing music, charismatic characters, and vivid visuals. My grandmother, who had lived in poverty through most of her childhood, loved the Disney animated films as a child, because they were an escape from reality and gave her the hope of a better future. Because Disney animation played an important role in my grandmothers childhood, she replicated these memories with her children and grandchildren through watching Walt Disney animated films. Although I was too young to remember my first experiences with the Disney animated films, the first experience Disney animated film that I can draw from memory is the, The Little Mermaid. As a child, I fell in love with the appealing characters and the enchanting music from the movie. The protagonist Ariel was engaging to me as a child because she was curious and yearned to learn about a world enigmatic to hers. The animation of The Little Mermaid is vibrant and displays captivating soundtrack. The plot consists of a mermaid who is fascinated with the human world and finds herself in love with Prince Eric whom she saves from shipwreck. Ariels father, King Triton, is very protective of his daughter and is concerned about her curiosity for the human world. In order to be with the one she loves, Ariel turns to the sea witch, Ursula, who casts a spell upon her to become human. The conditions for Ariel to remain a human are that she must get a true loves kiss from Prince Eric within three days, and that if she does not, she will forever be unable to use her voice again. In the end, Prince Eric is tricked into falling in love with Ursula and Ariel must to fight off Ursula in order to save the kingdom and those she loves. King Triton apologizes for being too protective of Ariel and allows her to live happily ever after with Prince Eric. Disneys The Little Mermaid plot contains friendships, curiosity, consequences from rashness, persistence, and the dangers of being overprotective. Today, Disney animation plays an active role in my life because the movies are relative to loving ones family, embracing creativity and curiosity, and an inspiration. Disney animated films have given me countless memories that I cherish with both friends and family. I want to pass on the same happy memories I had with my grandmother by making a special time to watch Disneys movies with my younger family members. Recently, my three-year-old cousin Addy and I watched Disney-Pixars Brave. Towards end where the protagonist, Merida, hugs both of her parents, Addy asked me if the princess loves her mommy and daddy? I told her yes, of course she does! She replied I love my mommy and daddy too! Although my cousin may never remember that moment, its a moment that I will always remember. Walt Disney Animated Studios embraces positive childhood development through their films. The Disney animated movies focus on a variety of topics that can inspire children to question, love and imagine. Although these films may be viewed only as entertainment to some people, to others it is a useful tool to educate children about supplemental life lessons through an engaging medium. Disney animated films focuses on inspiring children to be inquisitive, as questioning and wonder is essential in the learning process. Disney implements the idea of being analytical and curious through characters that are naturally inquisitive with a strong desire to learn. For example, Belle from Beauty and the Beast, is a girl with an investigative personality and whose hobby is reading. Another character is Alice from Alice in Wonderland who falls down a rabbit hole and lands in a world that only becomes curious and curiouser the longer she is in Wonderland. Examples of Disneys implementation of creati vity are through audio-visual effects in the 1940 film Fantasia. Fantasias core idea throughout the film is to encourage one to use their imagination to create simple music, shapes, and colors to then become a wonderfully complex story inspired by orchestrated music. Creativity plays a key role in the Disney movie Meet the Robinsons. Lewis, young inventor, uses his imagination, creativity, curiosity, and dedication of achieving his goal of in becoming a successful inventor. Another attribute Disney animated studios incorporates into their storylines is the importance of loving one another. Teaching young children the significant and diverse meanings of love is essential in a childs development. Many Disney animated films teach the significance of loving ones friends, families, and community. Whether it is love for a friend, or love for ones dreams and wishes, love plays an essential role in each of Disneys animated movies. Examples of different forms of love include the 1940 film, Pinocchio. Pinocchio is puppet who is loved by his creator, Geppetto. A fairy magically turns Pinocchio into a real boy and Geppetto loves Pinocchio like his own son. In The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh, Winnie the Pooh loves all of his friends in the One-Hundred Acres Wood and they all work together with the challenges they face. In Pocahontas, the Native American princess makes the decision to be with her love John Smith, and tries to protect her community from fightin g the English invaders and to come to peaceful terms. The Princess and the Frog is a story about loving and embracing ones dreams in life. Tiana, the main character, wishes to fulfill her and her late fathers dream of owning a restaurant and works hard to make her dreams come true. Although Disney animation promotes healthy child development and essential skills required for learning and growing, there are some who believe the films may play a negative role in a childs development. Those critics typically believe that Disney movies are too unrealistic and have plots which center on anti-feminism, promoting materialism and foster laziness. As Walt Disney had once said, All cartoon characters and fables must be exaggeration, caricatures. It is the very nature of fantasy and fable. For one to expect realism in a childs story is unrealistic within itself. Many of the Disney animated films are adaptations of stories from folk tales and other forms of previous literature. The Grimm Brothers first written down the folk stories of Snow White, Cinderella, and Sleeping Beauty, and The Little Mermaid is an adaptation of the story by Hans Christian Anderson. Therefore, many of the plots behind popular Disney stories are not created by Disney, but are instead Disney animate d studios own interpretations of these stories that are more family orientated than the original stories themselves. Some feminists argue that the Disney princesses set an unrealistic goal of how women should behave and look. They also believe that it teaches young girls that a Prince Charming figure exists. However, many Disney princesses do have character traits outside the traditional, stereotypical female role. In Disneys animated film, Mulan, Mulan breaks away from the traditional customs of her culture of becoming a stereotypical Chinese wife that serves her husband, and instead disguises herself as a male soldier to protect her father and fight for her country. Mulan does fall in love in the movie with Captain Li Shang, who she originally detests. However, the film illustrates that Li Shang is not flawless. Although some soldiers joke around with Li Shang by calling him a pretty boy, Li Shang proves that he is inquisitive, a good leader, and logical. Some believe that the Dis ney princess films contain unrealistic expectations of beauty, and insists that the Disney princesses have a damaging impact on a girls expectations and self-esteem. However, they are not taking into consideration of the importance of the viewers age. Many toddlers and young children still do not have the cognitive ability to grasp the concept of an animated character to be setting the standards of beauty. Then once they are old enough to understand that society has already placed a standard for beauty, they are also old enough to understand that the princesses are animated characters and are not real expectations for living people. Some also argue that Disney animated films encourage children to be materialistic. However, while Disney does sell a multitude of products, it is not the corporations responsibility to parent children. It is instead the sole responsibility of a childs parents to teach against materialism. Thirdly, the idea that Disney animated films promotes the unrealistic dream of lifes problems magically disappearing and that working hard can be avoided is untrue. Many of the Disney animated characters work hard in the stories. Although Cinderella had a Fairy Godmother assist her in escaping from her evil stepmother and step-sisters, one can translate that into a real world scenario that works hard in life, and had a lucky break with someone being able to help them achieve a better life. In the animated film, The Princess and the Frog, Tiana must works hard to make a living and saves money to open up a restaurant she has always wanted. Disney animated films had inspired me during my childhood years to express my creativity and imagination. Disney animated films encourage children to be curious, imaginative and creative, as well as encourage children to love in a variety of ways to promote healthy childhood development. Many of the Disney animated films are adaptations from folk and fairy tales, as well as other novels throughout literary history. Although some may not support children viewing Disney animated films due to their own interpretations of the films and what they believe the films portray, it is ultimately the parents role to teach their children important life lessons and how to interpret the movies. It is only the Disney Animation Studios to entertain both children and adults; their films do promote a multitude of encouraging messages that can translate a child to incorporate being imaginative, curious, and loving into their own lives. In conclusion, Disney animated films promote healthy childhood devel opment. Parents and educators should properly incorporate these films for home entertainment and for education through encouraging children to use their creativity and focusing on the morals of the story. Work Cited Walt Disney Quotes. Walt Disney Quotes. Just Disney, Web. 22 Jan. 2013.

Music Essays History of Rhythm and Blues

Music Essays History of Rhythm and Blues History of Rhythm and Blues Rhythm and blues was considered strictly black music. Although I am not part of the American culture, I consider my cultural heritage to be somewhat related to this culture. The black culture is a phenomenal subject representing the life style, imagination and accomplishments of people. One of the most outstanding and unique characteristic that makes this culture one of a kind is the music it has produced. Music has a common characteristic that is unique to all cultures throughout the world. However, the music’s form, or style, every culture in history includes music as an important part of everyday life. The four most popular categories of Black music are Blues, Jazz, Gospel, and Rhythm and Blues. Blues is an African American music that transverses a wide range of emotions and musical styles which is expressed in songs that verse injustice or express longing for a better life and lost loves, jobs, and money. Jazz is music that consists of musical instruments such as saxophone s, flutes, and clarinets. Gospel music refers to African American Protestant vocal music that celebrates Christine Doctrine in emotive. Rhythm and Blues is a combination of the swinging rhythm of jazz and other â€Å"race† music with the lyrical content, sonic gestures, and with the format of the blues. Today I want to focus on Rhythm and Blues and the influence it has made on the black culture, and discuss the three major forms that made Rhythm and Blues distinguishable, and how it has change from jazzy/blues to hip hop/rap. Rhythm and Blues music or RB has a variety of different types of music. It is produced and supported primarily by blacks around the world. Beginning in the early 1940s, rhythm and blues music embraced genres as jump blues, club blues, black rock, and roll, doo wop, soul, Motown, funk, disco, and rap. It was first coined in 1949 by Jerry Wexler, who became prominent with Atlantic Records. Wexler used the term rhythm and blues as a synonym for black rock and roll in the early and mid 1950s. RB provided the single greatest influence on popular music worldwide for much of the second half of the 20th century. The influence was traced in forms of rock music, country and western, gospel music, and jazz as well as in a variety of non western form of music known as worldbeat. According to Joseph Machlis and Kristine Forney in their book The Enjoyment of Music, Rhythm and blues is known for its predominantly vocal genre, featuring a solo singer accompanied by a small group including piano, guitar, acoustic bass, drums, and tenor saxophone. Its harmonies and structure are drawn from twelve bar blues and thirty two bar pop song form. As the name implies, the style is characterized by a strong, driving beat, usually in a quadruple meter. As the influence of various styles of Rhythm and Blues, black urban values have permeated a wide variety of other cultures, most notable of contemporary Euro American youth. (599) According Christopher Handyside’s book Soul and RB. Handyside states that Rhythm and Blues (RB) was a name given to a fast paced style of music that was influenced by blues, gospel, and jazz. Handyside states that RB also owed its style to â€Å"jump blues.† Jump blues was popular in the 1930s and 1940s, and was usually played by a large band that featured drums, saxophone, and trumpet, stand up bass, guitar, and other horns as well as a singer. By the late 1940s, jump blues had developed into RB which took the form of shorter, catchier songs. Whereas jump blues often extended the songs with improvisation, RB tended to use smaller bands that featured drums, piano, guitar, and bass to generate the same energy and excitement as a larger band. One of the most significant characteristics shared by both jump blues and RB was the importance of a strong vocal singer. Handyside also states in the late 1940s than writer for the music magazine Billboard, Jerry Wexler, coined up t he name â€Å"rhythm and blues† when he was editing the charts at the trade journal Billboard and found that the record companies issuing black popular music considered the chart names to be demeaning. The magazine changed the charts name in its June 17, 1949, issue, having used the term rhythm and blues in news articles for the previous two years. Although the records that appeared on Billboards rhythm and blues chart thereafter were in a variety of different styles, the term was used to encompass a number of contemporary forms that emerged at that time. (4-5) Handyside states the origins of rhythm and blues originated from the sociological, industrial, and technological changes that took place in the Unites States just prior to and during World War II. Among theses changes was a widespread shift in American demographics. Popular music and new styles were created to meet the changing tastes of the demographic group, which lead to the development of urbane sounds of RB. These sociological changes of the World War II period were accompanied by two significant technological developments, the invention of the electric guitar in the late 1930s and the newly relatively affordable discovery of the German invented tape recorder. With these two inventions it simplified the recording process. Enterprising individuals were able to start independent record companies, since the major record companies in the United States had little interest in RB music. Newly formed independent companies began such as Atlantic, Chess, Specialty, and Modern were crucial for the production and distribution of RB recordings. According to online data form Encarta, another important industrial change was the rise of television in the United States in the late 1940s. For fear that television would make radio stations obsolete, many owners sold their radio stations. The new radio station owners turned to urbanized black Americans. These emergent black oriented radio stations allowed the new independent record companies to air the sounds of Rhythm and Blues to a black urban audience. Although the sounds of black urban music were being performed throughout the United States, the recordings of RB began on two coasts. Big band jazz musician Louis Jordon formed a small ensemble in 1938, which he eventually named the Tympany Five. Jordon recorded primarily in the up tempo beat using the horn driven style of the jump blues. The jump blues style he originated rapidly spread among black musicians, with distinctive regional variants emerging in New Orleans, Louisiana, and Memphis, Tennessee. Jordon influenced every RB artist in the 1940s, 1950s, and early 1960s. There were two other styles of RB that were popular in the late 1940s and early 1950s. It was the instrumental strain on jump blues and featuring a coarse, honking tenor saxophone sound. (Encarta) In the early1950s the strains of Rhythm and Blues began to be directed towards teenagers instead of adults. The vocal group style of the 1940s had given way to the 1950s doo wop. As Handyside states Rhythm and Blues vocal groups or doo wop groups, were becoming more and more popular. It was called Doo wop because of the nonsense syllables the vocalists would often use. It featured close harmony singing at slower tempos. Artists such as the Five Keys, the Coasters and the Drifters, sang songs with lyric themes that voiced concerns of American teenagers. (13) Motown soul music in the 1960s saw three important styles of R&B; the Chicago soul, which was influenced by gospel music songs, the Motown sound, which combined songwriting with a straightforward vocal, and southern soul, which was the most gospel influence style of RB. Chicago soul was epitomized by the work of singer and songwriter Curtis Mayfield with the group the Impressions. Mayfield wrote songs of faith and inspiration which featured several different lead singers trading vocal lines in the call and response fashion. In 1959 the Motown record company was founded by former boxer turned musician Berry Gordy Jr. Gordy was so successful at developing a recognizable sound for Motown that the company name quickly began to be a designation for a genre of music. The music he produced had its roots in gospel, jazz, and rhythm and blues, but with the Mo-town Sound. Its success was also due in part to the songwriting efforts of Lamont Dozier and brothers Eddie and Brian Holland. Motown represented the sound of American youth through most of the 1960s and for an independent record company, achieved unprecedented success. The Motown artist of the 1960s included Diana Ross with vocal group the Supremes, the one and only, singer and songwriter Smokey Robinson with the group the Miracles, and the Temptations. The majority of Motown artist were vocal groups that updated the doo wop style of the 1950s with a heavy, even beat. Southern soul was originated by James Brown and Ray Charles. On many of the early soul records, Charles would take a traditional religious song and transform it into a secular paean to love. Handyside states Rhythm and Blue’s first true superstar and all around musical innovator was Ray Charles. It is not often that one can point to a single song and claim that it invented a new genre, but this was the case with Charles. In 1954 Charles hit song â€Å"I Got a Woman† was the popular notion of â€Å"soul† music. He took the gospel song â€Å"I Got Religion† and changed the lyrics from a song about God to a song about a woman. The music’s bouncing feel was straight out of church and had a strong sense of syncopation. By adding a gospel flavor to the music, Charles had reconnected RB with the spiritual roots and rhythms of African Americans. (11) Handyside states James Brown was a contemporary of Ray Charles. Browns innovations in soul music, style, and live performance had earned him the nickname â€Å"The Godfather of Soul.† Brown had a raspy, soulful voice that he combined with his fancy dance moves. By the mid 1960s he was taking soul in a whole new direction. He laid the ground work for what would be called funk music. Southern soul had remained a significant presence in popular music throughout the 1970s. (19) In the late 1960s at the height of soul music’s popularity, there were significant changes and cultural views began to be articulated by many black Americans. By the end of the 1970s, the soul/RB sound had been eclipsed by the music it had influenced, disco and funk. With the help of James Brown, funk music began to emerge in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Funk was a looser form of soul music. It was based around the groove of the bass guitar, funk songs would stretch out well past the usual three to four minutes of a soul song. According to Handyside, funk’s appeal was limited, and in the late 1960s, rock artist improvised and broke the rules they were also stretching their songs out into extended â€Å"jams.† Funk de-emphasized melody and harmony, bringing rhythm, it often had loud horn sections, scratchy guitar rhythms that extended into wild guitar solos, and was short on lyrical content. Funk musicians tended to favor one line sayings. This style was adopte d by a number of artists. Musicians synthesized the funk style with elements from white rock music. (33) Disco rivaled funk’s popularity in the early 1970s and surpassed it by the middle of the decade. Hanydside states, like funk, disco was a dance oriented style. It was born out of funk, mixed with the slick Philly Soul. It was named not for any particular characteristic of its music, but after the places where it was originally played, the discotheques. (38) By the mid 1970s funk’s grooves had been smoothed over to help create disco. In contrast to funk, disco was dominated by arrangements featuring strings and synthesizers to boost the important beats. Disco was viewed by many as a substantial treat to rock music. It gave rise to a handful of highly original ensembles, as Earth, Wind Fire and the Fatback Band. Although the craze for disco eventually waned, it was an important source of rhythms and sounds in hip hop, techno and house music. (39) According to online data from Encarta, in the late 1980s and 1990s disco gave way to other genres like hip hop and rap music. By the early 1990s, hip hop had become a major force in music. Hip hop began when DJs such as Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash, and Africa Bambaataa would mix beats or â€Å"breaks† of funk and disco records so that people could dance to the beat continuously. In 1991 Mary J. Blige teamed up with producer Sean â€Å"Puff Daddy† Combs and added the hip hop attitude to RB. Blige was one of the first artists to blend urban, contemporary RB singing with hip hop beats, rhymes, and attitude. Machlis and Forney states that after a while people began to rhyme or â€Å"rap† over these beats. The first rap recording was â€Å"Rapper’s Delight,† by the Sugarhill Gang in 1979. The technological developments of the early 1980s, including the use of synthesizers and other electronic devices, paved the way for rap, a highly rhythmic style of musical patter that had been popular with New York audiences in the 1970s and later developed wider appeal. Run DMC was largely responsible for the commercialization of rap, their collaboration with Aerosmith on the cover recording of the 1977 hit song Walk This Way introduced the style to white audiences. A year later, conscious rap found its prominent voice in the group Public Enemy. Public Enemy produced several highly influential rap albums. Rap in its diversified forms has continued as one of the most popular types of African American music. (606-607) In the late 1980s rap’s controversial subgenres, gangsta rap raised with the debut album Straight Outta Compton. (Encarta) Machlis and Forney states gangsta rap of the 1990s has further disseminated the style through graphic descriptions of inner city realities. The violent shooting deaths of Tupac Shakur in 1996 and Notorious B.I.G in 1997, has highlighted the violence associated with this musical style. (607) Rhythm and blues did more than just influence other music. It allowed African Americans to sing about their own experiences in their own style and in their own words. Today it is still here in dance parties on Saturday night’s and in churches on Sunday morning. Rhythm and Blues and soul continue to thrive now even more so than rock ‘n’ roll, which dominated the mainstream for so many years. From the classic soul singing of artists such as D’Angelo and Maxwell, to Sam Cooke and Otis Redding, to the eclectic experiment of Andre’ of the hip hop group Outkast. These musicians carry on the tradition of earlier innovators such as Ray Charles, Prince, and Michael Jackson. R B has by far taken over in the 21st century. Although Rhythm and Blue was considered strictly black music, it is loved today by people of all races. One thing we all know is that music of all kinds is the expression of emotion. From folk songs, to religious chants; the range and diversity of music is almost incomprehensible. It has been said that the best way to learn about the people, and its culture, is to observe and listen to their music. Music is all powerful because it stimulates, manipulates and dissipates our moods through the emotions. Music, in our culture, functions in many ways; it can make work more enjoyable, create a fraternity among men, encourage a spirit of worship, and be an expression of emotion. Music can make hard work seem easier, or rather, make it tolerable. If you don’t believe me next time you drive past a house that is undergoing construction or anywhere people are doing hard manual labour, stop and listen for music. Quite often there is a radio blasting. Rhythm and blues music in the 21st century has been used to encourage a spirit of worship and to communicate with God. Many churches today begin their services with some form of worship music, whether it’s all through song or just playing of the Organ. In some form it’s designed to gear people’s minds to hear a word from God. My Church in particular has one hour of worship before the service begins. Although rhythm and blues is not a favorite listen to music by many, we can all agree that its style is the most powerful on earth depending on your age. It can make you fall in love, strike down an enemy, or weep for lost friends. Its style is also a source of reconciliation, exhilaration, and hope that never fails† I thank God for blessing many musicians with the gift of music, If it hadn’t been for one particular song I might be married to my husband today. Without music in everyday life, the world would be an extremely hostile and maybe even an ugly place to be. Music has become the most powerful freedom given by God. Works Cited Handyside, Chris. A History of Soul and RB. A history of American music. Oxford: Heinemann Library, 2006. Machlis, Joseph, Kristine Forney, The Enjoyment of Music: An Introduction to Perceptive Listening. New York: W.W. Norton, 2000. Rhythm and blues. Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 17   May   2008. Rhythm-and-Blues Music, Microsoft ® Encarta ® Online Encyclopedia 2008 1997-2008 Microsoft Corporation.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Industrial Revolution :: essays research papers

Industrial Revolution   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In the previous class, we learned the changes of the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution had changed literally everything. Lives changed, roles changed, education changed, homes changed, health changed, romance changed; everything had changed.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The elements of the home changed in quite a few ways. The home was always filled with the people that lived there because they spend their time at home. The home was made of things that you could find locally or that you could make by hand. Houses were made out of mud, wood, and straw. The family had basically slept in the same bed for less consumption of space and for warmth. Not only did they live with the entire family, however they lived with fleas, rats, and lice. This allowed diseases to be spread and in effect, the population was very little because of the severity of the diseases. After the Revolution, the home is filled with less people because the people transport to other places. The home is filled with things that you can find all over the world. Houses are made out of steel frames, wood, glass windows, and very sturdy materials in addition to the idea that specialized workers made your home. The refrigerator and toilet were invented and people slept i n different beds causing an increase in the population due to the decrease in disease.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The elements of man and woman had changed as well. Man and woman married each other for survival. Man and woman needed each other for children and for each other’s work labor. Therefore, sex was a necessity for survival. Children were only acquired after marriage, if the child was born any other time, the couple was shunned by the community. Marriages were arranged by the parents and the husband between a money agreement. Once the couple married, no one left the farm but mainly lived their lives on the farm. Women married at the age of 14-16 and men in their mid 20s and 30s. This is because the women had a better chance of survival through childbirth at the age of 14, 15, and 16. After the Industrial Revolution, sex is pleasurable and couples do it for pleasure and not for survival. Sex is done before marriage in some cases and also advertised in movies. Couples marry as a result of love and attraction for one another. There is no longer a need for each oth er as a means of survival.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Susto, Fright or Soul Loss Essay -- Health, Folk Illness

Susto, fright or soul loss is a folk illness mainly composes of symptoms of depression, weakness, and loss of appetite. It primarily reflects in Latin Americans cultures, but mostly Indian communities, especially Mexicans. Although, other cultures may suffer from similar symptoms it might not relate to susto. This reading focus on modern descriptions of the cultures affected and the symptoms they present. Also, describes the methods used to revoke the effects of susto on the individual. This investigation focuses primarily on the interviewing of individuals originally from Latin Americans, who have knowledge of susto or agonized from it; and the methods used by the curandero (a) to help the â€Å"patient†. The following research paper will response some question regarding the causes, symptoms and syndrome of susto, fright or soul loss. Susto, is â€Å"soul loss through magical fright† and is a Hispanic condition also identified as pasmo, espanto, and perdida de la sombra. They are some similar conditions recognized around the world, making believe these conditions might not just happen around the Latin Americas’ community; but until now susto is only familiar around Hispanics. The main population who experiences susto are Latin Americans mainly Mexicans and in its Indians communities. Susto it is not recognized as a disease by the United States medical health department, but it is by the culture. Women are in greater danger of suffering from susto than men, due to the advanced pressure from cultural responsibilities. Latin Americans described experiencing susto after traumatic or stressful situations affecting the espiritu (spirit) to leave the body. This folk illness described as susto is classified by the system in psych... ...olk illness manifested mainly on Latin Americans and even though some characteristics differ from subgroups its shows a high similarity on the stress level and depression presented by the â€Å"patient†. Individuals suffer from lack of sleep, weakness, loss of appetite, also may occur vomiting, fever, and diarrhea. It is very important to appreciate the different folk illness amount rising cultures on the United States, since this will give us a better understanding of the ways to compare and treat cultural diseases. People who have a suffer Susto in the past, experienced simultaneity depression and stress disorders, than those who have not reported any cases of folk illness. There is a need to research folk illness, in order to better understand the symptoms and treated them efficiently. We cannot longer separate the mind from the body.

Gene Therapy Essay -- Biology Medical Biomedical Genetics

Gene Therapy: The New Vaccine ABSTRACT This research paper details what gene therapy is and what it is (and potentially will be) used for. It also describes the gene therapy techniques and delivery methods that have been clinically tested and/or verified by scientists and the ideas that stimulate activity in the field in the race to perfect gene therapy methods and their application, as well as telling about the beginnings of its clinical testing and where this budding technology is headed. Finally, it discusses one last question: Is gene therapy the vaccination of the future? RESEARCH Gene therapy is a biotechnological technique that has recently made significant leaps of progress in the world of scientific research. The theories behind its use have created many new goals and ideas in scientists’ minds, and there is much opportunity for discovery in the field. There are two types of genetic technology that are currently being researched for application in clinical testing and for the cure of certain genetic diseases in humans: somatic cell gene therapy, and germ-line therapy. Somatic cell gene therapy is a development that could potentially eliminate a hereditary disease’s effects in a patient through the injection of genetic material that would fill in for a nonfunctional gene, alter an abnormal one in the patient’s chromosomes, or exchange the defective gene for a new, fully-functioning one ( Germ-line therapy would be used similarly in embryos’ germ cells, but would have the additional effect of the faulty gene’s permanent eradication so that it could not be passed on to future descendants. There are also multiple types of somatic cell gene therapy. In vivo gene therapy, the most common in clinical testin... ...entists will make many revolutionary discoveries. With this new technology being researched, there’s no telling when the technology will be perfected. Who knows? Someday soon, gene therapy could even be something as commonplace as vaccination. Bibliography: 6 Friedmann, The Development of Human Gene Therapy (G.T. for Cancer) (Ex Vivo for X-SCID) Reilly, Abraham Lincoln’s DNA and Other Adventures in Genetics Turksen, Adult Stem Cells 7

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Caribbean Music

Music of the Caribbean region differs from island to island. The Caribbean got its name from the term â€Å"Carib†, which is the name of an old Native American ethnic group. Today the region is divided into four different parts: Spanish, French, Dutch, and British Caribbean. The Spanish Caribbean consists of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Dominican Republic; the French Caribbean consists of Haiti, Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guiana; the Dutch Caribbean contains Suriname, Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, St. Maarteen, and St.  Eustatius; and the British Caribbean is the largest and consists of Anguilla, Antigua & Barbuda, Barbados, Bahamas, Belize, Guyana, Jamaica, Trinidad & Tobago, British Virgin Islands, U. S. Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, St. Kitts-Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and Turks and Caicos Islands. (CLASS NOTES) The Caribbean has a variety of different instruments and genres that make up its music and dancing culture. Caribbean music has several distinctive characteristics to both its sound and its dancing styles. Their techniques are not predetermined and the musicians improvise as they make their music. Dancers typically do not have a lot of body contact and the waist and pelvic region are the main body of center of attention. Fast rhythmic dancing is a big part of Caribbean dancing. Both music and dancing are influenced from a variety of other worldwide cultures, including African, European, and later Asian. (CLASS NOTES) Caribbean music features complex short combinations of rhythmic patterns. This is demonstrated in video ML 3475 . J88 1995 Vol. 4 : The Caribbean.  One of the most prominent instruments within Caribbean music is the large array of drums, including Steel, Conga, Timbales and Bongo Drums. All these types of drums distribute very different kinds of sounds. The steel pan, also known as a steel drum, is made from oil drums heated and hammered into an instrument with multiple pitches played with rubber-headed mallets (Mahabir). Today, the steel drum is a very sophisticated musical instrument. It is a unique instrument with origins in colonial Trinidad. The steel drum was used as communication for African slaves (Idaho State University). Turns out the steel drum doesn’t only evoke images of beaches and pina coladas. The drums haunting and echoing sound means so much more. The Congo drum is a Cuban barrel-shaped, one-headed hand drum. This instrument is played in sets of two or four. They come in a variety of shapes and sizes, which mean each drum possesses its own unique sound. (Demonstrated on CD-2260, Drums defiance) The smallest Congo drum is called Nino and the largest tumba. This type of drum is played by striking the drumhead with one’s fingertips or palms instead of a mallet. The Bongo is a set of small one-headed drums that is held between the musician’s knees and is played by hand like the Congo drum. These drums are also important in Latin music, particularly music deriving from Cuba. (The Bongo Page) Bongo drums usually have a wooden or metal base, and can be tuned by tightening the skin over the drum. The sizes of these drums also vary according to the musician’s preferences. The drums are each named hembra for the larger drum and macho for the smaller drum. These are Spanish words meaning female and male, respectively. Hembra has a much lower tone then macho. The Bongo Page) However, both drums are significantly higher then the Congo drums. Reggae genre was first formed in Jamaica in the 1960’s. This genre of music is based on a rhythmic style, with spurs of off-beats. Typically it is a slower beat, with the guitar, and other instruments such as the drums influencing the sound. It is very similar to â€Å"rock steady† but the use of complex bass line and speed is what separates the two (Bradley). The reggae vocals are less dramatic then the influence from the instruments. It is very common to hear dialects, which could sound slang to some Americans. Something different from most singers is, reggae singers use tremolo (volume oscillation) instead of vibrato (pitch oscillation) (Bradley). The Calypso genre music was started on the Island of Trinidad (Dudley). This genre is also rooted in West African traditional music like Reggae. It was used for different aspects of life, such as communication and also for entertainment. Calypso is generally played on folk instruments such as the guitar, banjo, and other percussions. It is typically heavily rhythmic but still melodic. Since the genre was often used for communication the lyrics were often political in nature, but often masked.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Developing strategic thinking Essay

entreeMy re hunting interest in strategicalalalalalalalalalal mentation started in 1993 when I interviewed 35 senior closing makers for a longitudinal conduct on the counterchanges in strategic readying and strategic management in heavy(p) systems surrounded by 1982 and 1993. These senior executives were responsible for strategic supply, strategic management or bodied development in 35 of the coke largest manufacturing companies in Australia. The interviews lasted amongst three and quadruplet hours and one of the questions I asked concerned the worrys that they had experience with their strategic planning or strategic management fire in the antedate five years. The main problem conduct by the majority of senior executives was strategic opinion. Interestingly, strategic cerebration was a problem regardless of whether the companies had a decl ar strategic planning transcription or employ a non-formalised draw near. For example, one senior executi ve from a company with a formalised strategic planning system verbalise Our senior executives tend to get carried onward by details and lose their strategic horizon.AbstractLack of strategic intellection by senior managers has been identified as a major shortcoming in compositions. Draws on concepts in management and psychological science to present a framework that class up be utilize to remedy this situation. Argues that strategic opinion needs to be communicate at twain assorted, but co-ordinated trains the soulfulness train and the governanceal level. Organisations that success wide-eyedy integrate strategic cerebration at these two levels provide bring on a circumstantial heart competency that forms the primer of an unchangeable competitive advantage.Europe, East Asia, Australia, New Zealand and the unify States (p. 242). The efficacy to think strategicall(a)y, however, is critical to remain competitive in an increasingly degenerate and global envir onment. Considering that the average life expectation of US Fortune 500 companies is completely among 40 and 50 years (de Geus, 1997) and that only 49 percent of the snow largest manufacturers in Australia in 1982 were still among the glide by 100 manufacturers in 1993 (Bonn and Christodoulou, 1996), the need for strategic view has never been greater. This paper presents a framework that whoremonger be used to increase strategic thought in organisations. It argues that strategic thought serve well needs to be considered at two different, but inter-related levels. Organisations that success plentifuly integrate strategic thinking at these two levels will prep atomic number 18 a critical core competency that forms the basis of an enduring source of competitive advantage.The ponder on strategic thinking in that location is no agreement in the publications on what strategic thinking is. A number of authors eat used the call interchangeably with different concepts such(pr enominal) as strategic planning or strategic management. Wilson (1994) for example notes thatSimilarly, a senior executive from a company with protrude a formalised planning system reported It is a major challenge to get our decision makers to think in strategic instead than operable impairment.This lack of strategic thinking is not restricted to organisations in Australia. As re attend from the Institute of Directors in capital of the United Kingdom has shown, 90 per cent of directors and vice-presidents had no induction, inclusion or training to do a competent direction giver of their business enterp bone (Garratt, 1995a, p. 242). According to Garratt (1995a), this percentage seems to h out of date high-priced in The current issue and full text archive of this journal is gettable at http// continuing search for improvement has profoundly changed the character of strategic planning so that it is now more than appropriate to refer to it as st rategic management or strategic thinking (p. 14, italics in original).Other authors shed focused on strategic management runes and both stated explicitly that good strategic planning runs to strategic thinking (Porter, 1987) or assumed implicitly that a soundly designed strategic management system facilitates strategic thinking at heart an organisation (Thompson and Strickland, 1999 Viljoen, 1994). Mintzberg (1994) suggested a clear distinction between strategic thinking andconcepts such as strategic planning. He stated that strategic planning is not strategic thinking (p. 107) and argued that individually term focuses on a different stage in the strategy development mold. In his view, strategic planning focuses on analysis and deals with the articulation, elaboration and formalisation of alive strategies. strategic thinking, on the other hand, emphasises synthesis, using intuition and creativeness to force an integrated perspective of the enterprise (p. 108).He claimed that strategic planning is a process that should occur after strategic thinking. Garratt (1995b) argued on similar lines. He defined strategic thinking as a process by which senior executives can rise above the workaday managerial processes and crises (p. 2) to growth a different perspective of the organisation and its changing environments. Heracleous (1998) do the distinction between strategic planning and strategic thinking by an analogy to single-loop attainment and double-loop learning. In his view, the former is analogous to strategic planning, the afterward to strategic thinking. He claimed that single-loop learning involves thinking within vivacious assumptions and taking gainments ground on a fixed denounce of potential drop run alternatives. Double-loop learning, in contrast, challenges existing assumptions anddevelops overbold and innovative etymons, leading to potentially more appropriate actions. Heracleous argued that like single-loop learning and double -loop learning, strategic planning and strategic thinking are interrelated in a dialectical process and are equally heavy for effective strategic management.This condition supports the view that strategic thinking and strategic planning are two different concepts and that strategic planning is a process, which takes holding after strategic thinking. My analysis in the following sections demonstrates that strategic thinking manifests itself at two different levels the case-by-case level and the organisational level. This approach integrates the micro landed estates focus on individuals and groups with the macro domains focus on organisations and their mount. In other words, it acknowledges the turn of individual characteristics and actions on the organisational mount and vice versa, the define of the organisational context on individual thinking and behaviour. As Chatman et al. (1986) have argued When we feel at individual behaviour in formations, we are truly seeing tw o entities the individual as himself and the individual as trifleative of thiscollectivity . . . indeed the individual not only acts on behalf of the organization in the usual post moxie, but he also acts, more subtly as the organization when he embodies the values, beliefs, and goals of the collectivity.Thus, intellectual strategic thinking requires a dual-level approach that investigates the characteristics of an individual strategic intellect as well as the dynamics and processes that take place within the organisational context in which the individual operates. For instance, to obtain an surgical picture of the effects of differing leadership styles on strategic thinking, we can look at their impact on individual managers and on the way they influence the wider organisational climate, culture and structure.strategic thinking at the individual levelStrategic thinking at the individual level comprises three main elements 1 a holistic discernment of the organisation and its environment 2 creative thinking and 3 a peck for the forthcoming of the organisation. all(prenominal) of theseelements will be addressed in the following sections.A holistic understanding of the organisation and its environmentA crucial element of strategic thinking is the ability to take a holistic perspective of the organisation and its environment. This requires an understanding of how different problems and issues are connected with distributively other, how they influence each other and what effect one solution in a bad-tempered theatre would have on other areas. As Kaufman (1991) has expressed it Strategic thinking is characterized by a switch from seeing the organization as a splintered conglomerate of disassociated move (and employees) competing for resources, to seeing and dealing with the corporation as a holistic system that integrates each part in relationship to the hale (p. 69).Taking a holistic approach requires the ability to distance oneself from day-to-da y operational problems and to see how problems and issues are connected to the overall pattern that underlies particular details and events. Senge (1990) has called this approach systems thinking. He argued that We moldiness look beyond personalities and events. We must look into the bloodlineamental structures which shape individual actionsand create the conditions where types of events give out likely (p. 43).Such an attention to the underlying structures of complex situations requires thinking in terms of processes rather than events to enable a propitiation of apparent contradictions and the development of innovative solutions. get the hang complexity in organisations also requires managers to be familiar with the dynamics of organisational life. Stacey (1996) argued that managers need a thorough understanding of how organisations and managerial actionschange over time and of the feedback processes that lead to such changes. This includes being sensitive to the subtle in teractions between the different parts of the organisation and understanding the structural causes of behaviour and their effects on other parts of the organisation. Finally, a holistic view requires recognition that organisations are components within large and complex systems, such as commercializes, industries and nations. Strategic thinkers need to understand how organisations are embedded within this wider context and how they are influenced by the dynamics, interconnection and interdependency of these is about ideas and the development of novel solutions to create competitive advantage. Strategic thinkers must search for new approaches and en peck better ship canal of doing things. A prerequisite for this is creativity, in particular the ability to question prevalent concepts and perceptions (de Bono, 1996) and to recombine or make connections between issues that whitethorn seem unconnected (Robinson and Stern, 1997). According to Amabile (1998), originative th inking refers to how mickle approach problems and solutions their message to put existing ideas in concert in new combinations (p. 79, italics in original).This involves challenging the shogunate of the given (Kao, 1997, p. 47) by questioning normal beliefs or mental models in the organisation. Senge (1990) has expound mental models as deeply inwrought assumptions, generalizations, or even pictures or images that influence how we understand the world and how we take action (p. 8). He argues that such models are practically tacit and beneath our level of awareness, barely they have a strong influence on organisational behaviour . . . new insights break up to get put into practice because they contravention with deeply held internal images of how the world works, images that bourne us to familiar ways of thinking and acting (p. 174).Thus, the ability to reflect on mental models and to challenge prevailing assumptions and core beliefs is crucial for the development of unique strategies and action programs. This requires strategic thinkers to understand their own behavioural patterns as well as existing concepts and perceptions within the organisation. Strategists should enjoy the challenge of thinking out of the box and of using conception and creativity to explore whether there competency be alternative ways of doing things. De Bono(1996) has do this point truly clearWithout creativity we are unable to make full use of the information and experience that is already available to us and is locked up in old structures, old patterns, old concepts, and old perceptions (p. 17).Creativity is a process that begins with the genesis of ideas. As de Bono (1996) has noted. . . strategy is in any case often seen solely as a reduction process in which discordant possibilities are reduced to a intelligent course of action (p. 72).Creativity inventive thinking is needed to imagine eight-fold possibilities and to search for alternatives to conventional approa ches. The creative process also involves the selection and development of ideas. trustworthy strategists are able to recognise the potential of a new idea at a very early stage. To stick out the value of an idea that has been put frontwards by hatful from different organisational levels might be even more important than the generation of original ideas by the strategist. As Robinson and Stern (1997) have observed The big the company, the more likely it is that the components of creative acts are already present somewhere in it, but the less likely it is that they will be brought together without some uphold (p. 15, italics in original).Finally, there is the need for translating the new idea into practice. Senior management must provide the resources that are needed to utilise the idea. As Amabile (1998) has noted . . . deciding how much time and money to give to a team or project is a sophisticated judgment call that can either support or overcome creativity (p. 82)A mess for the futureStrategic thinking should be set by a strong intelligence of organisationalpurpose and a imagery of the want future for the organisation. A genuine vision as opposed to the popular vision-statements conveys a sense of direction and provides the focus for all activities within the organisation.For Senge (1990), a genuine vision is a calling rather than merely a good idea (p. 142, italics in original). In his view, visions are pictures or images citizenry carry in their heads and hearts (p. 206). They represent what one truly wants, based on profound intrinsic values and a sense of purpose that matters deeply to the people in the organisation. Evidence for the importance of a clear vision has been provided by collins and Porras (1998). Their research showed that verbose companies outperformed nonvisionary companies significantly. One buck invested in a general market stock fund on January 1, 1926 would have grown to 415 dollars by December 31, 1990, art objec t the same dollar invested in a visionary company stock fund would have grown to 6,356 dollars, a end of over 1500 percent.According to Collins and Porras (1998), the visionary companies did not attain this extraordinary semipermanent performance because they wrote one of the elegant vision or mission statements that have engender popular in recent years. They pointed out that Just because a company has a vision statement (or something like it) in no way guarantees that it will become a visionary company (p. 201, italics in original). Instead, leaders in visionary companies place strong emphasis on construct an organisation that has a deep understanding of its reason for existence and of its core values, those fundamental and enduring principles that guide and inspire people throughout the organisation and bind them together around a common identity. doubting Thomas J. Watson, Jr. (1963), former IBM chief executive, made this point very clear I firmly believe that any organizatio n, in order to survive and achieve success, must have a sound set of beliefs on which it premises all its policies and actions (p. 5). invariable alignment (p. 229, italics in original).Developing a genuine vision and building it into the very fabric of the organisation must be a central element of the daily work of strategic thinkers. A vision that is shared throughout the organisation fosters payload rather than compliance and creates a sense of commonality that permeates the whole organisation. It inspires peoples imagination and provides a focus that allows individuals to contribute in ways that make the approximately of their expertise and talents. Ultimately, as Collins and Porras have shown, a genuine vision helps to achieve superior performance in the longterm.Strategic thinking at the organisational levelThe organisational level provides the context in which individual strategic thinking can occur. Organisations need to create the structures, processes and systems that 1 foster ongoing strategic dialogue among the top team and 2 take advantage of the ingenuity and creativity of every individual employee.