Saturday, August 31, 2019
Letter of Advice COM200: Interpersonal Communication Instructor Sara Marcus January 9, 2012 Dear William and Linda, Let me start by saying congratulations on your recent nuptials. The two of you are off to an excellent start in wanting advice on how to efficaciously communicate with one another. In taking an interpersonal communication class, I have learned several concepts that I would like to share with you throughout this letter. Communication is important in developing and maintaining a relationship.A healthy communication style is vital to longer lasting relationships. The article Ã¢â¬Å"Can We TalkÃ¢â¬ is about the role of communication in a marriage. Nara Schoenberg gave great insight to giving advice to many that are able to read it that are in a marriage. This article highlighted how with good communication skills a marriage will be able to sustain itself for a lifetime. The results of good effective communication habits will build a strong and long lasting relationship.I n reading this article Schoenberg says that communication means that you're sharing and really getting to know one another and happy marriages exhibits Ã¢â¬Å"self-disclosure,Ã¢â¬ or sharing your private feelings, fears, doubts and perceptions with your partner. These statements are what make this article so relatable to its readers. We communicate in different ways but finding a compatible form of communication is key to any relationship. Being able to communicate clearly and effective requires a certain level of confidence.The text book Making Connections: Understanding Interpersonal Communications explains that the basic principle of interpersonal communication deals with concept of Ã¢â¬Å"who are youÃ¢â¬ . Feeling sure and comfortable of your communicating skills will ensure good communication within the relationship. Your self-concept is how you look at yourself. It is a mental image that you have of yourself and it can relate to your mental strength or status in life. One 's self-concept affects one's perception, attitude and behavior, which can be demonstrated during the process of interpersonal communication.Aspects of one's life influence their self-concept, which not only affect how people perceive them but how they perceive themselves. In the process of communication, self-knowledge and the way one feel about oneself is revealed to others, and affects how others react to them. Consequently, the perceptions one believes others have of them affect how they receive their communication, which influences their response. In relationships you have to be cognizant of how the opposite sex perceives things.Men hear things differently than women. I relate this to my childhood when my parents would argue and my mother would say to my father: Ã¢â¬Å"You hear what you want to hearÃ¢â¬ . This is evident in the study that was referenced in the article Close Relationships Sometimes Mask Poor CommunicationÃ¢â¬ . In the study, researchers asked 24 married coup les to take part in an experiment in which two sets of couples sat in chairs and tried to figure out the meaning of phrases whose meaning isn't entirely clear.The example used was a wife who says to her husband, Ã¢â¬Ëit's getting hot in here,' as a hint for her husband to turn up the air conditioning a notch, may be surprised when he interprets her statement as a coy, amorous advance instead (Healthday, 2011). One way to avoid this mistake is not to be rushed and preoccupied. Stop and make sure you understand the perspective the other is trying to relay especially since the two of you are married. In being aware of the opposite sex, you have to be aware of how you say things as well.The tone of your voice can displace the message you are trying to send. The text suggests that work to shut judgments about the speaker's appearance, tone of voice, or other such factors out of your mind when you are speaking with someone, and focus on the words and the meaning rather than on the perso n delivering the message. If you are unsure of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s meaning, it is not taboo to ask what is meant. This is a technique that I use in my own marriage. Before a disagreement takes place, I will say to my husband: I saidÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ now what did you hear? This clears up what my intended message was and helps me to modify my tone or body language that my spouse may have found offensive. This was a hard lesson learned because I was the one that said things without considering how it sounds to my husband. That was not how I wanted to portray myself and not get into unnecessary arguments. Linda you also have to keep in mind that you become very animated when you talk. Although William knows this about you, it could become offensive in the heat of the moment. Dr.Terry Orbuch refers to this kind of body language as a determining factor in the early years of marriage. In her book, Marital Instability, she surveyed 199 African American couples and 174 White couples who we re just married and found that body language can cause significant damage in a relationship if it is read the wrong way. William should be mindful of his always present smile. In a majority of cases a great smile is a good thing. However, in times of turmoil a smile can be mistaken to mean that you are not taking the situation seriously.An excellent way to avoid conflict is to develop good listening habits. We have, at some point, exhibited poor listening skills. Bad listening habits include: Lack of interest in the subject, focus on the person, not on the content, interrupting, focus on the detail, missing the big picture, body language that signals disinterest, letting emotions block the meaning, and daydreaming. All these things can put any relationship in a downward spin. These habits could lead to misunderstandings and arguments. There are ways to avoid this. One way is to give your mate your full attention.Attend to what they are saying not just with your ears but with your en tire body. Make sure you are facing each other during the conversation. Having the right attitude contributes to your desire to want to know what the other is saying. The next thing is having patience and understanding. Sometimes you might have a difficult time getting your point clearly across. If your spouse attempts to help you say what is needed donÃ¢â¬â¢t get upset. This could be a good thing because they understand your point. This is always a way of showing support for them.Even if you do not agree with what they are saying, make sure respect what they have to say. Good listening skills also include knowing how to manage your reactions to what is being said. Before you respond, take a moment to think about what was said and how it makes you feel. Your response should reflect how you feel but should not sound like emotional tirade. A vital key to successful communication is having the ability to understand emotions and being able to express those emotions (Sole, 2011). This is often referred to as emotional intelligence.Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to identify, assess, and control the emotions of oneself and others. Emotional intelligence includes making good judgments about when to deal with emotions and keep them at bay. Kathy Sole feels that emotional intelligence also directly corresponds to emotional healthÃ¢â¬âthe higher your EI, the more emotionally healthy you are. Ones emotional health keeps you in tuned with your feelings while being exposed to the feelings of others. This is beneficial in a marital relationship because you donÃ¢â¬â¢t forget about you when dealing with your spouseÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings.The communication skills of any couple are established early on and can improve or become worse. In a marriage, communication skill should always improve and a step towards improvement is self-disclosure. Self-disclosure is the act of sharing aspects of your personal self with other people. This act allows you find commonalities with each other as well as dislikes. Being able to open up to others is essential to developing a deeper connection Self-disclosure and communication skills overall are important components of any healthy relationship.Self-disclosure lays the foundation for the type of relationship you will have with one another. Also it plays an important role in validating self-worth and identity. While self-disclosure have many benefits the amount of disclosure depends on what will be gained and how much are you losing to your partner. Being on the receiving end of disclosure requires a level of culpability and perhaps forgiveness. William and Linda again I want to congratulate you on your recent engagement. You two have a lifetime of perfecting your communication skills ahead of you.Using the concepts that I have mentioned in this letter will make it easier for you. Thank you for the honor of asking for my advice and wish you many years of happiness. Love, Tasha References Anonymous,. Close Rela tionships Sometimes Mask Poor Communication. (2011,Ã January). U. S. News ; World Report,1. Retrieved January 9, 2012, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID:Ã 2270370591). NARA SCHOENBERG. (2011,Ã FebruaryÃ 6). Can we talk? Researcher talks about the role of communication in marriages. Houston Chronicle,p. 7.Retrieved January 9, 2012, from ProQuest Newsstand. (Document ID:Ã 2260839481). Sole, K. (2011). Making Connections: Understanding Interpersonal Communication. San Diego: Bridgepoint Education. Orbuch, T. (2007). Interpersonal Relationships, in The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology, G. Ritzer (Ed. ), (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing), 2390-2393. Veroff, J. , ; Orbuch, T. L. (2009). Studying Marital Relationships. In an edited volume called Research Methodologies inÃ African American Communities, Edited by J. Jackson ; C. Howard (Eds. ), Sage Publications. Letter of Advice Letter of Advice COM200: Interpersonal Communication Instructor Sara Marcus January 9, 2012 Dear William and Linda, Let me start by saying congratulations on your recent nuptials. The two of you are off to an excellent start in wanting advice on how to efficaciously communicate with one another. In taking an interpersonal communication class, I have learned several concepts that I would like to share with you throughout this letter. Communication is important in developing and maintaining a relationship.A healthy communication style is vital to longer lasting relationships. The article Ã¢â¬Å"Can We TalkÃ¢â¬ is about the role of communication in a marriage. Nara Schoenberg gave great insight to giving advice to many that are able to read it that are in a marriage. This article highlighted how with good communication skills a marriage will be able to sustain itself for a lifetime. The results of good effective communication habits will build a strong and long lasting relationship.I n reading this article Schoenberg says that communication means that you're sharing and really getting to know one another and happy marriages exhibits Ã¢â¬Å"self-disclosure,Ã¢â¬ or sharing your private feelings, fears, doubts and perceptions with your partner. These statements are what make this article so relatable to its readers. We communicate in different ways but finding a compatible form of communication is key to any relationship. Being able to communicate clearly and effective requires a certain level of confidence.The text book Making Connections: Understanding Interpersonal Communications explains that the basic principle of interpersonal communication deals with concept of Ã¢â¬Å"who are youÃ¢â¬ . Feeling sure and comfortable of your communicating skills will ensure good communication within the relationship. Your self-concept is how you look at yourself. It is a mental image that you have of yourself and it can relate to your mental strength or status in life. One 's self-concept affects one's perception, attitude and behavior, which can be demonstrated during the process of interpersonal communication.Aspects of one's life influence their self-concept, which not only affect how people perceive them but how they perceive themselves. In the process of communication, self-knowledge and the way one feel about oneself is revealed to others, and affects how others react to them. Consequently, the perceptions one believes others have of them affect how they receive their communication, which influences their response. In relationships you have to be cognizant of how the opposite sex perceives things.Men hear things differently than women. I relate this to my childhood when my parents would argue and my mother would say to my father: Ã¢â¬Å"You hear what you want to hearÃ¢â¬ . This is evident in the study that was referenced in the article Close Relationships Sometimes Mask Poor CommunicationÃ¢â¬ . In the study, researchers asked 24 married coup les to take part in an experiment in which two sets of couples sat in chairs and tried to figure out the meaning of phrases whose meaning isn't entirely clear.The example used was a wife who says to her husband, Ã¢â¬Ëit's getting hot in here,' as a hint for her husband to turn up the air conditioning a notch, may be surprised when he interprets her statement as a coy, amorous advance instead (Healthday, 2011). One way to avoid this mistake is not to be rushed and preoccupied. Stop and make sure you understand the perspective the other is trying to relay especially since the two of you are married. In being aware of the opposite sex, you have to be aware of how you say things as well.The tone of your voice can displace the message you are trying to send. The text suggests that work to shut judgments about the speaker's appearance, tone of voice, or other such factors out of your mind when you are speaking with someone, and focus on the words and the meaning rather than on the perso n delivering the message. If you are unsure of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s meaning, it is not taboo to ask what is meant. This is a technique that I use in my own marriage. Before a disagreement takes place, I will say to my husband: I saidÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ now what did you hear? This clears up what my intended message was and helps me to modify my tone or body language that my spouse may have found offensive. This was a hard lesson learned because I was the one that said things without considering how it sounds to my husband. That was not how I wanted to portray myself and not get into unnecessary arguments. Linda you also have to keep in mind that you become very animated when you talk. Although William knows this about you, it could become offensive in the heat of the moment. Dr.Terry Orbuch refers to this kind of body language as a determining factor in the early years of marriage. In her book, Marital Instability, she surveyed 199 African American couples and 174 White couples who we re just married and found that body language can cause significant damage in a relationship if it is read the wrong way. William should be mindful of his always present smile. In a majority of cases a great smile is a good thing. However, in times of turmoil a smile can be mistaken to mean that you are not taking the situation seriously.An excellent way to avoid conflict is to develop good listening habits. We have, at some point, exhibited poor listening skills. Bad listening habits include: Lack of interest in the subject, focus on the person, not on the content, interrupting, focus on the detail, missing the big picture, body language that signals disinterest, letting emotions block the meaning, and daydreaming. All these things can put any relationship in a downward spin. These habits could lead to misunderstandings and arguments. There are ways to avoid this. One way is to give your mate your full attention.Attend to what they are saying not just with your ears but with your en tire body. Make sure you are facing each other during the conversation. Having the right attitude contributes to your desire to want to know what the other is saying. The next thing is having patience and understanding. Sometimes you might have a difficult time getting your point clearly across. If your spouse attempts to help you say what is needed donÃ¢â¬â¢t get upset. This could be a good thing because they understand your point. This is always a way of showing support for them.Even if you do not agree with what they are saying, make sure respect what they have to say. Good listening skills also include knowing how to manage your reactions to what is being said. Before you respond, take a moment to think about what was said and how it makes you feel. Your response should reflect how you feel but should not sound like emotional tirade. A vital key to successful communication is having the ability to understand emotions and being able to express those emotions (Sole, 2011). This is often referred to as emotional intelligence.Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to identify, assess, and control the emotions of oneself and others. Emotional intelligence includes making good judgments about when to deal with emotions and keep them at bay. Kathy Sole feels that emotional intelligence also directly corresponds to emotional healthÃ¢â¬âthe higher your EI, the more emotionally healthy you are. Ones emotional health keeps you in tuned with your feelings while being exposed to the feelings of others. This is beneficial in a marital relationship because you donÃ¢â¬â¢t forget about you when dealing with your spouseÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings.The communication skills of any couple are established early on and can improve or become worse. In a marriage, communication skill should always improve and a step towards improvement is self-disclosure. Self-disclosure is the act of sharing aspects of your personal self with other people. This act allows you find commonalities with each other as well as dislikes. Being able to open up to others is essential to developing a deeper connection Self-disclosure and communication skills overall are important components of any healthy relationship.Self-disclosure lays the foundation for the type of relationship you will have with one another. Also it plays an important role in validating self-worth and identity. While self-disclosure have many benefits the amount of disclosure depends on what will be gained and how much are you losing to your partner. Being on the receiving end of disclosure requires a level of culpability and perhaps forgiveness. William and Linda again I want to congratulate you on your recent engagement. You two have a lifetime of perfecting your communication skills ahead of you.Using the concepts that I have mentioned in this letter will make it easier for you. Thank you for the honor of asking for my advice and wish you many years of happiness. Love, Tasha References Anonymous,. Close Rela tionships Sometimes Mask Poor Communication. (2011,Ã January). U. S. News ; World Report,1. Retrieved January 9, 2012, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID:Ã 2270370591). NARA SCHOENBERG. (2011,Ã FebruaryÃ 6). Can we talk? Researcher talks about the role of communication in marriages. Houston Chronicle,p. 7.Retrieved January 9, 2012, from ProQuest Newsstand. (Document ID:Ã 2260839481). Sole, K. (2011). Making Connections: Understanding Interpersonal Communication. San Diego: Bridgepoint Education. Orbuch, T. (2007). Interpersonal Relationships, in The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology, G. Ritzer (Ed. ), (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing), 2390-2393. Veroff, J. , ; Orbuch, T. L. (2009). Studying Marital Relationships. In an edited volume called Research Methodologies inÃ African American Communities, Edited by J. Jackson ; C. Howard (Eds. ), Sage Publications.
Friday, August 30, 2019
For an Environmental Engineer, it is very important to know the jurisdiction that one will be working in. Not only is thorough knowledge of the natural characteristics such as geological and meteorological aspects of the jurisdiction to scientifically cater to the unique environmental concerns of a certain area, but it is also essential that one also knowledge of the social and judicial aspects of the jurisdiction for easier cooperation with the citizens and more efficient applications of environmental impact assessments and mitigations or development of environmental policy and regulation, for example. The Northwest Territories and Nunavut are unique in many aspects that concern Environmental Engineering practice. In general, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are already geared towards environmental safety, conservation, and regulation. For example, in the Northwest Territories, programs are already in place to ensure sustainability of forest use, regulation of wildlife protection and use, etc. In Nunavut, their Department of Environment actively apply what they call Avatittinnik Kamatsiarniq, or environmental stewardship, to conserve their vast natural resources and promote sustainability, a principle that is based on the Inuit culture and must be respected by any Environmental Engineer who plans to practice in that territory. In fact, one must have good knowledge of that culture as the Inuit populace of Nunavut make up the majority of the demographic and thus their culture and belief system have a great influence on governmental policies, considering that the self-governing system of the Inuit is unique to Nunavut and issues such as land claims are a constant concern. Similarly, the agencies of the Northwest territories also make use of the traditional knowledge of the Inuit concerning the natural resources and the relationship between man and environment. As North American Indians comprise the majority of the population in the Northwest Territories, they appreciate the value of this knowledge and these are taken into consideration in the making of public policies which include environmental engineering law. To work in the Northwest Territories, one must be aware of programs such as the NWT Protected Areas Strategy, that utilizes a community-based process as it makes sure to respect Aboriginal rights to balance conservation and economic development. The programs already in place and the social set-up of the jurisdiction are only part of the concerns of an Environment Engineer, of course the physical aspects of the territories are also important. The weather is an important part of the culture of the Aboriginal people, not only are the weather extremes (such as the record-breaking Arctic heat in Nunavut) and the natural hazards serious concerns, climate change is also a much monitored phenomenon. The geological makeup and position of Nunavut and the Northwest territories make them very vulnerable to climate change effects, such as the possible melting of permafrost. In the Northwest Territories, their use of their abundant mineral resources have caused a great strain in the environment such as the giant earth scars left by diamond mines or the hazardous tailings pond spills, and the Environmental Engineer should not only be aware of these for future mining operations but could also work together with other agencies to alleviate these prior issues. Furthermore, the geology of Nunavut can span most of EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s history with great economic potential yet it is still very underdeveloped, and yet, they are actively advertising extreme sports tourism which could cause environmental as well as safety concerns. In all, there is a balance in the naturalistic Aboriginal-based society and community and the raw environment of this jurisdiction that gives the Environmental Engineer a unique practice.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Sex, Gender and Society - Essay Example The fact of gender stereotyping therefore has put the spotlight back on the Caribbean male. (Lewis, 1994, p 76). In other words, it has become one of the most perceptible gendered realities that the men in the Caribbean territory are in crisis in the modern world and the Jamaican realities of gender regarding the marginalisation of black male substantiate the argument. In fact, the marginalisation of black male in the Caribbean territory, especially in Jamaica, has emerged one of the pertinent discourses in the contemporary discourses of Sex, Gender and Society. "Central to this discourse is the notion that men are increasingly missing from the higher echelons of the family, the classroom and the labour force. The marginalization thesis prompts a variety of understandings. On the one hand, the increased presence of Jamaican women in education, the labour force and as household heads suggests that the nation's traditional patriarchy is being reordered to produce a new female-dominated gender hierarchy." (Lindsay, 2002, p 56). This paper undertakes a reflective analysis of the thesis, with reference to the territory of Jamaica, that Caribbean men are in crisis examining the relevance and accuracy of this argument and finding the most illumining recommendations as resolution. One of the salient recent developments in feminist and gender studies in the Caribbean region is the emergence of studies of masculinities and the most appealing argument, based on the marginalisation thesis, is that the Caribbean male is an endangered species. There have been convincing data evidences and empirical supports to this significant argument by Lindsay, and the evidences from the education sector best substantiate the point. Thus, "the Anglophone Caribbean is one of the few regions where secondary school enrolment of girls exceeds that of boys. Additionally, by the 1986-87 academic year, total female enrolment at the University of the West Indies slightly exceeded that of males. By the end of 1992, 70 per cent of all graduates from the University of the West Indies Mona campus were female." (Reddock, 2004, p ix-x). Therefore, it is obvious that there are stunning empirical evidences to prove the accuracy of the argument which states that Caribbean men are in crisis. Accor ding to Lindsay, a clear understanding of the data regarding Caribbean women's participation in different areas of the family, workplace and classroom rarely suggests the increasing female dominance and converse male marginality. To her, the marginality of males in the land results not from any concrete material reality, but from a gender based methodological frame which identifies some data source and ignores others. That is to say, there are arguments in favour as well as against the data evidences of male marginalisation. "While a number of scholars have been able to challenge the marginalization thesis successfully, it continues to have great impact, causing expressions of concern from the highest levels of government and from quasi-governmental institutions at national and regional levels." (Reddock, 2004, p ix-x). Therefore, it is all but easy to conclude that there is great accuracy of the marginalizati
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
How effective is terrorism legislation with regards to restraining terrorists - Dissertation Example Qualitative researchers: reject the idea that social sciences (such as education and training) can be studied with the same methods as the natural or physical sciences; feel that human behavior is always bound to the context in which it occurs; therefore, behavior must be studied holistically, in context, rather than being manipulated; employ an "insider's" perspective; this makes qualitative research an intensely personal and subjective style of research. Quantitative researcher: argues that both the natural and social sciences strive for testable and confirmable theories that explain phenomena by showing how they are derived from theoretical assumptions; reduces social reality to variables in the same manner as physical reality; attempt to tightly control the variable in question to see how other variables are influenced. (San Diego State University, 2006) As can be seen from the above descriptions, the sheer complexity of the situation regarding terrorism is most suited to one that sees "context" as everything, rejecting the idea that human relations can be simplified to a model as exists within the physical sciences. The "insider's" perspective is exactly the type that will allow for the most useful information to be gleaned. Viewing the situation of terrorism from an objective distance. will tend towards either of two equally undesirable ends: a conclusion of incomprehensibility or one that falls back on old stereotypes and clichs. Adopting the qualitative approach may not offer as easy cause and effect solutions to the question, but it will allow a far better exploration of what is actually occurring. The Definition of "Terrorism" and "Terrorist" The origins of the word "terrorist" are rather ironic. It seem as... This dissertation reveals that the simple, stark question remains as to whether a legislation could have stopped these young men planning and then implementing their bombings. Could any legislation have stopped them walking into that Underground station that morning? The answer is no. Many of the arguments that revolve around the issue of terrorism avoid the dilemma that is at the center of any free societyÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to those who want to destroy it. Namely, how far should a society go in giving up freedoms in order to protect them? Totalitarian countries tend to be remarkably free of terrorism because a police state does not allow such groups to even begin to form. If the choice is between living in a police state free of terrorism and living in a free society in which terrorism may occur, the vast majority of the British people (as in all free countries) will choose the latter. In conclusion, a free society and a democracy allow people to do and say almost anything as long as it does not directly harm anybody else. People have the privacy of their own homes to discuss what they will: if terrorism and its glories are one of those subjects there is nothing a free society can do about it. British people may move from house to house, street to street, city to city and even (within Europe) from country to country, without government intervention. One of the weaknesses that go along with the great strength of such a free society is that a terrorist may do the same thing.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Metric Machine Parts and Supplies Corporation - Research Paper Example The workforce of only 25000 with the limited networking facility could not manage the large customer base. Therefore, the company has decided to outsource (share) the network management facility. The core issue can be summarized as: The Metric Machine Parts and Supplier Corp. is facing issues in network management facility, required for managing heavy network base for the customers. 2. Discussion of the Problem within the Context of the Problem. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s heavy network base has now been managed by internal and external networking facilities. Following are some technical problems the company faces: 2.1 Crashed Network As a result of heavy network, the connectivity problems arose, due to which the network periodically crashes. 2.2 Poor Customer Service The crashed network results in an inability to provide up-to-the-mark services to the customers. 2.3 E-mail Interruptions Another major impact of the whole networking problem linked with the poor customer service is the e-mail blockage and interruption. 2.4 High Cost Cost of managing two network bases, i.e. internal and external, and eradication of networking errors has become too high. 2.5 Poor Service by the Telecom Network Management Company The outsourced telecom network management company has proved to be the major business problem for MMPS. The reason is the poor service rendered by the network management company. The company often disagrees that there is even a problem and does not properly address MMPS networking errors. 3. Recommendations in Applications of the technology, Processes and Policies Internal management of overwhelmed network management facility requires highly technical and experienced telecom engineers to manage the network functions of the company (Mayer, Jiang, Xi, McCarron, & Chang, 2010). As mentioned above, the major problem faced by MMPS is the handling of heavy network problems. The most congenial solution to the problem is to develop a system that can easily incorporate the internally managed heavy networking issues. In order to internally manage the networking problem, MMPS should incorporate the Cross Domain Network Management System. 3.1 Application of the Technology The Cross Domain Networking System is one of the most widely used and recommended telecom network management systems (Lu, 2009), that can help companies like MMPS to individually manage the whole networking system without any interruption. 3.2 Process Of Cross Domain NMS: The Cross Domain Networking System functions is a way that allows the operation system of telecom network engineering to gather information and systematically integrate it into the system in a consistent manner so that the large number of different customers can be entertained at the same time without interruption (Etheridge, Chen, Tanaka & Watanabe, 1998). 3.3 Policies Of Cross Domain NMS: The Cross Domain Networking System follows the policies of providing fully secured services for the customer, so the confidential information of the customers can be preserved. 4. Impacts or Risks of the Applied Solutions. The applied solution of the Cross Domain Networking System has some shortcomings or limitations that relate with implementing the solely controlled network managem
Monday, August 26, 2019
Leadership - Essay Example This system is clearly working since Employee 1 is doing more than the minimum with the aim of accessing the end-year bonus. The second source of power in an organization is expert power, where an individual possesses significant knowledge or skills in a certain domain in the organizations operations. In most cases, the individual performs a duty or responsibility that others cannot undertake to the same level, and hence is an important asset to the organization. Since the organization does not wish to lose such an individual, it seeks to make them comfortable and thus submits to their requests. Employee 2 draws his power from being the only expert accountant in Corporate A. Since he is the only individual who can prepare the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial statement he has negotiated for a 4 day work-week that is inaccessible for the rest of the employees in the accounting department. His being the only Certified Public Accountant is a source of power within the organization. The other b asis of power in organizations stems from personal characteristics. Having individual special qualities such as charisma and people skills results in admiration from the rest of the workforce and management and thus places one in positions from which they can gain audience within the organization. Charismatic qualities make certain employees convincing enough to side with, besides making their ideas attractive. This is certainly the case for Employee 3 who despite having not been in Corporate A longer than the other employees is already influential in the company. The rest of the employees are attracted to his positive and charismatic personality, and this is a source of power to him as we can see his project idea being spiritedly adopted by the department. Coercive sources of power are felt in the case where leaders create the perception of threats to the employees. This can either be through making others believe that the individual may implement punitive measures, reprimand them or withdraw certain advantages. Individuals can also coerce the management to listen to their wishes for example through threatening to withdraw service through labor unions. The marketing manager clearly coerces his staff members to work beyond the minimum through threatening to withdraw end year bonuses which for individuals like Employee 1 are absolutely crucial if they are to afford certain desired things. The last source of power is legitimate/positional power which is wielded by leaders within organizations by virtue of being appointed to head other employees. The extent of positional power is dependent on the position one holds, for instance middle level managers, senior managers among others. Corporate A scenario presents three examples of positional power in the marketing manager, the accounting department manager and the sales manager who lead employees in their respective department. Relationship between Dependency and Power According to Murphy and Willmott (2009) there i s a relationship between power and dependency because the power resides implicitly in another personÃ¢â¬â¢s dependency. Examples of this can be clearly seen in Corporate A, where the marketing manager wields power on employees who are dependent on him due to his discretion in distributing rewards. Due to the various sources of power within
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Strategic Perspectives - Essay Example Moreover, micro environmental analysis signifies that in the current scenario there is considerable lower level of threat of substitute for Tesla. Whereas, the application of fund towards the CSR activities, reputation management through high level of innovation, and conserving towards the ethical issues helps Tesla to overcome from the financial crisis situation. Nevertheless, the report identifies that diversifying the business activities in other segment; divestment or reengineering strategies in the loss making units, and enhancing the specification of vehicles based on customer perception will assist the company to earn competitive advantage in future. The prior aim of the report is to evaluate the provided case scenario of Tesla Motors in order to present the strategic position in the global environment. Additionally, in the current global competitive environment, the phenomenon of globalisation has significantly influenced various global business organisations and led them to undertake their business operation further than their domestic territories. Correspondingly, the international business accordingly response to the changing scenario through taking diversified strategic choices and decision making in order to maintain its competitive advantage in the global environment (Hill, 2006). Tesla Motors founded in the year 2003 named after Nikola Tesla one of the inventor of electric AC induction motor. Since, its formation company has attained unprecedented growth and expansion in their competitive position. Besides, company engage itself in designs, production, and distribution of electric cars and its components. Furthermore, du ring the year 2014, company earned US$ 3.198 billion revenue (1Tesla Motors, Inc., 2014). Correspondingly, the aim of the report is to evaluate and analyse the strategic prospective of Tesla Motors in the
Saturday, August 24, 2019
What is the globalization and impact of drug trafficking - Research Paper Example e international consumption increasing greatly, the people engaged in the administration have also participated in this trade forgetting about the negative impacts it imparts on the general population and hampering the future. Although in the recent years genuine efforts have been given on reducing the drug trafficking by focusing on the supply side, demand side in this paper is highlighted as a more important dimension for attaining solutions. Intensification of the term Ã¢â¬ËglobalizationÃ¢â¬â¢ is indeed a dominant phenomenon unleashing its practicability in diversified gesture from the second half of the twentieth century to the instance we are standing today1. Technically speaking, theme of globalization encompasses around the notion that, nation states are intertwined with information exchange along with amalgamating culture, religion, tradition, business practices and so on2. Now within the domain of business perspective globalization among its multifarious dimensions imparts a significant part. Globalization has brought many opportunities but at the same time has imposed a lot of critical challenges and adverse effects. Drug trafficking is one such arena where the adverse effects of globalization has made its full interventions. Rational individuals are required to be bestowed with tasks of analyzing, understanding as well as harnessing the benefits for eliminating the negative consequences that come with it. Th e paper will be discussing the negative impacts of globalization with respect to drug trafficking (special emphasis on Latin American countries) with an attempt to find out potential solution to curb down its evil effects. From theoretical perspectives globalization can be visualized as a platform where the private organizations are operating in a global forefront with a disciplined behavior with equilibrium occurring at the intersecting point of demand and supply curves. Similarly it can be stated that the market of illicit drugs and its trafficking
Friday, August 23, 2019
Fianl report - Essay Example GE discourages this approach by developing research based culture which promotes the employees to provide their input in the programs of continuous improvement. General Electric, commonly known as GE, is a US based company. It is well known for its wide range of specialized products and services. These products include aircraft engines, home appliance like dyers, washers, cook-tops, and many other devices that are used in healthcare facilities (GE.com). All these products and services are based on top notch technologies. The business of GE is spread in more than 160 countries of the world. China, India, Japan, Taiwan, Pakistan, South Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Singapore, Vietnam, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines, New Zealand and Australia are only a few names. GE is present in many European, African and American countries as well (GE.com). The total task force of GE consists of 36,000 employees. GE calls them technologists instead of employees. This term does not only reflect technology orientation of GE but also gives employees a commitment with technology. It recruits people from all over the world ensuring the best return of their talent. The strategy of valuing its employees pays GE fairly well both in short and long term. Operations management is generally defined as the management of processes converting input into output. This basic definition contains vast meaning and many organizational functions are covered in this domain. The classical Economics theories identified land, labor and capital as inputs or factors of production and the output was the core product. The contemporary management literature considers man, money, media and material as inputs to the organizational processes while outputs are categorized as quality and quantity of the product. Operations management is an inevitable function in any organization (Greasley, 3) and it is the core factor determining success or
Thursday, August 22, 2019
E commerce - Essay Example Amazon.com was the first company to move book retailing online. In less than a decade, it has become one of the most recognizable brands on earth. It expanded from being a book retailer to a virtual marketplace where all sorts of buyers and sellers of rare, used, and collectible items found a platform. Today it offers even online auctions including toys, music, DVDs, house ware, and a variety of other products and it is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most customer-centric company. It sells virtually anything to more than 38 million customers (Success story). Amazon.com is renowned for its customer experience and overall satisfaction. They used technology to constantly improvise and innovate. "We work hard to refine our technology, which allows us to make recommendations that make shopping more convenient and enjoyable," explains Diane N. Lye, Ph.D., Amazon.coms senior manager for worldwide data mining. " (SAS). Amazon.com uses the SAS technology to analyze the results of their ongoing efforts to improve personalization. Multi-threading allows amazon.com to apply multiple processors to complex analytic tasks. They constantly evaluate the new product page layouts and new search technology. It is their Ã¢â¬Ëtechnology base that allows customers to find, discover and glean out of hundreds of millions of products, those that really interest them, says Rick Dalzell, the CIO of amazon.com (Success story). Amazon.com has one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest data warehouses, which allows it to personalize customer satisfaction. Their goal has always been customer satisfaction and hence any technology that they incorporate is to help the customer find what he finds easily and enable a simple and convenient purchase process. Data warehousing allows them to manage growth according to Mark Dunlop, Director (Success story). Their data includes order data, inventory data, and customer data. The data warehouse is connected to almost every system in the company. The very name of the company
Speech for running treasurer Essay Seeking to obtain a rewarding and challenging Flight Attendant position with a growth-oriented company that promotes a team environment and reaching the highest possible standards. Qualifications Summary Extensive knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services, including customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction. Expert in the structure and content of the English language, including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar. Very attentive, giving full attention to customers, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and conveying empathy. Outstanding communication and interpersonal skills. Education De La Salle Bachelor in Science Major in Tourism (2014-2018) Work Experience Flight Attendant: June 2018- Present, Tarom Airlines, Phoenix, AZ Provide personal services to ensure the safety and comfort of airline passengers during flight. Greet passengers, verify tickets, and serve food and beverages. Announce and demonstrate safety and emergency procedures such as the use of oxygen masks, seat belts, and life jackets. Answer passengers questions about flights, aircraft, weather, travel routes and services, arrival times, and schedules. Assist passengers in placing carry-on luggage in overhead, garment, or under-seat storage. Guide passengers while entering or disembarking the aircraft. Attend preflight briefings concerning weather, altitudes, routes, emergency procedures, crew coordination, lengths of flights, food and beverage services offered, and numbers of passengers. Check to ensure that food, beverages, blankets, reading material, emergency equipment, and other supplies are aboard and are in adequate supply. Collect money for meals and beverages. Conduct periodic trips through the cabin to ensure passenger comfort and distribute reading material, headphones, pillows, playing cards, and blankets. Flight Attendant: May 1999 May 2003, British Airways/Flytele, Atlanta, GA Responsibilities included: Directing and assisting passengers in the event of an emergency, preparing passengers and aircraft for landing by following procedures, greeting passengers boarding aircraft and directing them to assigned seats. Served prepared foods and beverages, and sold alcoholic drinks. Announced flight delays and descent preparations. Took inventory of headsets, food and drink, and money collected. Walked aisles of planes to verify that passengers were in compliance with federal regulations prior to take-offs and landings. Administered first aid to passengers in distress. Inspected and cleaned cabins, checking for any problems and maintaining order. Inspected passenger tickets to verify information and obtain destination information. Operated audio and video systems. http://workbloom.com/resume/sample/air-hostess.aspx http://coverlettersandresume.com/airline/airline-stewardess-resume-example/ http://coverlettersandresume.com/flight-attendant/the-best-resume-of-flight-attendant/ http:// http://www.crewpacific.com.au/how-to-register-for-work-with-crew-pacific/resume-examplecoverlettersandresume.com/flight-attendant/top-5-objectives-for-flight-attendant/
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Experiences of Breast Cancer Patients with Radiotherapy Introduction and background Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and leading cause of cancer related deaths of this gender (World Health Organization, 2014). Previously it was most common in developed countries but now it became commonest cancer both in developed and developing regions (Ferlay et al., 2010). Moreover, in USA, breast cancer has the highest incidence rate among all types of cancers involving one in every ten women (Njeh, Saunders, Langton, 2012). However, in Pakistan the incidence is more alarming as 1 in every 9 women is at the risk of developing breast cancer (Siddiqui, n.d.).This data indicates that Pakistan has highest incidence rates of breast cancer in Asian countries (Aziz, Sana, Akram, Saeed, 2004; Bhurgri, et al., 2000; Naeem, 2008). Furthermore, Hussain, Ahmad, Muhammad, Kakakhail and Matiullah (2008) identified the incidence of breast cancer 96.49 % among women registered in Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, Peshawar, which are more frightening figures. There are certain treatment modalities for breast cancer among them radiation therapy (RT) is an important treatment choice, performed before and after the surgery which also have various side effects. During the course of treatment, about two-thirds of patients undergo radiation therapy, before and after surgery (Guo et al., 2013). In addition, more than 90% of the all breast cancer patients receive adjuvant radiotherapy to prevent the recurrence of the disease (Potthoff et al., 2013). Despite its wide use and significant role in cancer treatment, few studies addressed the experiences of its recipients. According to Welle (1998) radiotherapy patients are perceived as self-caring and their needs are not taken care of. The international literature indicates that breast cancer patient receiving RT not only suffers from disease process but also from the side effect of this treatment. The nature of disease, its prognosis and treatment related problems have devastating effects on physical , psychological and socio-economic wellbeing of the patient (Farooqi Chaudhry, 2012; Kirchheiner et al, 2013). However, these studies have been conducted in western context on different population which has stark difference in our culture. In addition, within the Pakistani context, Khyber Pakhtunkhawa is considered more conservative province. Therefore, it is important to explore experiences and problems of the local population to remedy their problems. Furthermore, data from Pakistan revealed that breast cancer was found mostly in younger age group ranging from 30-50 years as compare to west where it tend to occur in women above 60 years of age (Aziz, Sana, Akram, Saeed, 2004; Mamoon, Sharif, Mushtaq, Khadim, Jamal, 2009; Naeem, et al., 2008; Tfayli, Temraz, Abou Mrad, Shamseddine, 2010). Importantly, this age group is more productive and may have different responsibilities pertinent to their age group towards their family and society which may vary from western population in t erm of their concerns, needs and issues. However, in Pakistan, research in this area is not conducted to explore the experiences of breast cancer patient receiving radiotherapy therefore; research is a required to address the issues of this population. In addition, this is the first study of its nature in Pakistani context especially in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in the field of nursing which will increase the awareness regarding radiotherapy related problems of patients among nurses and other health care providers. Significance This study is significant to generate information for nurses to care for patient undergoing RT in Pakistani context. It will help nurses to understand the feelings and experiences of the patients undergoing RT to design nursing care plan by addressing their needs. Moreover, findings of this study can help to identify recommendation for health care staff working in the radiotherapy units to facilitate their patients undergoing radiotherapy in a better way. It will also help health care professionals maintain a sense of the importance of the experience of the RT patient who are coming to them for treatment and want their care pertinent to their needs. Purpose The aim of this study is to explore the experiences of the female breast cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Study Questions What are the experiences of the of breast cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan? Data sources The review of literature was conducted through data bases CINAHL PubMed, Mosbys Nursing Consult, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. Search for published research articles relevant to this paper was done. The combination of the following key terms was used to retrieve relevant literature Ã¢â¬Å"physical/psychological problems, breast cancer, problems with radiation therapy, quality of life, experiences of breast cancer patients. Search generated 283articles, 52 duplicate results excluded. Through a selection process title and abstract screened, among those 30 were found to be relevant to the topic. Literature review Radiotherapy is one of the essential components of the cancer treatment. It minimizes risk of recurrence, improve survival rate (Bese, et al., 2006). This is done by using high-energy x-rays or gamma rays targeted at the tumor to shrink the tumors or kill cancer cells (Radvansky, Pace, Siddiqui, 2013). During the course of treatment, about two-thirds of patients will undergo radiation therapy, before and after surgery (Guo et al., 2013). Beside this adjuvant radiotherapy is advised after breast conserving surgery as well as after mastectomy to minimize the chances of reoccurrence of the disease. As Darby et al. (2011) found in their meta-analysis study that RT reduced 15-years of risk of breast cancer related death rate after breast conserving surgery. Beside its effectiveness, it exerts multiple physical, psychological and socio-economical problems on patients. Physical problems related to RT Radiation therapy affects cancer as well as normal body cells within the treated area, result in injury of the cells which lead to many side effects. The RT induced side effects include skin and mucous membrane toxicities, sleeplessness, pain, swelling, dyspnea, cough and nausea. (Adams, 2009; Currie Wheat 2006; Darby et al, 201; Gordils-Perez, Duell, 2003; Rose, 2011). In addition, skin problems are the most frequent side effect of RT which affects nearly 85% to 95% of patients and also cause skin damage (Bergstrom, 2011). Additionally, there are many long term side effects of breast irradiation like cosmetic changes hyperpigmentation, fibrosis, lymphedema, and damage to underlying normal structures (Gordils-Perez, Duell, 2003). Moreover, fatigue, soreness and dryness of throat, headache, and desquamation were also common symptom reported by patients receiving RT (Sherminie Cottrel, 2014). Among them fatigue is reported by 80% of the patients receiving RT which affects the role functioning of breast cancer female in their daily life (Poirier, 2011; Potthoff et al., 2013). The RT patent also endure sleep disturbance as Dhruva et al. (2012) reported that approximately 50% breast cancer patients have sleep disturbance at the initiation of radiation therapy. In this connection, a study conducted by Graydon (1994) highlighted that sleep disturbance and fatigues were the main areas of the life of women affected by RT. It influence the physical, cognitive and emotional aspects of the 80% of breast cancer patients underwent RT (Alcantara-Silva, Freitas-Junior, Freitas, Machado, 2013; Stone, Richards, Hern Hardy, 2001). As Currie and Wheat (2006) suggested that it is very important to address and remedy the evident side effect of RT because these are capable of limiting the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to tolerate the planned treatment. Psychological problems Breast cancer remarkably affects womenÃ¢â¬â¢s psychological well-being. One out of two patients with cancer experience psychological disorder (Reyes-Gibby, Anderson, Morrow, Shete Hassan, 2012; Spoletini, et al., 2008). Beside the disease process its treatment modalities also contribute in the psychological problems of the patient. As, Reyes-Gibby et al. (2012) proved that depression among women have positive associated with symptoms of disease and treatment of the breast cancer. In addition, RT is usually prescribed before and after surgery which tend to have its psychological effects on patient. A qualitative study conducted in Sri Lanka to explore the experiences of breast cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy, concluded that women feel fear of treatment, machines used in treatment and blackening of the skin. The study also reported patients feel uncomfortable and stressed in the presence of male staff members and waiting for long time in RT department (Sherminie Cottrel , 2014). In addition, Halkett, Kristjanson, and Lobb (2008) highlighted in their qualitative study, that the patients with breast cancer receiving radiotherapy, experience many kinds of fears like getting burnt, damage to internal body parts, and anticipating tiredness. These kinds of fears may have negative impact on compliance with the treatment regimen. Rose (2011) highlighted that patient feel high level of stress at the start RT because of unfamiliar technology, fear of potential side effects and being in an environment with other cancer patients. A literature review carried out by Lim, Devi, and Ang (2011) concluded that anxiety is predominant psychological issue of the all treatment modalities of the breast cancer across the globe and continue beyond the acute stage of treatment. In relevance to RT it is experienced by10 to 20% of the patients (Stielgelis et al., 2004). Moreover, the fatigue and pain related to RT may affect the sexuality of the patient by decreasing the desi re and arousal and skin changes result in burns affecting body image and self-esteem (Mercadante, Vitrano Catania, 2010). Therefore, the diagnosis and treatment can have a profound influence on a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s overall psychological well-being thus compromising the quality of life of the patient. Socio-economical Problems Breast cancer patients face multiple socio-economical problems because the cancer treatment is very expensive which may not be affordable for many of the patients particularly who belong to low income families. A well-established literature signifies that breast cancer patient treated with surgery also receives RT which may be additional financial burden for them especially in the limited resourced countries like Pakistan. Most of the developed countries of the world, large part of expenditure of the cancer treatment are paid by the government, but in Pakistan, the costs of the therapy are borne by the patient and their families (Zaidi, Ansari, Khan, 2012). Many breast cancer patients in Pakistan experience finical difficulties and use their savings to pay for treatment (Banning, Hassan, Faisal, Hafeez, 2010). Moreover, statistics also highlights that the incidence of breast cancer is increasing in countries with inadequate resources thus limiting the access to radiotherapy (Bese, 2006). Due to finical barriers, Pakistani female breast cancer patients face different challenges throughout the course of the disease (Ahmed, Shaikh, Hasan, 1997). Apart from economical issue woman with breast cancer faces many social and cultural problems in Pakistan. A qualitative study by Banning, Hassan, Faisal, and Hafeez (2010) reported that in Pakistani culture breast is considered a hidden organ that should not be exposed, discussed or touched by others. They also highlighted that most of their participants reported stigma attached to a diagnosis and likelihood surgery therefore they hide their diagnosis from family and local community. Furthermore, in conservative culture of developing countries female are less empowered and given low priority and their health issues are least bothered by the society (Tfayli, Temraz, AbouMrad, Shamseddine, 2010). In this regard, female with breast cancer may experience unbearable problems which may not be experienced by women of differen t cultural and social class (Aziz, Sana, Akram, Saeed, 2004). Knowledge of Treatment The above mentioned literature suggests that patients receiving RT face significant challenges and require appropriate information regarding their treatments, side effects of treatment and coping strategies allows them to feel more control over disease and its related problems. Such as, Halkett et al. (2012) emphasized that undergoing RT is difficult experience for patients which needs appropriate and specific information to have the better outcomes of the therapy. Though, the RT is an important treatment but their patients are found to be poorly informed (Halkett, Kristjanson, Lobb, 2008; Sherminie Cottrell, 2014). This may contribute in their fear, anxiety, stress, and compliance with treatment. Thus the appropriate information and guidance help the patient to make better choices of treatment modalities (Barnett et al., 2004). In addition, findings of a quantitative study by Zeguers et al. (2012) showed that RT patients want comprehensive information about their disease, treatmen t, and procedures, side effects, and prognosis with the mean scores between 4.1 and 4.4 on a scale from 1 to 5. In contrast, Barnett et al. (2004) emphasized that information needs vary among different individual therefore, a patient-centered approach must involve according to the tolerance and need of the patient. A randomized trial study conducted by Christman and Cain (2004) also concluded that patients receiving concrete objective information reported maintaining higher levels of usual function than those not receiving. Furthermore, giving information about symptom experiences helped them to mentally tackle uncertainty about their symptom experiences. Gap analysis The incidence of the breast cancer continues to rise worldwide. Multiple treatment modalities have positive impacts on prognosis of the cancer. Radiotherapy is one of the commonly used treatment modalities having its side effect as well. Moreover, available literature suggest that a series of problems faced by patients receiving RT. But, there is a profound need to develop clear understanding of the phenomenon that what patients experience when they undergo RT. Moreover, nursing literature needs to address the needs of these patients and recommend evidence based interventions to help them. Furthermore, in the context of Pakistani conservative culture women with breast cancer may be experiencing different problems than western women. Therefore, this study question needs a qualitative study to arrive at the desired outcome of better understanding of the situation.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Wuthering Heights A Thematic Analysis Revenge is one of the prominent and stronger issues in the novel Wuthering Heights. Emily Bronte has discussed the cruel and wicked nature of human beings. Novel was set in the harsh, rough and isolated atmosphere of Yorkshire moors in northern England. There are many reasons of emergent revenge amid the characters. People were bounded and restricted due to their class systems. One of the causes of Heathcliffs vindictive nature is his belonging of lower class. Mr. and Mrs. Earnshaw was failed to maintain equality between Hindley and Heathcliff. Throughout their lifes, both suffered and thus became as a victim of injustice. Character of Catherine is the true representation of Victorian women. One way Catherine pretends that she loves Heathcliff but on the same way she cheats him. If she chose Heathcliff for marriage, revenge would not have raised and automatically lives of many people would have saved. Edgar, Hindley and Catherines behaviour towards Heathcliff seems inhumane and disre spectful, therefore their brutal behaviour becomes the reason of Heathcliffs hurtful nature. Heathcliff proves himself that extreme of love is equally dangerous than as extreme of hate. His desire of taking revenge is superior to his love for Catherine. Edgar, Hindley, Catherine and Heathcliff have evenly participated in destroying lives of many people. By showing Heathcliffs devil style look, description of Wuthering Heights as haunted place, lack of religion, elements of ghost, Catherins and Heathcliff madness in love makes the story affected by supernatural elements and it also gives us contemplation that there is a super power around them who does not like peace and instructs them to take revenge from others. Showing the characters of Isabella and young Cathy, Emily has given us the lesson of morality as well. If both ladies obeyed Edgars suggestion, they would not become fools. Despite the fact that the revenge moves from one generation to another but in my perception character s like young Cathy and Hareton presents as the hope of peaceful future. Their sincere bonding abolishes the revenge completely at the end. Though my research topic seems pessimistic but I have ended up it an optimistic note. God does not take revenge from us. We all have to go to God with empty hands, only our deeds will go with us. Now it depends on us, either we want to die peacefully or not. Introduction Emily Bronte belongs to the Victorian age. Her novel Wuthering Heights is one of the classical novels of this age, although she died very young but Emilys work still have its uniqueness. The novel basically set in the harsh and isolated Yorkshire moors in northern England. Emily discussed very mature and bold issues. For example she wrote on escapism from religion which was totally against the customs of Victorian age. The people of this age were very strict and conservative about their religion. Women were also confined to their houses even they did not have the rights to choose their partner for marriage. We see Emilys own perception and imagination in this novel. According to the novel Wuthering Heights it depicts, that she was against the norms of Victorian age. The love triangle between Heathcliff, Catherine and Edgar seems very complex and complicated. Writer has revealed to the readers in earlier chapters that Catherine and Heathcliff both fall in love but Catherine chooses Edgar for marriage just for the sake of money and temporary physical attraction. After some time when Heathcliff gets wealth Catherine again gets closer to Heathcliff that is quite ironical. The character of Hindley represents as a jealous and a wicked person. He was the first person who started the vengeance. Revenge travels one generation to next generation. Characters like Hareton, Cathy and Linton are shown as the symbols of Victim. They suffered because of their parents. On the other hand Nelly Dean and Lockwood are shown as the narrators of the story. Since my research is qualitative so the only source of my research is reading. My research thesis has consisted on four chapters. First chapter is about The Issue of Class System. Difference between the classes of the characters is one of the main issues of the novel. The novel was written at a time when the people of England were affected not only with the economy and Industrial revolution but also with the traditional class structure of this age. The orphan Heathcliff suffered due to his lower class. Second chapter has covered The Role of Revenge and Vengeance in the novel. Because of the revenge, Hindley used to torture Heathcliff. Heathcliffs education was stopped by Hindley, he did not get a chance to raise his social class. Although Catherine loved Heathcliff but she got fascinated by the wealth and life style of Edgar and decided to marry with him. Catherines rejection made him cruel, selfish and arrogant. Third chapter is about the Impacts of Violence and Obsession that rotate around the characters of the novel. Hindleys jealousy and the ill- treatment with orphan Heathcliff raised aggression in him. As a result Heathcliff did not spare anyone. The violent and jealous behavior of Hindley destroys his sisters life too. Wuthering Heights is a strong but morbid novel of love and suffering. Through this novel Emily has tried to convey the lesson that why it is important to keep the balance between relationships? We can conclude it at the end of the story in the following way, doing anything in an excess level is not supposed to be a good thing. The obsession of love and revenge both have crossed the limits in the novel. Victim of the destructive influences of the obsession are Isabella, Cathy and Linton. The extremist love of Heathcliff destroyed his own life too. Fourth chapter has included The Supernatural Effects of the story. Wuthering Heights is famous for its gothic elements. The house (Wuthering Heights) itself gives the mysterious, unwelcoming, haunted and old looks. The eighteen century was dominated by supernatural novels. That is why Emily wrote a romantic story along with the gothic effects. Heathcliff has shown as a hero with horror looks. LITERATURE REVIEW Keyword: Revenge The act of harming somebody in return for harm they have done (Oxford Popular School Dictionary. 2008) Charles Percy Sanger wrote an essay in (1926). He is the first person, who did detailed examination of the novel Wuthering Heights. Throughout his essay, he was finding an answer of question which had in his mind. Sanger starts an essay with the pedigree of the two families. Sanger notices all the dates. Novel starts with the date 1801. June 1778 was the year of Haretons birth, 20th March was the date of birth of Catherine. The marriage date of Catherine Earnshaw and Edgar Linton was June 1783. Catherine died at 2 a.m. on Monday 20th March 1784. According to Charles, Emily Bronte did not use a calendar. For him this mistake seems unusual characteristic of novel. I found his research very unique and different but on the same time, he has neglected some major issues of the novel. Revenge is one of the main issues, he has not written a single sentence on it. This seems strange because this was one of the detailed works on Wuthering Heights. At the end of his essay he has accepted that h is research is technically dull. Linda Golds examined the Wuthering Heights on the basis of Freudin interpretations in (2011). She analysed in depth, the symbiosis of Catherine, Heathcliff and Edgar. In the same way she has made readers mind that how did revenge grown up between them? She has written her research on the interpretations of Freuds id, ego and superego. Heathcliffs id is suspicious. No one knows where he spent three years before coming into Wuthering Heights. Then she comes on Catherine, she had a very social personality. Her id was energetic and sharp minded. Her ego restricted and controlled her life to take changes. Then she discussed Edgar the super egoist. He is a true representative of Victorian era. He uses his wit power to select him rather than to Heathcliff. According to Freuds analysis a male ego person would have the courage to deal successfully with the world, a female egoist person would have to live through males. Gold moves her Freudin Scrutiny to the second generation at the end. She s aid the whole structure of Wuthering Heights would be read as the development of one personality. If we see Wuthering Heights in the light of Golds research we will definitely agree with her. Id, ego and superego belong to Heathcliff, Catherine and Edgar respectively. An entirely different approach has given by Grame Tytler in (2011). He has applied 19th century psychological theory on Wuthering Heights and further wrote an essay on it. Healthcliff was affected by monomaniac. Monomaniac was a very famous disease in Brontes days. New name of this disease is obsession, specific disorder in someones personality. Healthcliff had clearly symptoms of monomaniac. The whole research of Grame revolves around Heathcliff and the effects of monomaniac on him. The first symptom of this disease is passion. We all agree with the fact that Heathcliff loved Catherine passionately. When Catherine chose Edgar as her life partner, Heathcliff whole life destroyed. We can compare our self with Heathcliff. What will be our reaction if someone rejects us? Naturally we shout, scold and cry. Simultaneously reaction of Healthcliff seems natural at start but after some time his human nature turned into wild animal. He has taken out all his pain as revenge. He used to torture and harassed Isabella, Cathy and Hareton. Isabella says to Nelly Is Mr Heathcliff a man? If so, is he mad? And if not, is he a devil? (Bronte,E.1988,ch:13:135) Tytler described different stages of Heathcliff. He is the true picture of obsession. It could be more beneficial for us if he would emphasis on other characters too. The readers who were read Wuthering Heights were shocked by the violence in the story. It is true because in 1847 people were not habitual for this kind of violence. Violence enhanced the revenge factor in the story. Violence revolves around many characters. For example it starts with Heathcliff and Hindley fight. We see in every violent scene there was a reason behind it. Hindley did not accept Heathcliff in his house. He used to hate his father when he supported Heathcliff. The relationship between Edgar and Heathcliff were full of revenge. Characters like Isabella and Cathy who suffered a lot, changed into wild and violent characters. Knives, blood on tree, taunts, harsh and aloud sound, whip are symbolisms of violence in the story. It is very important to think why Emily has shown this kind of extreme violence? It can be several interpretations. May be she wanted to reveal the reality of Victorian society or maybe she wanted to give a lesson or by showing violence and revenge she wanted to highlight the inner pain of human being. Vengeance is the most imminent topic in Wuthering Heights. Many researches and essays have been written on this issue. In this essay critic added Austin OMalley Statement he said Revenge is often like biting because a dog bit you (123helpme.com):(a) OMalleys quote gives a sense of cruel reality. No one can find peace through revenge. An essay starts with the Heathcliff plan that he wanted to take revenge from Edgar through Isabella. The death of Catherine proves that the plan helps him nothing. Catherine ghost were used to wandering around the earth. For 20 years, visiting Heathcliff and tortured him. Let me alone, let me alone. Sobbed Catherine, if I have done wrong, Im dying for it. It is enough! You left me too: but I wont be upbraid you! I forgive you. Forgive me! (Bronte, E.1988,ch:13:144) .In my opinion the problem maker is Catherine in the story because she does not love Edgar. She chooses social status, fame and popularity instead of Heathcliffs true love. Catherine nature re sembles with the poetry of Oliver Goldsmith When lovely woman stoops to folly and finds too late that men betray, what charm can soothe her melancholy? What art can wash her guilt away? The only art her guilt to cover, to hide her shame from every eye, to give repentance to her lover, and wring his bosom, is to die. (Goldsmith,O, When lovely woman stoops to folly:1-8) Hindleys revenge destroys his own life. He got bankrupt and his beloved wife died and eventuality he died. Emily story compels her readers to think what Heathcliff achieved at the end? Is he got Catherine? Revenge worked nothing for him. Emily did great work by showing revenge as negative stigma. Anton has written a thesis on the characterization of Wuthering Heights in (2011). Emily depicts the social code, conventions and challenges of Victorian society. It can also be taken as a deep criticism on Brontes time. Antons approach is quite new because he has taken out several important points. Thrushcross Grange symbolises as Edgar personality like decent and full of manners. While Wuthering Heights symbolises as Heathcliff personality like wild and unfriendly. Both houses inhabit dogs. The dogs of Wuthering Heights are wild, chaotic and habitual of natural environment. Grange owns pet dogs. Hindleys personality shows a real man of Victorian era. He is charming, sensitive and emotional but when his father did discrimination between him and Heathcliff, his nature becomes alter. Catherine also affected by the situation and lifted closer to Heathcliff. The whole novel is full of paradoxical and ironical situations. For example, Catherine chooses Edgar instead of Heathcliff however she does not love Edgar. Catherine still loves Heathcliff but tries to bring Isabella and Heathcliff nearer. My poor little sister-in-law is breaking her heart by mere contemplation of your physical and moral beauty. It lies in your own power to be Edgars brother! No, no, Isabella, you shant run off, she continued, arresting, with feigned playfulness, the confounded girl, who had risen indignantly. We were quarrelling like cats about you, Heathcliff (Bronte,E.1988,ch:10:108) Isabella, who is educated and mannered girl and lives with Catherine in one house still un aware with the affair of Catherine and Heathcliff how strange? The whole structure of the novel compels readers to think beyond the imaginations. According to Eric Solomon Wuthering Heights has an incest theme. He has written a thesis in (1959) in which, he has raised many issues to justify his opinion. He quoted Richard Chase statement. He considers that Is impossible to imagine such a stormy, undisciplined pair as Cathy and Heathcliff ever setting down to a normal life of domesticity. (Chase,R. quoted in Solomon,E.1959:80) Because of Heathcliffs black skin ton, it is not clear whether he was a gypsy or prince or devil? According to Nelly Deans narration old Earnshaw brought orphan Heathcliff to his own home. Mrs.Earnshaw did not like her husbands step. She was thinking that her husband is mad or he may be having an illegitimate child. Because it was an old tradition in 18th century the provincial slum, the waif must have had some protector then why this child was wandering alone? Erics philosophy seems right because as brother and sister they could not be get married. As a son of Mr.Earnshaw he had rights to own the property . In the middle of the story we see Heathcliff comes as an owner of Wuthering Heights. The characters of Heathcliff and Catherine can be taken as victims of fate and things were beyond with their control. Erics research might be true because he closes his research on the Cathys question. She is Heathcliff, does she mean that they are one flesh as well as one spirit? (Solomon, E. 1959:83) Emily has left many questions on readers. Now it depends on us, from which angle of Wuthering Heights do we see? Arnold Shapiro has compared Wuthering Heights with Great Expectation and Jane Eyre in (1969). His research is based on the ethical and moral traditions of the Victorian period. According to him Dickens, Charlotte and Emily have shown same issues in their writing. Like their characters have to face the problems and at the end they reach into the same conclusion. Heathcliff and Pip both are orphan alone and outcast as much as alien in the novels. Then he compares Mr.Earnshaw with Reeds, they bring stranger to their houses. Characters of Heathcliff and Jane also resembles both are looking different from everyone else therefore seems to bear a threat like Mrs.Earnshaw was ready to fling out Heathcliff and Reeds forced Jane to live with servants. Joe and Mr.Earnshaw both helped Pip and Heathcliff in many ways and it is very interesting to know that both Estella and Catherine betrayed to their lovers. In the Victorian period people were very good christens. In novel Wuthering Heights, Lint ons brought up shows that he is good in religion but when Isabella spoiled by Heathcliff and looking towards his brother, Edgar shows no humanity and ill behavior. I seek no revenge on you, replied Heathcliff, less vehemently. Thats not the plan. The tyrant grinds down his slaves and they dont turn against him; they crush those beneath them. You are welcome to torture me to death for your amusement, only allow me to amuse myself a little in the same style. (Bronte,E.1988,ch:11:114) Both Cathy and Catherine are having different natures. Catherines nature is greedy therefore she made her house on the grave of her lover while on the other hand young Cathys nature is sympathetic. As in the same way, the desires of Heathcliff are endless because he has sadistic nature. According to James Hafley villain and problem maker in Wuthering Heights is Ellen Dean. He has read Wuthering Heights in the light of new experience. Charlotte Bronte said about Nelly For a specimen of true benevolence and homely fidelity, look at the character of Nelly Dean. (Bronte,C. quoted in Hafley,J.1958:199) In my opinion, Nellys role in Wuthering Heights is very prominent. She is a nurse and narrator of the story and to write thesis on Nelly is something exceptional. The critic of this paper adds textual evidence in order to make strong his points. Nelly had an objection that why Mr.Earnshaw brought Heathcliff in home? Throughout her life she never liked Heathcliff. Joseph always notices Nellys facial expression becomes change when she is narrating about Heathcliff. She used to create problems between characters. After Catherines marriage Nelly moved with her to Thrushcross Grange. She became greedy and acted as a queen over there. A person who has not done one half his days work by ten oclock runs a chance of leaving the other half undone. (Bronte, E.1988,ch:7:69)She never tried to solve the problems of Grange house. I rang the bell and committed it to a servant care. (Bronte, E.1988,ch:17:164) She knows Heathcliff came back and now he is trying to meet with Catherine but she remained as silent and sees how Heathcliff compelled Isabella to marry him. She is also responsible when Cathy got hostile by Heathclif. I really appreciate James effort but we should remember the fact that Nelly Dean is just a poor servant of house. She has fulfilled all the duties commendably. Distortion and exaggeration are equally important topic in Wuthering Heights which lifts Heathcliff to take revenge. Heathcliff cries many times for Catherine. I cannot live without my life! I cannot live without my soul! (Bronte,E.1988,ch:17:161) Catherine also feels same for him once she spoke to Nelly that Whatever our souls are made of, his and mine are the same. (Bronte,E.1988,ch:11:86) It shows both of them truly love each other. After Catherines death her she used to haunt Heathcliff as a ghost. Despite of their physical separation, Edgar could not part them spiritually. Heathcliff shows his vindictive nature and becomes evil more than Satan. After Catherine he decides to take revenge from every one. Only Catherine could have saved because of her death. Heathcliff has tried his best to destroy Isabella, Linton, Cathy, Hareton lives. Emily over exaggerated the fear of death. For example in the beginning it was shocking to read Lockwood injured by the wild dogs. At that time peo ple were not habitual for this kind of tension. Because of this Wuthering Heights had faced criticism but ultimately novel has changed peoples mind. Now Wuthering Heights considers as classics of Victorian period. Critics appreciated the frame narration of Wuthering Heights a lot. Many researches and essays have been written on Nelly Dean. In another paper critic has expresses his thoughts. Nelly is having a very strong character in novel. She had philosopher type mind Nelly says: Proud people breed sad sorrows for themselves. (Bronte,E.1988,ch:7:64) She is not only nurse and servant but in addition she is a mother for Catherine and Hindley. She has lived all her life between moors and justified his role whether live in Grange or Wuthering Heights. Whenever Cathy needed help she always did whatever she could. She is a person of wisdom and. dignity. Once she said A good heart will help you to a bonny face, my lad, if you were a regular black; and a bad one will turn the bonniest into something worse than ugly. (Bronte,E.1988,ch:7:65) Witness of almost every incident but never cheated any one. She used to guide everyone. Bitirme Tezis writes thesis in (2009). He emphasizes on the love and isolation of Wuthering Heights. He further elaborates his research and says it can be a cause of destructive relationships in the novel. Our mind starts understanding his point of views when we closely read the novel. Isolation of Wuthering Heights recognises as have the connection of moors and hills and strong natural environment, on the other hand isolation of Thrushcross Grange is connected with the idea of lively atmosphere. Gimmerton society was the high class society in those days. Wuthering Heights had no communication with Gimmerton and they were isolated from society while the Thruchcross Grange had strongly relations with Gimmerton people. That is the reason people of Thrushcross were more educated, mannered and very much affected with the norms of 18th century. Therefore lack of association with high class strongly affected the people of Wuthering Heights. Catherine, who is poor, meets with rich Edgar, sh e impresses by his wealth and finally they get married. It seems very normal but on the wider imagination it has created differences between many people and became a cause of revenge. Wuthering Heights was very famous in Victorian period. Some readers like the novel and some not. Many critics have long list for the reasons of disliking. Infanticide and Sadism is one of the reasons. Wade Thompson has criticised the novel. I respect his views and agree with what he said about infanticide. Catherine Earnshaw is not quite eight when her mother dies; Cathy Lintons birth coincides with her mothers death; Haretons mother dies in the year of his birth; and Heathcliff is an orphan by the time he is seven. Even the children who receive motherly care throughout their childhood do not receive it long after they reach puberty. Linton Heathcliff loses his mother when he is not quite thirteen-Linton, of course, is a child all his life-and Isabella Linton is orphaned when she is fourteen. The only exceptions-and these unimportant-are Hindley Earnshaw and Edgar Linton, who are sixteen and eighteen respectively when their mothers die and even their mothers are apparently not very m otherly.(Thompson,W.1963:69) but I m not agree when he said about sadism, in my opinion Heathcliff never wanted to have an adult relation with Catherine but for his desire of revenge, he forced Linton to have relation with Catherine. Only Heathcliff and Catherine are not responsible for Linton and Catherine, Isabella and Edgar are equally responsible for the destruction. Wuthering Heights shows destructive relationships between the characters. In another essay critic has pointed out the characteristics of destructive relationship. He discusses topics like un-caring parents, jealousy and desire of revenge. His research seems right because Mr.Earnshaw was unsuccessful to maintain a balance between Hindley and Heathcliff. Another example is Hareton and Hindley. Hindley never became a good father, he had spoiled his life in drugs and because of him Hareton departed as uneducated person. The primary example of destructive relationship is Heathcliff and Linton. Once Linton says: himMy father threatened me, and I dread him I dread! (Bronte,E.1988,ch:27:244) Isabella, Heathcliff and Catherine, Edgar both couples are the example of destructive relationship. In my opinion our brought up make our life good or bad, if we have proper family atmosphere we wont be get jealous which creates ultimately a desire of revenge. The influence of childhood pervades throughout the novel. In another essay, critic has compared two generations childhood behaviour. Heathcliff, Catherine and Hindley have shared childhood together. According to Steve Davies The childhood of both protagonists Heathcliff and Catherine, haunts them in their adult lives thus affecting their interactions with and their behavior towards other people in a negative way.(customwritings.com):(b) They used to dinning and sleeping together. But because of many quarrels and jealousy their relation became dejected and vengeful. At one time Heathcliff said Im trying to settle how I shall pay Hindley back. I dont care how long I wait, if I can only do it at last. I hope he will not die before I do! (Bronte,E.1988,ch:7:69) In my point of view Emily has fully justified with the plot. One way she has shown negative impacts of these people at the end of the story then on the same way, she has opened a door of new life by showing Catherine and Hareton m arriage. They are the hope of new generation. They have overcome their bitter memories. In another essay critic expresses his views and says Wuthering Heights is a silly love story. He has given this title on the basis of two books one is written by Robert McKibben, and second is Control of Sympathy in Wuthering Heights written by John Hagan. I totally agree with his perception that only Catherine and Heathcliff should not be blame for the disasters in the story. They were passionately in love. But we all know in every love story there is always a third person who creates problems between lovers life. Edgar has played third persons role in the story. After the death of Catherine, Heathcliff used to cry and scold most of the time. Come in! come in! he sobbed. Cathy, do come. Oh, do -once more! Oh! My hearts darling, hear me this time Catherine, at last!(Bronte,E.1988,ch:3:41) Wuthering Heights gives us lesson that revenge is dangerous and harmful for our life. To conclusion, Emily Bronte has created a new world in one novel Wuthering Heights. She has shown influence of childhood, social problems, destructive relationships, violence, isolation and many others. The root cause of all these problems is Revenge. My research focuses on finding the reasons behind any act of revenge because I truly believe that God has not created men with the negative nature it is the circumstances that creates human being nature as vindictive. Since those researches which I have discussed in literature review are not adequate, therefore I have done this research. My research is not the last research on this topic I hope it will link towards new beginning. RESEARCH QUESTION: How does revenge rotate around the characters of Wuthering Heights? SIGNIFICANCE Whenever we read word revenge something negative comes in our mind and we usually fixed our mind on it. There is always a reason behind any negative behavior and that is why I have chosen this topic. My target is to find out the reasons that make the human being hard hearted and contemptuous. The Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronte is the perfect example of Revenge. We see revenge starts from the beginning of the novel and stays throughout the story. My research will compel people to change their minds and they will get to know how harmful and dangerous revenge is. If Earnshaw maintained the equality between Heathcliff and Hindley, revenge would not be raised. My research has ended on an optimistic message and people will surely take a lesson from it. ANALYSIS Chapter: 1 The Issue of Class System The social and class structure of 18th century were the same as it is today. Classes were confined into Lower, Bourgeois and Aristocrat. People from lower class were feeling reluctant because they did not get respect from the society. Bourgeois people used to degrade these people and that was the reason, both sides of people were feeling jealous for each other. Emily has created a new world by writing Wuthering Heights. She shows the actual game of our society in which everybody is running after lust. Acquiring of everything is not a new habit of human being. When we see Wuthering Heights under the roof of class structure, the cruel reality of human being comes in front of us. We see a selfish world, in which clever, arrogant, self centered and selfish people lives they think only for themselves. Everyone seems greedy for money. Lets take firstly the house of Wuthering Heights. People who lives in the house, belongs to middle class. The live of these people grows very well but one day Mr. Earnshaw brings a boy in his home by the name of Heathcliff. He does not get a warm welcome by the family members. Mrs Earnshaw was ready to fling out of doors: she did fly u, asking how she could fashion to bring that gypsy brat into the house. (Bronte,E.1988,ch:4:48) Even after so many years he fails to make strong relations with them. According to them, a black hair boy with dirty clothes comes and disturbs the smooth life of Wuthering Heights. Once Catherine says, Poor Healthcliff! Hindley calls him a vagabond and wont let him sit with us, nor eat with us anymore; and he says, he and I must not play together and threaten to runs him out of the house if we break his order. (Bronte, E.1988,ch:3:36) A very first question arises here why family members did not accept Heathcliff in the house? An answer of this question is, h e belongs to lower class or he has a black colour. Because of this weakness he did not get a chance to learn education, he lost his lover Catherine and the whole life of Heathcliff turned as disaster. Time passes, Mr. and Mrs. Earnshaw dies. Catherine and Heathcliff come nearer on the other hand Hindley appears as an enemy of Heathcliff. Catherine loves Heathcliff but she decides to marry with Edgar. Heathcliff is a poor man with no money no assets no land. On the other hand Edgar is a rich boy with everything which any girl wants after marriage. Catherine expresses her feelings with Nelly as He will be rich and I shall like to be the greatest woman of the neighbourhood, and I shall be proud of having such a husband (Bronte,E.1988,ch:8:83) If Heathcliff and I married, we should be beggars? Whereas, if I marry Linton, I can aid Heathcliff to rise, and place him out of my brothers power (Bronte,E.1988,ch:8:87) Catherine shows her greedy nature, she thinks she will live lavishly with Edgar. Heathcliff wont give her high standard living which she used to live in Wuthering Heights. Nelly was also in favour of Edgar. She thinks Heathcliff is a Worthless friend (Bronte, E.1988,ch:11:113) of Catherine. According to Derek Traversi Reflection, aided by Nelly, presents Heathcliff as what he undeniably is: a brutal creature whom she could certainly abandon with social advantage to marry the young, rich and attractive Edgar Linton. Nelly guided by her inherent good nature and by long if not particularly imaginative experience of life, maintains that Edgar is a good match, that he is socially speaking acceptable and likely to bring her to normal domestic happiness, where as he