Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Economic control Essay Traditionally the reasons of the rules and regulations were to control human relations in an effort to make the behaviors of other individuals known (Pennell, pp3). rules are also employed to provide other purposes, these includes punishing offenders, providing social economic control, banishing private retribution, deterring criminal acts and reflecting public opinions (Pennell, pp3). Conventionally prevention of crime was intended provide advice on defensive behaviors and security. On the other hand laws are supposed to be malleable and should serve as a tool of social engineering (Pennell, pp4). They are supposed to be transformed with arrival of new thoughts and societal changes. The human rights and needs of victims of crime are essential aspects of criminal justice systems, especially currently, as the issues of victims have emerged since 1970s. Since 1970s, legal and emotional reactions of the nation have changed dramatically and currently more attention is being paid on restorative justice. There are many activities that are involved in restorative justice (Pennell, pp6). In order to give an insight of the various forms that restorative justice is taking and the activities that are involved this paper will focus on practices, origin context and limitations of restorative justice (Pennell, pp6). Victims Rights The current legal codes in federal government evolved from the conventional codes and attempts to define and deal with criminal behaviors. The aim of the codes is to focus on the deviant behaviors of the criminals and they rarely focus on the victims and their needs. The primary focus of the law is to deter the criminal activities (Aldana-Pindell, pp45). Several decades ago within the federal government when reconciliation for victim offenders was being set restorative justice did not exist within the criminal justice system (Brown Bunnell, pp87). Restorative justice has evolved currently within the criminal justice system in recent years following philosophical writings of van ness and others. Various debates which have been held have facilitated the emergence of processes within the restorative justice such as impact panels, conferences, sentencing circle etc (Aldana-Pindell, pp45). Since 1970s several practices and programs have assisted to develop the restorative justice moments. Early practices for restorative justice were focusing on the moderated meetings involving the offenders and the victims (Aldana-Pindell, pp46). As time went by the meetings were expanded and included friends and family members from the two parties. The meetings also included professionals and other individuals who had access of public resources. In recent years the system has paid much attention on the participation and involvement of members of the community (Normandeau, pp34). In 1970s some practitioners and scholars believed that offenders are victims of social neglect, poor societies and racial, ethnic and gender discrimination. As a result the advocates of restorative justice focused to change the conditions in the prison, reduce incarceration use and eliminate prison and jails as institutions (Normandeau, pp34). In this regard there are some individuals who were seeking to make a caring society instead of prisons and jails that would address the issues of victimizers and victims (Brown Bunnell, pp92). The activists of caring communities brought the issue of interests of the victims in the criminal justice system in a progressive manner rather than focusing on the right of the victims (Meister, pp54). In 1970s and 1980s the population of people in the prisons in United States was becoming progressively overcrowded and contributed to the use and popularity of intermediary sanctions (Aldana-Pindell, pp47). However, during this time restorative justice and mediation of victim offenders were not common within the criminal justice systems as alternatives. The establishment of boards of societal justice and centers for neighborhood justice in the federal government reflected their wishing to achieve more justice and this was characterized by public participation and casualness (Aldana-Pindell, pp49). These were new forms of resolution of conflicts in the late 1970s and they showed a developing disenchantment which involved trial procedures of adjudication and finding facts in accordance to adherence to strict legal principles. On the other hand the systems in resolution of conflicts placed much importance on negotiation, agreements between the disputants and placed less importance on the role of legal professionals (Aldana-Pindell, pp49). In mid 1970s reconciliation programs in the United States were introduced for victim offenders. These programs were based on the principles of Mennonite that focuses on dialogue and exchange (Marshall, pp20). Reconciliation programs involved offenders and crime victims meetings after being sentenced and included impartial third party. Reconciliation programs for offenders and victims aimed at restoring good relationship that is supposed to exist between the parties. The proponents of these programs were focusing to establish a good working relationship and use of principles of religious institutions and also as an option to incarceration (Marshall, pp21). In the rate 1970s advocates and the victims increasingly focused on mediation rather than reconciliation programs for offenders and victimsÃ¢â¬â¢ interactions. However, the model of the mediation program was similar to models of reconciliation program, although additional individuals affected by the differences would be involved in the meeting, especially when addressing serious crimes (Meister, pp57). Mediation programs for offenders and victims were developed in western part of Europe, Scandinavia and England in the end of 1970s and early 1980s, and were use primarily to handle justice cases for the youths. Since 1980s the programs have shown a significant growth in the United States and other nations (Marshall, pp22). Progressive voices and conservatives suggest that victims of crimes do not have the voice in the criminal justice system. In late 1970s and early 1980s activists of feminists and social scholars of legal doctrines paid more attention on making courts and law enforcement officers to be accountable to children and women who may be physically or sexually abused (Marshall, pp22). The groups that advocated for victims right focused on compensation for crime in the processes of courts, using formal voice and on safety of the society. In early 1980s Reagan organization released a report of task force on victims of crimes that facilitated the development of groups that advocated for the rights of the victims. Since 1990s there is a tremendous growth of alliances between groups that focuses on the reforms of criminal justice and victim support. This tremendous growth has been as a result of realizing the common interests among the offenders and victims based groups (Anwander, pp71). In 1980s New Zealand government started reassessing Waitangi treaty focusing on the implications of the relationship between the whites i. e. Pakeha and indigenous people the Maori. In 1986 a report that was prepared by ministers recommended for structural changes in the practices and policies of the government towards the indigenous people (Marshall, pp24). In 1989 the administration had great structural changes in the way matters regarding family welfare and justice for the youths was handled. Before introduction of these changes indigenous people were overrepresented in prisons and jails and decision making processes were dominated by the whites (Meister, pp58). These structural changes employed in youth justice can be used in various juvenile offenses, but mostly they are used in serious cases and minor cases solved trough diversions of police. Family welfare and youth justice programs are different from offenders and victim reconciliation and mediation programs since they involve more community members in the discussion of the offense, pay more attention on participation of the family and recognize more victimized individuals. Family welfare and youth justice programs also reduce the intervention of the state and changes the roles of professionals in problem solving (Marshall, pp26). Youth justice and family welfare programs were introduced first in Australia in late 1991 and formed part of law enforcement operations that focused on one jurisdiction. Conferences run by the police were also introduced in the capital city of Australia and later on the northern states (Meister, pp59). In late 1993 and early 1994, conferences for handling juvenile cases were introduced in the southern and western part of Australia and they were involving non professional police to run the conference. In Queensland and south wale conferences to handle juvenile cases, have been recently introduced and they are mostly employed in Queensland schools (Meister, pp59). Circles of sentencing were established in Canada in 1980s, and were the fist groups of the nation to respond to offenders (Marshall, pp26). The aim and objectives of circles of sentencing are resolution of conflicts, restoring harmony and order, and healing of offenders, victims and family (Anwander, pp73). Circles of sentencing involves processes of consensus and includes all the victims of crimes and families of the victims, their next of kin, and community members in order to respond to the behavior and formulate sanctions that addresses all the needs of those involved. Circles of sentencing are currently being used in United States and in Canada by non indigenous groups that include blacks in Minnesota. Since 1980s, there are other practices which have emerged and use the principles of restorative justice (Marshall, pp27). Compensation boards in Vermont involve the members of the community and design penalties for offenders of juvenile. These penalties involve service of the community and rarely involve offender and victim mediation. The meetings do not involve the victims (Anwander, pp76). Panels of victim impact have also been introduced by mothers and focuses on drunk driving. The panels give a room for the victims and the members of the family to give their suggestions about the impact of driving when drunkard to the offenders who have been ordered by the court to attend. However, these panels for victims are different from most of the processes of restorative justice, since they do not employ voluntary attendance (Marshall, pp29). On the other hand they have an important element of bringing contact of offenders and victims in the process, which lacks in traditional proceedings of criminal justice. These panels are employed extensively across the United States. On the other hand research and theories have contributed to the development of restorative justice. In 1970s scholars of social and legal doctrines developed several theories focusing on formal and informal justice. Theoretical and empirical studies of formal and indformal justice which have been conducted in industrialized countries and in less developed countries suggest that, it took less one decade to change optimism for pessimism. With emergence of theories and research disillusionment had already set in by 1990s (Marshall, pp30). In late 1970s and early 1980s there were arguments from the criminologists in Netherlands, Norway and from elsewhere to abolish prisons. During this time the activists paid more attention on decarceration and alternatives to jails and prisons. However, currently there are few individuals who would argue for complete abolition of prisons although few people argue for their minimal use (Marshall, pp31). In 1996 there was an international conference to address penal abolition held in New Zealand and supported resolutions and discussions to facilitate restorative justice. Scholars have also attempted to focus on the merits of informal methods that can be applied in social set ups to regulate order in the society (Marshall, pp31). This involves reintegrative shaming in response to a crime that may be integrative and not stigmatizing. These ideas have been employed in conferencing models such as in wagga, in Australia. Before the wagga conference these ideas were not included in youth justice and family welfare programs and they did not form part of many conference held across the globe. The united states are currently employing the wagga model, although there are some arguments on the issue of shame and whether it should be the central issue in processes of conferencing (Marshall, pp32).
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Using Computers for Entertainment In the past, you played board games with friends and family members, viewed fine art in an art gallery, listened to music on your stereo, watched a movie at a theater or on television, and inserted pictures into sleeves of photo albums. Today, you can have a much more fulfilling experience in each of there areas of entertainment. In addition to playing exciting, action-packed, 3-D multiplayer games, you can find hours of entertainment on the computer. For example, you can make a family tree, read a book to magazine online, listen to music on the computer, compose a video, edit pictures, or plan a vacation. These forms of entertainment are available on CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, and also on the Web. On the Web, you can view images of fine art in online museums, galleries, and centers.1 Some artists sell their works online. Others display them for your viewing pleasure. You have several options if you wish to listen to music while working on the computer. Insert your favorite music CD into the CD or DVD drive on your computer and listen while you work. Visit an online radio station to hear music, news, and sporting events (Peyton 25). At some of these sites, you even can watch videos of artists as they sing or play their songs. Instead of driving to the music store or video store to purchase music or movies, you can buy them on the Web. After paying for the music or movie online, you download it to your hard disk. Once on your hard disk, you listen to the music or watch the movie on the computer. Or, you can transfer it to a CD using a CD-RW and play the music on any CD p layer or the movie on a DVD player (Microsoft Word 2002 Project 2). Some people prefer to create their own music or movies. You can compose music and other sound effects using external devices such as an electric piano keyboard or synthesizer. You also can transfer or create movies by connecting a video camera to the computer.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
The Information Systems DepartmentÃ¢â¬â¢s goal is to manage a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s information through safe, secure and resourceful methods that can be accessed easily from anywhere inside the company. The Information Systems Department manages a wide variety of company information; everything from software, computers, storage, e-commerce, online websites, system integration, company networks, IT help, networking, consultation, billing, telecommunications, partnerships, implementation and training. The greatest resource provided by the Information Systems Department is transparency through technology; helping employees use accessible resources to seed the evolution of new technology and future innovation. Two important departments that utilize Information Systems in a major way would be the Human Resources Department and Supply Management. The information systems department works with HR to develop strategies that help them become more efficient at tracking important employee information. Such as Payroll processes, distribution of funding, scheduling, pay, employee info, company ethics, salary information and skill inventories are all tracked through this system. The ISD department develops software and assists with the technical side of this process; helping the Human resources department develops efficient employee management strategies. On the supply management side of things the ISD departments main job is to control inventory and the supply management of the distribution side of the company. The ISD department would assist with such things as supply chain networks, production management, delivery management and quality control tracking. The department would implement strategies aimed towards tracking all of these resources and implementing effective changes to the system that may strategically enhance business production. Privacy and security of customer information would also be stored within databases managed by the ISD through the secure network established for this process. The ISD would also be responsible for transportation operations, scheduling, purchasing and all information management related to supply. The information systems department really deals with nearly all aspects of a company anymore. The processes used and developed through the ISD help a company become more effective by collecting, creating and distributing data through intelligent software. The resources managed differ from department to department, but all use the same core fundamentals. The goal is to deal with challenges in a cost effective manor; which ultimately helps drive the production of a company.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
The presence of God in our lives is needed more than we may acknowledge. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t take reading the Bible every day or going to church every weekend for us to grow closer to God. Knowing His word and expectations of us, keeping faith in Him, and praising Him is what will bring us closer to Him. The Bible teaches us many things, the way God created man, how the world was created, how we should live, the sacrifices God gave and many more things. The book of Romans teaches us that in creation God has given us His testimony and goodness (1:19-20). The book of Romans discusses many things from the life of a Christian. Paul discussed how we should view the world, our identity, relationships, and culture. Earth was created by God for man to enjoy and for mankind to be in close fellowship. Paul wrote Romans to discuss the deadliness of sin and the need for morality which comes by faith with Christ. In Romans 1:18-20, Ã¢â¬Å"For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men who suppress the truth in unrighteousness, because that which is known about God is evident within them; for God made it evident to them. For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what has been made, so that they are without excuse.Ã¢â¬ God is saying man has no excuse. He has shown Himself through all things h e created. So when man sins and the day comes for judgmentShow MoreRelatedThe Teachings Of The Bible933 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesto uncover to the teaching of the bible, the nature of Jesus Christ, or the purpose of his ministry. . The teachings of Jesus are seen through the bibles not directly but though different parables. In Jesus teachings, He uses parables to teach his people how to live their lives. He does this by comparing life on earth to the kingdom of God. To help people understand, he used examples of people in everyday life to base his stories on, so that the people to whom he was teaching could relate to whatRead MoreThe Teachings Of The Bible933 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageslistening to other perspectives can not only be possible, it may be advantageous to increase oneÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge. Rachel goes on to say, Ã¢â¬Å"I believe in the basic teachings of the Bible with nothing added and nothing taken awayÃ¢â¬ (Abernethy, R. 2001). To have faith in the Bible one must be open to the growth of accumulated assimilations of its contents. The Bible alone holds many religious outlooks, we as Christians can learn from. By being closed off to other religious knowledge we are denying historical dataRead MoreT he Teachings Of The Bible Essay1220 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesfollow the Bible. Islam has influences from the Quran. Judaism follows the Torah. Buddhism follows spiritual ideas based on teachings from scholars. There are countless religious figures and religious teachings that people believe in. The Bible has Christians follow the ten commandments. The ten commandments are a set of principles Christians follow in order to be a true worshiper of God. The Quran is the religious text Muslims follow as their source of faith. The Torah is the written teachings from theRead MoreThe Teachings Of The Bible983 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBorn in church, the Bible has become a law book and a testament of salvation for all. Reading the Bible helps me to uncover GodÃ¢â¬â¢s qualities through the human history and ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s life. The reason for the Bible is to have viewpoints about how to receive salvation; however, most will consider their interpretations of the Bible in their own way without cred iting inspiration from God. The Bible written for each person on Earth shows the divine grace and mercy of God towards others. PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s writings areRead MoreThe Teachings Of The Bible894 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagespowerful bond so that we can get to know him better . The Bible is the account of God s action in the world , and his purpose with all creation .The Bible contains the message God desired . I believe that the Bible was written as a message to humankind to guide us in the right path to success. I believe the Bible is inspiration . It s inerrant and infallible meaning it s without error and unable to fail. The Holy Bible is the only accurate Bible from the word of God . It determines all the doctrinalRead MoreThe Bible And The Teachings Of Jesus1491 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhat is suggested in the Bible and the teachings of Jesus? Whilst the bible does not specifically mention euthanasia, it does address closely related topics. Euthanasia is essentially killing out of mercy, hence the name Ã¢â¬Ëmercy killingÃ¢â¬â¢. The bible tells us that we are not to murder (Exodus 20:13) and any form of taking a life is seen as killing. It says that we die when God chooses us to, and to murder is an attempt to deny God his right of appointing death. Therefore, Ã¢â¬Ëmercy killingÃ¢â¬â¢ is going againstRead MoreChristian Life And The Teachings Of The Bible1243 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespersonal beliefs. I am a Christian since birth. So all IÃ¢â¬â¢d like to talk about is Christian life and the teachings of the bible. Throughout my whole life, I have learned about spiritual things and what kind of spiritual things are in my ego. The spiritual values that I always have is love, hope, and trust. Love is an element that Christians value and have in their Christian mind and the bible says to love each other. I am doing my be st to understand this word throughout my whole life and it is theRead MoreThe Bible s Teachings On Sex1266 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesexactly one way for Christians to express their sexuality Ã¢â¬â by staying abstinent until they got married to a person of the opposite gender. And then, you could have at it all you wanted. But what I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t taught in Sunday School is that the BibleÃ¢â¬â¢s teachings on sex have been interpreted in many different ways. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know that the early Christians actually started practicing celibacy because they were convinced the end of the world was near. No one told me that marriage wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t always defined and controlledRead MoreEffective Bible Teaching The Authors Discuss The Merits Of A Bible1338 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn the book Effective Bible Teaching the authors discuss the merits of Ã¢â¬Å"topic and themeÃ¢â¬ and how we can use this to help prepare a bible lesson verses an essay. In this section the authors argue the universal principles of good writing, speaking and teaching and what the different handbooks say about composing a good essay. There are several different writing options such as picking a topic and then narrowing it to a specific thesis. Or doing the complete oposite and picking a broad subject and thenRead MoreTeaching The Bibl e : Interview / Book Reflections1899 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesJames Donley Teaching the Bible Interview/Book Reflections After speaking with Tarah, a Director of ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Ministry, I was able to glean a number of insightful critiques of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s ministry. Between the reading from class and our conversation three topics stood out; the watered down childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s gospel, the tendency to always tell children the story without letting them experience it, and the overall structure of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s lessons and childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Bibles. Gretchen Wolff Pritchard wrote