Wednesday, October 30, 2019

ABC Company Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

ABC Company - Assignment Example As a result, a proper management of the organizational activities leads to higher competitive advantage. This paper focuses on the management of ABC Company, which is currently in a state of turmoil and poor financial condition. Moreover, the activities have eventually deviated from the organizational vision and the managers have adopted a myopic approach to achieve the short term financial goals. The paper covers all the activities needed to recover ABC Company from its poor and ill managed conditions. The organizational structure of ABC Company is vertical in nature, where information flows across the hierarchy via intermediates. The organization has been so structured that one level of hierarchy can directly communicate with only its immediately next level in the hierarchical ladder. This system allows each level to focus only in their allocated tasks and is only answerable to their immediate supervisors. Thus, it helps to increase the efficiency of the each department. The figure shown above portrays the organizational structure of ABC Company. The structure consists of four prominent levels of hierarchy and each level is allocated with a particular task which encompasses overseeing the personnel who are immediately below that level. The hierarchy begins with the CEO, who oversees the board of directors and participates in the board meetings. The major decisions proposed by the board of directors are first approved by the CEO before its implementation in the organization. The board of directors constitutes of the individuals with major stock holdings. This allows the boards to be heterogeneous and helps to avoid any biasness in decision making. The board of directors oversees a series of managers allocated to different departments. The managers are answerable to the board of directors for the departmental performances. Each manager is allocated with different teams, like HR Team, Finance Team, Marketing Team

Monday, October 28, 2019

Ethnic groups were portrayed in the media Essay Example for Free

Ethnic groups were portrayed in the media Essay During the course of looking at education, and ethnicity issues I became interested in how ethnic groups were portrayed in the media. Although I havent studied this before, I wanted to do something different, but still apply the fundamental theories which I have studied. I have noticed how there seems to be a trend with all areas involving ethnicity, and personally feel there is racism and under-representation of ethnic groups on television, and definitely inequalities in the press. The media has a huge effect on our perception of life and self-concepts, and reinforce stereotypical ideals, and it seems that ethnic minorities tend to be characterised as uneducated, illiterate and bad role-models. Therefore the aim of this research is to see how people feel about the way the media represents all ethnic groups, and whether they think they are stereotypical. My first concept is the cultural effects model which sees the media as a very powerful influence, but also sees it as very diverse, and one type of audiences response may vary to another. However, there is an anticipated response, known as the preferred reading. Those who lack experience in cultural diversity are more likely to accept what is shown and therefore make generalisations from what they see to what they think. Therefore we make generalisations or stereotypical views of different members of society. This is my second concept. A stereotype is a conventional image of a person or group. Stereotypes generally conform to a pattern of dress or behaviour. A BBC news article entitled How entertainment changed: the media and multicultural Britain addressing how the media has changed over time and gives statistics from a recent survey to the public, to their (ethnic minorities) opinions on how they are represented in the media, and also how the overall public view the medias representations. The results were promising inasmuch as the public suggested there was improvement. However, there is apparently, still a lingering feeling that Britain has a long way to go before its multiculturalism is represented properly and effectively in the media. This is relevant to the point of research since it discusses how society is responding to what the media is involving, and if it is improving or not. Since there is such a dynamic response, it suggests that stereotypes do exist, and that there has been negative representation of ethnic groups. It also gives evidence to suggest that this representation has caused a problem it has effected audience perception of sub-cultures in society. We come to expect certain behaviour or values without looking at the bigger picture, through which the media tends to overlook. The third concept is racism. The belief that race accounts for differences in human character or ability and that a particular race is superior to others is racism. The contextual research included in this is; Racism and the press by Van Dijk in 1991. Here he analyses the reporting of ethnic issues in 1985 1989, in which the press, (especially the tabloids) portrayed black people as a problem and a threat to mainstream society. The collected findings of both pieces of research generally give a depressing reading. Under-representation and stereotypical characterisation within entertainment genres and negative, problem-orientated portrayal within factuality and news forms, and a tendency to ignore structural inequalities are recurring research findings when looking into the media.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Social Time In The Life Of A Man And Society :: Philosophy Philosophical Essays Sociology

Social Time In The Life Of A Man And Society ABSTRACT: The subject of this paper is social time-the peculiarities of the Past-Present-Future in social processes, and their unbreakable connection. I also focus on the necessity of taking stock of time in human activities and in the societal development. The Past in progress of society signifies the Already-happened which has become the possession of history. This Past exerts an enormous influence on the Present, determining it both directionally and functionally. The Present includes the Present itself, a part of the Past, and some elements of the Future. It represents the only reality for human beings as life is lived in the Present only. The Present creates the material and spiritual preconditions for the Future. Resolution of contemporary global problems is crucial for our Future which runs sequentially in three stages: immediate Future, visible Future and distant Future. All three exert influence on the Present by providing ideological and informational images. Time disciplin es our minds and wills, organizes our actions and promotes our cognitions of the Past, the Present and the Future. All the scientific philosophical systems, worked out in the history of mankind, have a big methodological and educational meaning. Separate categories, like social time, having attributive qualities are not an exception. Everyone: a scientist, a politician, an ordinary person, the whole mankind can't help taking into account the factor of time in their life and activities. We can say that they need it like the air to breath. That is why time was investigated in the theoretical systematized form by well-known philosophers and scientists of the past centuries - Aristotle, Augustine, Kant, Newton, Hegel, Marx, and ones of the Modern Age - Einstein, Russell, Heiddeger, Spirkin, etc. Each of them contributed to the understanding of time and its qualities. The most important issues of the past can be summarized in the following statements. Time is an attribute of the matter, its integral quality; time is indissolubly connected with space and motion; there is no "absolute" time in the material world. Time in the form of category, being abstract, can exist only in the theory and be used in scientific purposes. Time has important qualities: objectivity, that is it exists as the matter irrespective of our will and consciousness; it is characterized by the eternity of its duration - it has neither begging nor end; and it is contradictory. The latter means: from the one hand, time is eternal, on the other hand, all objects and processes exist for a certain time and have an end.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Re-organization and Layoff Team Discussion & Summary Essay

Mismanaged layoffs can go ‘horribly wrong.’ The effect of mismanaged LAYOFFs on the remaining workforce and the effects, lack of management preparation, the human condition, and lack of mitigation strategies. We think that the problem with this article is that not enough managers or HR personal, know how to let a person go from their employment effectively. They sometimes don’t realize the impact that it has on the other employees morals. Also, that sometimes companies don’t take a closer look to make sure downsizing will be the answer to cutting costs like they think that it will. Every HR or manager should be let go in their lifetime so that they know what it feels like. I believe that this statement holds tremendous merit because the best lessons in life are learned through personal experience. In order to adequately communicate life changing messages of sorts, it should be done by a seasoned manager. I will be very surprised if any company has a potential layoff learning path that will coach and train the management staff for these kinds of things. It is imperative to be sensitive to the individual being laid off as this will impact their livelihood significantly. I do agree that other options much is explored such as relocating or wage cuts before making the decision to lay off people. The Problem Layoffs create uncertainty in the workforce causing loss of productivity in remaining the remaining workforce. The article addresses that a manager’s approach is paramount; we don’t disagree with this sentiment, but I don’t see it as a large of an issue as the author of the article. If a company is at a point where they are laying off employees, all other options should have been exhausted. The author writes the article from the position that managers don’t know how manage and that layoff are ineffective. I agree layoffs are not useful, but an amount of respect or approach refinement is  going to make the loss of income any easier; I compare that to putting lipstick on a pig. Trying to make a bad situation easier is often more disrespectful than being direct. Firing is something that is done privately and should be kept confident between the manager and the employee being let go. If a manager is letting, someone go for the right reasons the example should be evident to the employees as cause and effect; being held accountable for their actions. If the Manager is abusing their hiring/firing authority that would affect employee morale; forced silence, uncertainty, etc. Problem Solutions The options that were covered in the group discussion I feel very informative. When it comes to releasing someone, whether it is a termination or a layoff, it was discussed if training for those types of situations would be suitable, or if one could even prepare to carry out something of that delicate nature. You can train someone how to do anything, but that does not necessarily mean it will be conducted in the manner it was taught. I think it all highly depends on the situation and the individual who is delivering the news to the employee. The author’s best point is one of the best solutions; transparency. Managers should allow people the autonomy of reacting, working through, and coping with a layoff in their own way. Transparency is the most respectful approach that management can take as it shows them the truth of the situation and explains the steps being taken and why. I would add rather than trying to find another position within the company as suggested (the company is already struggling!?) they could offer employment assistance to other enterprises; communicate with other organizations in the same industry to identify openings that people would fit into well. They could put together a communications package that shows them what benefits are available, assistance programs, etc.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

A Sunday on La Grande Jatte

A Sunday on La Grande Jatte, 1884 Georges Seurat A Sunday on La Grande Jatte medium's is an oil on canvas artwork painted by Georges Seurat for two years. His technique is basically painterly. It depicts realistic experiences of people at that time while having a relaxing Sunday in a suburban park in an island in Seine River. For some, it is as if Seurat wanted the ‘characters’ in his work to parade in nature. The elements that are highlighted in the painting are texture, value, and color. Georges Seurat used the form of painting called divisionism or most commonly known as pointilism. He was the first to use such form.This form projects a certain kind of rough texture for the artwork. The importance of value is given significance in portraying the feeling of the painting, giving it a certain feel of tranquility. Color is largely seen on how a serene Sunday should feel, happy and full of positive emotions. The painting's subject matter conveys the peacefulness the people at that time felt, how the people just slowly walk or sit around inhaling the beauty of their surroundings. It is basically a 2D painting in form. The painting literally communicates the calmness of that particular day. Looking at it makes you calm and reminiscing.Seurat’s work of art portrays a serene, calming moment where different kinds of people gather in the shoreline of an island in Seine River, taking pleasure in a Sunday afternoon. The artist’s seeming ‘cast’ composed of soldiers, boaters, the fashionably and casually dressed, the old and the young, families, couples, and single man and women. It appears to be that he is trying to assemble a certain kind of community consisting of different class of people. What is notable in this canvas is the characters’ explicit lack of interaction suggesting that it is because of their diverse class order.Seurat suggests starting a revolution in Impressionism, making his subjects like those in ancient G reeks live and move in a modern setting. The artist used oil paint in order to finish his work. His reverence for the material is evident on how he used it in a unique manner thus creating a certain kind of style called pointillism. A Sunday on La Grande Jatte serves as the start of Neo-Impressionism at the 19th century where Impressionism is widely popular. While both of them values the depiction of realism in painting and canvas, Neo-Impressionism differs because it is more defined and more conservative.As a whole, the painting exudes such immense harmony to people which particularly why I become fond of it. It also gives you an expression of anonymity, making you feel like you also want to have a piece of what the characters or the people in the painting are experiencing. In all fairness, the artwork gives calmness to people and serene to troubled heart. Sources: The Art Institute of Chicago http://www. artic. edu/aic/exhibitions/seurat/seurat_themes. html Artble http://www. artb le. com/artists/georges_seurat/paintings/a_sunday_afternoon_on_the_island_of_la_grande_jatte

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Warm-Up Activities and Fillers for the French Classroom

Warm-Up Activities and Fillers for the French Classroom Most language teachers find that there is a bit of dead time during class. This may occur at the beginning of class, as the students are arriving; at the end of class, as they are thinking about leaving; and right in the middle of class, when transitioning from one lesson to another. During this dead time, the best option is to spend five or ten minutes on a short, interesting activity. Teachers from all over have shared some great ideas for warm-up and filler activities- take a look. Building Sentences Put together the parts of a sentence. Categories List all of the vocabulary in a particular category. Conversations Pair off for short discussions. Meet Your Neighbor Practice greetings and personal details with other students. Music Videos Watch and discuss French music videos. Name Game Learn all of the students names. Quotations Discuss quotations by famous Francophones. Repetitions Have students repeat a list of vocabulary.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Free Essays on Iago - Othello

, Iago’s only reason for destroying Othello is that Iago is an inherently bad person. The conversations that Iago has with Roderigo and Cassio show that Iago invents reasons for his actions against Othello, so that his own selfish ends can be met. Iago’s first dialog with Roderigo serves as an introduction to Iago’s plan. In this scene the reader learns that Rod... Free Essays on Iago - Othello Free Essays on Iago - Othello As villain in Shakespeare’s play Othello, Iago has two main actions. They are to plot and to deceive. Iago hates Othello for two reasons. He believes that Othello made love to his wife, and Iago is mad that Cassio was chosen to be Lieutenant instead of himself. From this hate comes the main conflict of the play. Iago plans to ruin Othello by carrying out a plan based on lies and deceit. This plan will make Iago the only person that Othello believes he can trust, and Iago will use this trust to manipulate Othello. First, Iago plans to remove Cassio from his position as lieutenant so that he himself take over Cassio’s position as confidant and Lieutenant to Othello. Then Iago hopes to convince Othello that Cassio and Desdemona are having an affair. If Iago’s plan unfolds properly, he will be granted the revenge that he believes he deserves. Iago’s plan and his motives are disclosed through a series three of conversations. He speaks with Roderigo twice and Ca ssio once. These three conversations show how Iago manipulates others to gain his own ends, and they also give motives for Iago’s behaviour. The conversations all follow the same pattern. Iago first speaks with Roderigo and Cassio to forward his plan, and then Iago has a soliloquy in which he discusses his motives. Iago states that the reasons for his hate are that Othello slept with Emilia and Cassio was chosen to be Othello’s Lieutenant. However, Iago’s actions lead to ends that do not revenge his given motives. Coleridge calls Iago’s actions "the motive-hunting of a motiveless malignity" . In other words, Iago’s only reason for destroying Othello is that Iago is an inherently bad person. The conversations that Iago has with Roderigo and Cassio show that Iago invents reasons for his actions against Othello, so that his own selfish ends can be met. Iago’s first dialog with Roderigo serves as an introduction to Iago’s plan. In this sc ene the reader learns that Rod...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Weak Electrolyte Definition and Examples

Weak Electrolyte Definition and Examples A weak electrolyte is an electrolyte that does not completely dissociate in  aqueous  solution. The solution will contain both ions and molecules of the electrolyte. Weak electrolytes only partially ionize in water (usually 1% to 10%), while strong electrolytes completely ionize (100%).   Weak Electrolyte Examples HC2H3O2 (acetic acid), H2CO3 (carbonic acid), NH3 (ammonia), and H3PO4 (phosphoric acid) are all examples of weak electrolytes. Weak acids and weak bases are weak electrolytes. In contrast, strong acids, strong bases, and salts are strong electrolytes. Note a salt may have low solubility in water, yet still be a strong electrolyte because the amount that does dissolve completely ionizes in water. Acetic Acid as a Weak Electrolyte Whether or not a substance dissolves in water is not the determining factor in its strength as an electrolyte. In other words, dissociation and dissolution are not the same things. For example, acetic acid (the acid found in vinegar) is extremely soluble in water. However, most of the acetic acid remains intact as its original molecule rather than its ionized form, ethanoate (CH3COO-). An equilibrium reaction plays a big role in this. Acetic acid dissolves in water an ionizes into ethanoate and the hydronium ion, but the equilibrium position is to the left (reactants are favored). In other words, when ethanoate and hydronium form, they readily return to acetic acid and water: CH3COOH H2O ⇆ CH3COO- H3O The small amount of product (ethanoate) makes acetic acid a weak electrolyte rather than a strong electrolyte.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Article Example It also assists local and state education organizations in advancing their statistical systems, and examine and report on educational activities in different nations. The main focus of this report is to look at gaps in educational participation and attainment between males and females of different races. This report is relevant to my research in that it will also examine children in poverty and minority groups and education. It asserts that postsecondary attendance rates are largely lower for students from various racial and ethnical groups and lower socioeconomic backgrounds in comparison to Asians and Whites. In 2010, as consistently since 1980, a limited number of male than female 18-24 year olds were either enrolled in graduate school or college. There is also a difference in postsecondary attainment for females and males. According to the report, in 2010, 21% of children under age 18 were living in poverty. The poverty rate for people who were non-white was higher than that of t he white population. This prevented the underprivileged population from accessing higher education (Ross & Kena 2012, p. 5). . College Student Alliance, 2011, Breaking barriers: a strategy for equal access to higher education, College Student Alliance. Retrieved from This is a suitable academic resource because a large number of students from numerous groups are still under represented in colleges, universities, and other institutions of higher learning. According to this resource, students from various groups are not efficiently represented in higher institutions of education in Ontario. In line with the resource, enhancing access to higher education for the underrepresented groups is largely perceived to be necessary in establishing a more equitable society and to challenging in the increasingly knowledge based economy. The last ten years has witnessed a tremendous increase in research on people who are not pursuing higher education, reasons for not attending, and ways to promote their participation. People experience interplay between different complicated barriers. They may be motivational, informational, and financial barriers. Financial barriers comprise debt aversion in an aid system or lack of funds to pursue higher education. Informational barriers entail insufficient information regarding financial assistance, mainly, benefits, and costs. 80% of learners aged between 20 and 24 from households earning more than $100,000 pursue higher education and 60% of learners from households earning below $25,000 pursue higher education. Almost half of youth in the top income quarter attend university in comparison a quarter of the youth in the lower income quartile. Among the recommendations include, one, the Ontario government commit to have secondary school learners visit a campus as part of the curriculum. Two, the government should continue aiding early outreach as a way of acce ssing post-secondary education. Three, the government should set an objective for the education system to augment post-secondary participation rates (College Student Alliance 2011, p. 30). Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission, 2013, Higher education: the fair access challenge,

Ethical Principles Underlying Leadership Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Ethical Principles Underlying Leadership - Essay Example According to the study it is common for healthcare facilities to update their work plans to follow a set of guidelines to conform to high quality standards. However, it is also expected that some members of the institutions in question would raise their points on opposing the implementation of changes within their healthcare system. An example of such changes met with strong opposition was mentioned in detail, where medical personnel were made to conform to evidence-based practices in dealing with their patients. The situation showed how their autonomy in handling patients was violated, but while there were major changes in how to deal with patients, there was still enough autonomy left for the healthcare personnel in the scenario, and that they could still take care of their patients in whatever way they deem fit. On a personal experience, in terms of fidelity and autonomy, the author had to face some problems with regards to handling patients under palliative care and their familie s. The physician handling the case wanted to fully inform the family as well as the patient of the expected life span after several failed chemotherapy sessions. The author voiced concern over the ethical aspect of such, and added explanations that it could prove stressful to both the family and the patient if they knew exactly that the time to be spent together was limited. In the end, to remain honest with the patient and family a compromise was made in telling them of the situation, though some parts of the truth such as estimated timeframe were held back so as not to add stress. Telling them about the shorter lifespan was better than not telling them about it at all, and that this helps them to prepare in the event that the patient suddenly expire within the expected time frame, showing how ethics and fidelity can come together in the provision of care. Answer to Discussion Question 2: Non-malfeasance has been defined as one of the basic principles in healthcare that requires pr oviders to do the patient not any kind of harm, however, the vagueness of the term creates problems in determining whether actions done for patients are harmful or not (Monagle & Thomasma, 2004). This means that harm becomes a relatively subjective term, and what may work for one patient might fail in another’s case. This is one reason why patients normally put their complete trust on medical personnel in keeping them safe, no matter if they would be harmed or not. It is expected that

Friday, October 18, 2019

Sexual Harassment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Sexual Harassment - Essay Example The concept of sexual harassment is a conventional phenomenon, which first appeared in the 1970s in United States. The concept also appeared later in 1986 in Europe. The aspect of sexual harassment brought forth a possibility of both positive and negative effects on the society in entirety and on organizations and individuals in particular. This led to increasing attention on the subject from both researchers and organizations alike. Sexual harassment is a severe contravention on the rights of workers with unpleasant and degrading experiences, which often result in emotional and psychological trauma. Generally, sexual harassment is described as the conduct of a sexual nature, which is unwelcome, and aims at intimidating, embarrassing, degrading the victim. Furthermore, sexual harassment creates hostile working conditions for the victim, which eventually hinders productivity and social exchanges within the organization (Australian Human Rights Commission, 2013). Australia human rights commission holds that an individual sexually harasses the other when: 1. The individual makes an undesirable sexual progress or unwanted sexual request for sexual favors to the harassed. Circumstances to be considered might include, but not restricted to; (a) age, sex, sexual preference, color, race, ethnic origin and religious belief of the harassed person. (b) The association involving the person and the individual who started the progress or appeal or who involved in the behavior. (c) Disability of the harassed person or other pertinent circumstance. 2. The harasser participates in unwarranted manner of a sexual character in relation to the harassed person. Sexual harassment is an intense problem in the contemporary workplace that is increasing at a high pace. Thousands of males and females come forward every year to report their sexual harassment and employers and other state agencies. In the beginning of sexual harassment in 1970s, researchers anticipated that one in every two women would become a sufferer of sexual aggravation in the job environment. The quantity of employees who lodge complaints of sexual aggravation in the private and public labor force remains high. Discrimination in employment has been increasing over the decades, but sexual harassment has currently been the basis of 33 percent of all harassment claims (Boland, 2005) according to the national agency charged with examining sexual aggravation in the place of work. The cost of sexual harassment is very expensive to both the employer and the individual being harassed. The United States department of labour holds that millions of dollars are lost in job opportunities, and more are lost in awards after harassment cases. Types and forms of sexual harassment One of the most arising questions on the aspect of sexual aggravation in the office seeks to answer what specific behaviors amount to sexual harassment. However, studies today look at the broader range of sociosexual actions in the work place as well as the conditions highlighted above for advances of sexual harassment. In establishing whether sexual harassment occurred or not, there has to be a complete analysis of actions patterns and aspects that are unwanted. In defining the term sexual harassment, request for sexual favors, sexually oral and physical behavior, as well as the sexual advance must to be ‘unwelcome’. This implies that the person complaining of sexual har

WOMANS SUFFRAGE MOVMENT Annotated Bibliography Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

WOMANS SUFFRAGE MOVMENT - Annotated Bibliography Example t ran a historical analysis of this occurrence and allowed for a biopic into how women’s suffrage has impacted the United States and the world since that time. Although it is clear that the United States was not the first system to allow women’s suffrage, the article argues for the fact that its global position of power and dominance helped to spread this practice and acceptance faster than it would otherwise have been spread. Similar to the 100th anniversary discussion that was engaged, the 75 anniversary piece was included due to the fact that it helps to detail the differential in understanding women’s suffrage that has taken place within the past 25 years. Through such a unit of analysis, the reader is able to appreciate the evolutionary process by which an understanding of the suffrage movement has changed and shifted within the recent past. Fraser, Steve, and Joshua B. Freeman. "IN THE REARVIEW MIRROR: The Counter-Revolution Against "Mobocracy."  New Labor Forum (Murphy Institute)  21.2 (2012): 105-108.Academic Search Complete. Web. 12 Oct. 2013. This article references the main argument that many men of the era made against allowing women the right to vote; namely the belief that allowing women to vote would result in a type of â€Å"mob rule†. Naturally, by deconstructing this argument and showing how this ultimately did not come to pass, the author is able to shed additional light on the way in which antagonism towards women voting was evidenced during the turn of the century. This particular article discusses the fact that the United States was unique in the fact that it gave certain minorities the right to vote prior to women. In discussing the topic in such a way, the reader is made aware of the obvious levels and overtones of sexism that existed within the United States and caused the women’s suffrage movement to be delayed as long as it

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Is it possible to overcome Euthyphro's Dilemma Explain Research Paper

Is it possible to overcome Euthyphro's Dilemma Explain - Research Paper Example From then onwards, the segregation of right and wrong started in this world. Socrates has once asked a difficult question to Euthyphro about morality or ethics. â€Å"Almost all the objections to theistic ethics can be thought to derive from the famous Euthyphro dilemma†(Bagget and Walls, p.4). In a conversation between Euthyphro and Socrates Euthyphro asserts that â€Å"holiness is what all the gods love, and unholiness is what they hate (Joyce, p.50). Socrates asked him a confusing question; "Is the pious being loved by the gods because it is pious, or is it pious because it is being loved by the gods?"  (Bagget and Walls, p.32). In other words, Euthyphro faced the dilemma of whether to define morality in terms of will of God, or it should be perceived as the actions of God. Plenty of theologian and philosophers struggled to explain or answer Euthyphro’s dilemma. This paper analyses the above question in a philosophical manner and explores the possibilities of over coming this dilemma. Before answering the question of morality, it is necessary to discuss something about God. No science or technology has yet succeeded in unveiling the mysteries surrounding life before birth and life after death. If the soul is the driving force behind human body, what happens to our soul after our death is often a confusing question. ... For example, a computer or robot cannot work properly without instructions from humans even though it may have superior abilities. In other words, computers or robots may never become superior to humans. Same way God is always superior to us because of his superior power and abilities which are beyond the grasping power of humans. Now come to the question; Is the pious being loved by the gods because it is pious, or is it pious because it is being loved by the gods?. The answer should be the first one. Even though God knows everything happening in this world, he is not interfering in all things happening on earth. Bible and Quran have references about the existences of evil forces in this world. Many people have the doubt that if God is a holy entity, then why he permitted the interactions of evil forces in this world which is created by God. The evil forces always try to increase their strength by forcing people to commit sins in order to question the authorities of God. On the othe r hand, God has no necessities to strengthen his kingdom with the help of external forces since no external forces can challenge his supremacy ever. The evil forces are making a desperate effort to challenge God’s supremacy. God sent the human to this world with a mission. He wanted only the right people in his eternal kingdom. Earth is a laboratory for God in which the reactants like humans and evil forces interact each other. These interactions will create certain products, which may be analyzed by the God later. Those who succeeded in defeating the efforts of evil forces may join God in his kingdom, whereas others will be destroyed in this world itself. In order to conduct his testing process successfully, God allows evil forces to make their own efforts to

Court Administrator and his Problems in Organization Problems Essay - 1

Court Administrator and his Problems in Organization Problems - Essay Example Thus, I would suggest that there be a secret balloting to identify the decisions of the judges on certain matters then, a decision can be reached. One way to improve the communication throughout the organization is first identifying what type of communication does the organization need and prefer. There should also be activities that would be able to help the employees to release their stress. There are several activities that can be done, like, sports events. There can also be a welcome party for the incoming judge and a farewell for the outgoing. This can promote camaraderie among employees. I can solicit suggestions and ideas from Judge Cortez on what she thinks regarding the disputes among the employees. These are valuable insights that might be able to provide the court administrator with an initiative on how to solve the problems. For Judge Cortez’ successor, these proposals can be made so that s/he would be able to start or continue the reconciliation efforts among the offices of the court. 1. In a general way, discuss both the merits and difficulties posed by this case management approach. Relate your response to the general advantages and disadvantages of both the individual and the master calendar systems. One of the greatest advantages of the individual calendar system is that it is easier to pin down delay. One can easily match up to judges’ dockets to find out what are the developments of the cases, whether it is moving or not. On the other hand, the master calendar systems’ highlight is that judges who specialize in a specific phase of the proceedings can be allowed to handle such. Although both systems also carry disadvantages like for the individual calendar system the speed of the disposition of cases depends on the judges. For the master calendar system, the disadvantage lies in the lack of the way to see where the delay is.  

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Is it possible to overcome Euthyphro's Dilemma Explain Research Paper

Is it possible to overcome Euthyphro's Dilemma Explain - Research Paper Example From then onwards, the segregation of right and wrong started in this world. Socrates has once asked a difficult question to Euthyphro about morality or ethics. â€Å"Almost all the objections to theistic ethics can be thought to derive from the famous Euthyphro dilemma†(Bagget and Walls, p.4). In a conversation between Euthyphro and Socrates Euthyphro asserts that â€Å"holiness is what all the gods love, and unholiness is what they hate (Joyce, p.50). Socrates asked him a confusing question; "Is the pious being loved by the gods because it is pious, or is it pious because it is being loved by the gods?"  (Bagget and Walls, p.32). In other words, Euthyphro faced the dilemma of whether to define morality in terms of will of God, or it should be perceived as the actions of God. Plenty of theologian and philosophers struggled to explain or answer Euthyphro’s dilemma. This paper analyses the above question in a philosophical manner and explores the possibilities of over coming this dilemma. Before answering the question of morality, it is necessary to discuss something about God. No science or technology has yet succeeded in unveiling the mysteries surrounding life before birth and life after death. If the soul is the driving force behind human body, what happens to our soul after our death is often a confusing question. ... For example, a computer or robot cannot work properly without instructions from humans even though it may have superior abilities. In other words, computers or robots may never become superior to humans. Same way God is always superior to us because of his superior power and abilities which are beyond the grasping power of humans. Now come to the question; Is the pious being loved by the gods because it is pious, or is it pious because it is being loved by the gods?. The answer should be the first one. Even though God knows everything happening in this world, he is not interfering in all things happening on earth. Bible and Quran have references about the existences of evil forces in this world. Many people have the doubt that if God is a holy entity, then why he permitted the interactions of evil forces in this world which is created by God. The evil forces always try to increase their strength by forcing people to commit sins in order to question the authorities of God. On the othe r hand, God has no necessities to strengthen his kingdom with the help of external forces since no external forces can challenge his supremacy ever. The evil forces are making a desperate effort to challenge God’s supremacy. God sent the human to this world with a mission. He wanted only the right people in his eternal kingdom. Earth is a laboratory for God in which the reactants like humans and evil forces interact each other. These interactions will create certain products, which may be analyzed by the God later. Those who succeeded in defeating the efforts of evil forces may join God in his kingdom, whereas others will be destroyed in this world itself. In order to conduct his testing process successfully, God allows evil forces to make their own efforts to

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

MITOSISMEIOSIS Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

MITOSISMEIOSIS - Lab Report Example This is followed by separation of daughter cells. Meiosis is the type of cell division by which germ cells (eggs and sperm) are produced. Meiosis was first observed by the Belgian cytologist Pierre-Joseph van Beneden in 1887. Meiosis involves a reduction in the amount of genetic material. It comprises two successive nuclear divisions with only one round of DNA replication. One parent cell, at the end of one meiotic division, produces four daughter cells. Daughter cells have half the number of chromosomes found in the original parent cell and with crossing over, are genetically different. Meiosis differs from mitosis primarily because there are two cell divisions in meiosis, resulting in cells with a haploid number of chromosomes. Cell division is especially rapid in the growing root tips of sprouting seeds. The chromosomes in dividing root tip cells can be demonstrated if, after sprouting seeds or bulbs,and harvesting the young root tips, and then fix, acid digest, stain, squash, and view them under a microscope. The root tip is the place of intense mitotic activity. This region is three dimensional and individual cells cannot be seen. It is therefore necessary to separate the cells out into a thin layer. Plant cells are glued together by the middle lamella of calcium pectate. Hydrochloric acid will dissolve this calcium pectate but leave the cellulose cell wall unaffected. In addition the acid kills and fixes the cell contents in position. Acetic orcein stains nuclei and not the cytoplasm. 1. The apical 5mm from the tip of a growing lateral root of a broad bean was carefully cut. 2. The root tip was placed in a watch glass containing acetic orcein stain and 1mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid in the approximate proportions 10 parts stain to 1 part acid. 3. Allowed to warm for five minutes by passing repeatedly through a low Bunsen flame. 4. The fixed root tip was placed on a microscope slide and two drops of acetic orcein were added. 5. The root tip was broken up without destroying the arrangement of the cells, and the root tip was spread out as thinly as possible. 6. A cover slip was placed over the root tip, and covered it with blotting paper and squashed gently by pushing down on the cover slip. 7. The slide was warmed gently to intensify the stain, by quickly passing through a low Bunsen burner flame a few times. 8. The slide was examined for identifying any stage of mitosis. Results Mitosis The four phases of mitosis- Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase- were observed under the microscope. The different phases were identified based on the unique chromatin organization features: 1. Interphase: Each chromosome undergoes replication, making an identical copy of itself. At this point, the chromosomes are still long and thin, and are not visible inside the nucleus. Cells spend most of their life in this non-reproductive phase. 2. Prophase: The chromosomes coil and shorten, and become visible. It becomes apparent that the chromosomes have duplicated. Pairs of identical chromosomes remain

Monday, October 14, 2019

Television And American Society Essay Example for Free

Television And American Society Essay Introduction Television Programs are aimed at entertainment. In the United States, most of the television programs in existence with the stated aims and objectives, owe their initial background to the practical situation and past experiences encountered by the blacks. When blacks are mentioned, the issue of racial discrimination automatically opens chapter.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The initial situation and experiences of the blacks is characterized by racial discrimination.   The initial social positions, the blacks were housemaids, whites’ cooks, whites’ â€Å"mammies† and other sorts of servants.    They were also seen as con artists and even deadbeats.  Ã‚  Ã‚   The technology of the televisions came up in some environment, which was completely unfamiliar to these blacks. The blacks occupied less inferior positions of baby sitters and nurturers for the white, to cater and manage the households of the whites and to the greater degree, restoration of balance and harmony in the house holds of the whites.   The whites were very comfortable to entrust the black on these roles.   However, more responsible social and civic responsibilities were denied the blacks by the whites. (Durham Kellner, 450) The blacks had an appreciated talent to amuse the whites through humor and this is the most significant tool to their success in the maintenance of humor in television programs. The black and the Whites occupied separate and unequal worlds in their existence, in terms of material and discursive attributes. Television programs and Blackness The programs aimed at entertainment in the United States are a good avenue to pass the information on intertextual and autobiographical issues of the blacks. (Durham Kellner, 452)   The blacks possesses an inherent talent of creating humor in a show whose amusement is so strong as to blind the culturally offensive message put across by the show.   The show exhibing blackness covers the institutional and cultural programs all of which are characterized by race and gender. The centre of interest in these television programs is the African American in all areas of its setting; aesthetic, context and narrative.   (Newcomb, 564)   The highlights of the entertainment programs usually attack fields such as class, gender, religion, colour and culture all visionalized, in the dominant angel of social location and cultural context to the African American (Williams, 110) The television program raises an attitude of hegemony whereby social and cultural forces emerge as influencing factors of political rule and domination.   Through these television entertainment programs, the actors make use of their physical and material resources, very inherent and talented towards an entertainment to others.   The recipient society interprets the presentation as an art, an entertainment or leisure. These people see the natural world as being internal to them and also in direct personal relationships with other people they encounter.   (Williams, 112) According to hegemony dominant messages inherent in African Americans are disguised as fictional entertainment in the United States.   These are a great assumption taken with respect to this scenario that the sender and the receiver interpret the message of the program in the same understanding.   The sender is making use of the inherent talent of humor and experience to come up with a message whose consequences are of political concern, since the control of these messages is a form of political control.   The audience of the program may come up with multiple meanings of the message that were not a priory.   Examined, controlled for or asked for (Newcomb, 565)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The television programs are a form of ritual communication whose aim and goal is to maintain the society and to represent the shared beliefs of the society.   The programs create an invisibility of the African American and an authorized representation by the white of the blackness. The television programs portray blackness and black themes for the purposes of entertainment to the whites due to the humorous attribute associated with the Africans.   The white producers take this advantage of audience appreciation and they stage the African humor at the expense of blacks.   The black Americans are left suffering out of the social problems confronting them.   The humor in the programs is out of the programs highlights of racism and sexism, which have got great social impact and cultural meaning to the audience. (Williams, 110) The programs present blacks playing subservient roles in the society and stereotyping the blacks while still the humor out these is enjoyed.   In first instances amusement created by the program blinds the offensive side.   Cultural and racial politics in the programs is the cause of humor to the whites.   The programs cores are further unfair to the African Americans by considering just as minor and a coincidental theme of the play, the social and the cultural facts of â€Å"blackness† It is the responsibility of every means of communication to uplift the ethical and moral standards of the society.   This target is practically defeated by the television programs aimed at entertaining the audience as part of leisure.   The televisions present programs, which highlight the use of drugs. Involvement in sex, acts of rebellion and extreme deviance behavior of the individuals. These issues are humorous and attract the audience but the far reaching consequences are towards the lowering of the ethical and moral standards of the society.   The programs also exhibit a sense of upward social mobility of the blacks and the replacement of black urban poverty with middle class affluence and yet retain the humor of the audience.   (Newcomb, 568)   Conflicts as age and suspicion based on race and colour are associated to the central elements of the contemporary America way of life by the programs.   This portrays the life of Americans to be a type of middle class family life (Newcomb, 569) The Americans are making all efforts to fight all form of racial and class discrimination.   The Americans are also determined to fight gender discrimination in terms of sex and age.   The social ills of drug abuse sexual abuse, deviance and rebellion are also practically out of the Americans policies.   However the television programs structure and viewpoint are contributing factors to defeat these aims and objectives. They portray to the world what is the position of African Americans, which is not a part of the modern American society.   The views and perspectives of these programs highlight the social locations and experiences subjected to the African Americans.   The program highlight situation comedy, variety, talks among others, which in totality operate vividly, and comfortably within the conventional and aesthetic boundaries of African Americans. (Newcomb, 570)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Morality issues circumvent around racism and this is a representation of the blacks in the society as per the television programs in the United States.   The television programs also features badly on the state of education and unemployment as negatively affecting the African Americans in the urban areas of the United States.   The programs also fail to address some very crucial issues that affect so many blacks in the United States. The audiences are not restricted to the programs representation of the African Americans and therefore they should be examined and their effects of derailing the meanings and pleasures correctly checked. The blacks’ presence in the United States is threatened with race, gender, class and power and inequalities related to these are a result of prejudice. (Newcomb, 571) Racial invisibility and colour blindness integrate Black characters into hegemonic white worlds.   This appeal to visions of colour blindness and universal harmony.   The uniqueness of the blacks in the shows is the appealing factor to create humor and a sense of fitness in a normative television universe.   The inherent victimization, anger and irrationality in the blacks at the shows, due to the pains of exclusion from society are a cause of humor to the audience.   This in the truest sense is racial prejudice.   (Durham Kellner, 447)   In the programs the whites acts the position of sympathizers for the elimination of this prejudice. The programs subvert American values bearing in mind that the effect of any communication is to persuade the audience to change attitudes, to modify behaviour and to take part in socialization. Any form of communication helps to maintain the values of a society and to represent the shared beliefs. These programs are responsible for production of dominant ideologies so influential as to take the audience into a dreamland. (Williams, 110) Conclusion The programs bring out the blacks as living simple and linearly dimensional lives in a segregated universe.   They are seen to be subjected to the challenges of domestic lives such as child rearing, embarrassments, and awkward situations among others.   Modern America is reduced to ancient behaviours of race relationships characterized by conflict, tension and apartheid and the African Americans dependent on cultural pluralism.   These programs make use of cultural politics within blackness to constantly modify the African Americans life, and comprehensively explain the position of an American from the point of view of an African American. Works cited page Horace Newcomb. Television the critical view. Oxford University press, New York Oxford. 2000. Meenakshi Gigi Durham,   Douglas M. Kellner. Media and Cultural Studies. Blackwell publishers.2001 Raymond Williams. Marxism and Literature. Oxford University press New York. 1997

Sunday, October 13, 2019

The Manifestations Of Globalisation Politics Essay

The Manifestations Of Globalisation Politics Essay Mittelman (2000, p 15) states that The manifestations of globalisation include the spatial reorganization of production, the interpenetration of industries across borders, the spread of financial markets, the diffusion of identical consumer goods to distant countries, massive transfers of population-mainly within the South as well as from the South and the East to the West, and an emerging worldwide (though not universal) preference for democracy. This introduction will highlight and lightly touch on the key points and arguments being raised, all of which will be elaborated on further in the body of the essay. We will first look at the impact globalization has had on the world. Globalization is merely a result of the mobility of three of the four factors of production, these factors being labour, capital and enterprise. However the globalization of business has led to an emerging global culture as ideas and knowledge are transported throughout the world. This emerging culture, coupled with the need for laws and regulation has given birth to the ideology of Global Governance (Bertucci, Alberti). As the trade procedures grew and crossed borders, where practices and cultures differed, there came the need for an international norm. As with anything new in this world, there will be arguments both for and against, however it is undeniable that the topic of globalization is a controversial one. The hyperglobalist would argue that free trade creates opportunities for global prosperity, peace and development and that both parties benefit from the mobilisation of trade, (Moore, 2003, p 9). On the other side of the coin, however, the globalization sceptics argue that one party loses out (usually the developing nations) and the rise of Global Governance poses a threat to a countrys sovereignty as some economies become interdependent or even reliant on Foreign Direct Investment. (Martell, 2010) Further arguments involve exploitation of the labour market and human rights violations all in the name of competitive advantage. Brune (2005) states that globalization has led to a drastic increase in child labour, sweatshops and other unethical practices as developing nations race for economic development, and so called first-world status. Finally we will look at the most pressing issue on the horizon today the environment. Many believe that the rapid spread of business and economic development is destroying the natural environment, thus raising the argument of sustainable growth. All these issues affect not only the business world, but the state too, and have given rise to International Governance Institutions which in simple terms serve to regulate, mediate and facilitate trade. The pre-globalisation state: Traditional functions of the central government The general assumption is that the government is a representation of a nation and that it is their job to uphold the rights of their people. Sliglitz states simply that the role of the state 150 years ago was to build the national economy and promote nation-building. Before globalization, the law began and ended with the government; it was the state that decided what policies to introduce, what laws to impose and enforce, how trade would be handled and mostly the degree of democracy within the country. The state preciously functioned on self interest, having no forceful external pressures meant that governance was a localised aspect, left up to the cultures, traditions, beliefs and preferences of that particular society. According to Mefleh, the state served to provide public goods, such as defence, education while maintaining order and bringing about economic growth. Globalization however, has impacted the way the state functions and set international standards that have be to adhered to in order to keep up with the wave of economic growth through assistance from organizations such as the World Bank and IMF. The biggest factor that has forced governments to transition and change their way of governing has been the spread of democracy in information and communication and the demand for transparency by the global community. International Governance Organisations : A new hierarchy However, Global economic integration has resulted in numerous emerging trends, one of the most important being the democratisation of information and communications (Friedman). One of the fore-fathers in economics, Adam Smith believed that an economy that opened its trade up to the international world would open itself up to national economic growth, but as this has happened the fundamental aspects of economies have been affected worldwide, leading to changes the way business is done (Moore). Countries have seen change both economically and socially, but these changes are not always positive, and this is where governance comes in. International governance organisations are meant to be a symbol of democracy and they have emerged as the need arose. They are large in numbers, and varied in their aims so we will look at some of the more powerful, well-known ones that are relevant to this essay. The United Nations is an umbrella organisation founded in 1945 after the Second World War, with the aim of preventing future disputes and wars through providing a platform for communication and mediation. This organisation has since expanded and become a super power. The UN has 192 member countries, out of the 245 countries in the world, each of which have to comply with the rules and regulations set by the organisation, or they risk losing out on the perks that come with being a member. A good example of this is the situation where in 2001 the IMF discontinued providing financial aid to Zimbabwe, as a result of the deficit occurred [IMF]. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) serves to provide developing nations with the finances necessary to develop their economies. When the debt was not repaid, and the IMF felt the terms had been broken they made a declaration of non-cooperation with the Zimbabwean government, cutting off the country from financial aid. This move put pressure on the government to rectify the issues that led to this deficit, as without financial backing the developing nation would be unable to achieve its poverty-relief goals. One of the main arguments against globalization is that developing nations receive the short end of the stick as they cannot compete in the international market against developed nations who have the knowledge, technology and finance which give these nations the competitive advantage. As a result of this, the World Trade Organization (WTO), which has 153 member states, has taken the role of trade mediator. This organization promotes free trade and assists in the building of trade blocs, international standardisation and trade regulations. The WTO has several committees which deal with anything from assessing standards and enforcing international standards, to environmental concerns, to anti-dumping legislation and has over time questioned trade practices, criticised, ostracised and helped develop trade blocs which have ultimately assisted many countries in their economic rise. India for example having a large, well-trained population was not able to penetrate the services industry in external markets until the Global governance has emerged in a time when it is needed. Many can argue that it takes away the power of the nation- state but there are many organizations that have changed the lives of people worldwide. The ILO enforces the International Labour Law, aimed at promoting equality, social justice, freedom of speech and an end to poverty. As the presence of unions has waned the ILO has been at the fore-front fighting for the rights of the labour force worldwide. An example of just how global this organization is would be the project run by the ILO in Mogadishu, Somalia. This country has seen years of economic strife, political instability and yet this organization was able to provide programmes that provided employment intense projects while promoting the equality of both men and women in the workplace. In a country that does not have a functioning government we see the need for a global system, for international standards and the benefits of having such organizations. Post-globalisation: The emerging roles of the state. It is clear that the welfare state is diminishing as free-market practices are being adopted and democracy is spreading like wildfire. However, although globalization has brought about many positive things, there have also been negative ones. As mentioned earlier in the introduction, the environment has become a great concern as businesses grow and the environment is damaged. One of the most esteemed and powerful organizations that exist solely to preserve the natural environment, Green Peace, have shown that businesses are polluting the water, air, irreparably damaging the environment as they struggle to compete in their respective markets. Because of this, it has fallen on the state now to regulate carbon emissions and promote sustainable, environmental friendly growth. In the United States the Environmental Protection Agency in California has set laws regarding carbon emissions and in Germany cars have to adhere to the Euro4 standards. These examples of how governments are impleme nting laws and regulations to protect the environment are just a few of the numerous measures being taken as a result of the pressure from the International community, and organisations such as Green Peace. Although globalization has led to the mobility of talent and knowledge it has also resulted in a wave of migrant labour from developing countries, to more economically developed nations. This has caused governments to tighten their immigration laws and so we see the aspect of nation-building is still present. On this topic England are imposing strict measures on allowing foreigners access to the country, after a period where laws regarding this were relatively lax (BBC NEWS). These laws are aimed mainly to protect the labour market as local Britons are losing work to migrant labour willing to accept lower wages and sub-standard working conditions while benefitting from the state-funded welfare. Governments now have to consider the implications of globalization on the labour market and act appropriately as they are still responsible for their citizens, even more so in democratic environments. The state does not only have to answer to any external organization it may be a part of, but in modern day politics the state has to answer to their people too. The media has become a powerful tool, and with democracy so wide-spread the elected state has become a medium of representation for the people, and is no longer a separate entity. The state still functions to develop the economy and protect its labour market, but now it also has the additional role of creating strategic alliances aimed at strengthening trade bonds that will contribute positively towards the economy. It is up to the government now to decide just how far they are willing to integrate and to use the platforms set up by organizations such as the WTO to negotiate the terms of trade to increase their competitiveness in the international market. To look directly at the question of International Governance organisations undermining the state, we can see that the state no longer has the power that it once used to. Each country that is a member of these global governing bodies has to abide by international law, and face criticism and even legal proceedings by the International Court of Justice. However, generally speaking, the state has become more transparent and even though they are answerable to other governing bodies, the state still has influence. Unfortunately some countries have more power than others depending on their political ties, but ceteris paribus, the state still has a necessary role to play.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Yi Dynasty :: essays research papers fc

서영준  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  aka Eddie Sanchez The Yi Dynasty   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Yi Dynasty, also called the Chosun Dynasty, is the last and longest-lived imperial dynasty of Korea. General 이성계 founded the Yi Dynasty when he overthrew the Koryo dynasty. It lasted until 1910 when Korea ceased to be an independent sovereign state after being annexed by Japan. During the Chosun Dynasty, Korea’s class system was very defined and social mobility was defined. Primarily, one could theoretically go up through Chosun’s education system, which was Confucian based. Commerce was controlled by the government, but as time went on, government loosened its grip over trading and commerce.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In 1392, General 이성계, or King 태조 as he was later known, became ruler of Korea. Confucian replaced Buddhism as the main ideological influence, and a rigidly structured, hierarchical social system evolved, dominating the kingdom for five centuries (Washam). These measures effectively undercut the societal influence of both Koryo’s Buddhist hierarchy and the old aristocracy. This cleared the way for the new elite class that would dominate Korea for the next 500 years   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Great landowners and a Confucianist scholar-gentry, known 양반, dominated agriculture, politics, and foreign policy. The 양반 was comprised of the literati, or educated, class. They monopolized civil and military posts in the new national bureaucracy. The primary way into the bureaucracy was to be successful in the civil service examinations. Since 양반 families were exempt from taxes and labor, they were able to fully devote their time to studying while those who were not born into 양반 families generally did not move up in the social structure due to the fact that they needed to work to survive and pay taxes. Thus, social mobility was difficult and extremely uncommon. However, theoretically and ideally, one could escape the lower classes through mastering the civil service examination.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Beneath them were the crafts people and artists who were highly esteemed because of their skills and talents. Astronomers and physicians were also included in this group. During the Yi Dynasty, Korean landscape painting becomes popular. Also, the Korean ceramics industry is renewed. Craftsmen begin producing white porcelain as well as 분청자기. Craftsmen manufactured many 분청 ceramic pieces for the government as well as for artistic purposes. Porcelain, on the other hand, was basically centralized. Porcelain was managed by the royal court. Perhaps, that is why the craftsmen were highly regarded (Lee).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Below the craftspeople in the official order were the common people who made up 75 percent of the population.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Fifth Business – Reaction to Adversities

Adversity is the most important factor in shaping character and/or identity. Assess the validity of this statement with reference to Fifth Business. Identity is individual characteristics by which a person is known or recognized. In Fifth Business, a character’s reaction to adversity is the foundation to shaping identity. Others may not know what the adversity is but they observe the way a person is acting. The composure held in rough situations allows people to formulate opinions based on these reactions. This is shown through the challenges of dealing with guilt, trying to achieve being better than others and trying to escape their past identities. A main adversity faced in Fifth Business is guilt. The guilt that the characters Dunstan and Boy feel mainly revolve around the snowball incident with Mrs. Mary Dempster. Everybody had heard about the snowball incident however only Dunstan and Boy knew the truth about who threw the snowball. Although Dunstan was truly not at fault he felt responsible because the snowball was meant for him. His mother then began making him invest time into caring for the Dempster’s and he did it without protest because he felt he need to make the situation right. â€Å"We knew your Ma must have sent you. She couldn’t do anything publicly, of course, but she sent you to look after them. Everybody knew an’ honoured her for it. † (p99) The people saw that his mother and his actions were honourable. As Dunstan ages, people’s perception of his dealings with Mary Dempster changes and his link to her makes him seem queer. Eventually even his mother was upset with Dunstan’s obsession with Mrs. Dempster. She was very upset that Dunstan would bring this woman into their home. â€Å"What under Heaven had possessed [Dunstan] to turn to that woman, not only to their home but to the very beside of a boy who was dangerously ill? † (p55) Then, Dunstan had â€Å"insisted that Willie had indeed died. No pulse; no breathing. † (p. 55) He had expressed how he felt about Willie’s â€Å"death† and was disregarded by people telling him to let it go. Dr.  McClausland says to Dunstan â€Å"I think you may safely leave it to me to say when peopled are dead, Dunny. † (p55) Milo Papple even says â€Å"Do you remember when you said that Mrs. Dempster raised Willie from the dead? God, you used to be a crazy kid†¦ â€Å" (p99) He continued on to find 2 more miracles by Mary Dempster. This revelation guided him to begin studying saints and in turn his reputation was jeopardized. â€Å"It’s this saint business of yours. Of course your books are splendid. But if you were a father would you want to send your son a school headed by an authority on saints? (p187) That is what Boy had said to Dunstan regarding why he was being let go from being Headmaster. Alternatively, Boy’s key role in making Mrs. Dempster simple forced a different reaction from him. Boy as a kid chose to ignore the fact that it was his fault. Dunstan views him as a coward and ruthless. â€Å"I knew that he was afraid, and I knew also that he would fight, lie, do anything rather than admit what I knew. † (p17) He spends so much energy on pushing the situation out of his mind that by the time he is older, he has no recollection of her all together. [Dunstan] could hardly believe he spoke the truth, but as we talked on I had to accept it as a fact that he had so far edited his memory of his early days that the incident of the snowball had quite vanished from his mind. † (p251) Boy’s indifference to the situation benefited him in a sense that because he knew that if he acted like he had no connection with Mrs. Dempster that his identity would not be compromised. The reactions from Dunstan and Boy are almost completely opposite and so people viewed them differently. Paul Dempster also treated his guilt differently than the other two. As Paul Dempster he ran away from home and people saw this as something that was prone to happen because his mother was simple. Although they did not recognize that it was because â€Å"[his] father thought it was his duty to tell [Paul], so [he] could do whatever possible to make it up to her. † (p251) As he created a new persona for himself he also found a new way to cope with his guilt by sending her money and Dunstan â€Å"was able to transfer Mrs. Dempster from the public wards of that hateful city asylum to a much better hospital near a small town. (p220) This shows that he is a good person and with success he still holds composure. Another challenge in the novel involved trying to be better than others. Boy Staunton was the golden boy from Deptford. He was always very successful and recognized. During the first war he became an officer and â€Å"was wearing a few medals, the admirable D. S. O. but otherwise minor things. † (p93) Boy went on to pursue a very successful career in the sugar business. As well, he struggled to pursue a career in politics although unsuccessful he did later become Lieutenant Governor. Old Doc Staunton’s annoyance at being outsmarted by his son had given way to his cupidity.. † (p142) All his successes sprung out of wanting to be better than his peers and his father and he succeeded. Another part of his image involves Leola being as educated and cultured as she possibly can. â€Å"She had learned to curtsy very prettily†¦ and do other courtier things required by Boy. † (p119) Yet still he still faced the challenge of her not being able to keep up. â€Å"She was trying hard but she could not keep with Boy’s social advancement. (p143) People see Boy as the golden Boy and Magnus Eisengrim even says â€Å"I remember you very well. I always thought of you as the Rich Young Ruler. † (p249) In the end, he took the challenge of being more successful and dominated it and in the end he was known and respected. â€Å"[Denyse] did achieve a very fine turnout of important people, and others who were important because they represented somebody important. † (p243) This refers to Boy’s funeral and this shows how he had finished his life as a successful man. Paul was constantly teased by kids because they would say things like â€Å"’Hey Paul, does your Ma wear pants? and stuff like that. † (p99) Milo Papple tells Dunstan that Paul ran away with the circus and â€Å"it made him kind of a hero after he’d gone. † (p99) He became a very successful magician and people thought he was magnificent. They never knew that his success came from him trying to erase the image of him being simple Mary Dempster’s son because â€Å"[he] could call up in an instant what it felt like to be the child of a woman everybody jeered at and thought a dirty joke† (p 251) Paul had to get away to ensure that he made a better name for himself. Their success is attributed to their obstacle to be better than others. Lastly, the challenge of separating their past identities also shapes their current identities. The three central characters use a name change to represent their new identities. They try to change the person they are and in turn people do view that as different people. Dunstan was originally named Dunstable Ramsay but after the war he met a Diana, a nurse whom he had his first real relationship with, who decided to change his name. Diana said â€Å"it’s hard to say for one thing and it sounds like a cart running over cobblestones for another. You’ll never get anywhere in the world named Dumbledum Ramsay. † (p85) She felt that his name didn’t represent the successful person that he could be with a better name. Diana said that he represented the Saint Dunstan in many ways because â€Å"St. Dunstan was a marvellous person and very much like [Dunstan] – mad about learning, terribly stiff and stern and scowly, and an absolute wizard at withstanding temptation. † (p85) He likes this persona of himself and â€Å"the idea of a new name; it suggested new freedom and personality. (p86) Boy Staunton, formerly known as Percy Boyd Staunton also changed his name. Somewhere along his army career decided that Boy Staunton was a name more fit for him. The name Boy represents the stellar and young gentlemen that he is. â€Å"He was boy Staunton because he summed up in himself so much of the glory of youth in the postwar period. † (p102) His name shows his success in his glorified youth. â€Å"He seemed to have made himself out of nothing, and he was a marvel. † (p103) Another name change that denotes an air of eloquence is Paul Dempster’s name change to Magnus Eisengrim. As Paul Dempster he had many misfortunes and zero success. As Magnus Eisengrim he has a wonderful show that awes the public. He says â€Å"My name is Magnus Eisengrim that is who I am and that is how the world knows me. † (p249) His reaction to escaping his past identity when he changed his name â€Å"he did not present himself as a funny-man but as one who offered an entertainment of mystery and beauty, with perhaps a hint of terror as well. † (p192) Dunstan had it right when he said â€Å"[they] had all rejected [their] beginnings and became something that their parents could not have forseen. (p252) The characters past identities did not satisfy how they viewed themselves and their challenge to erase who they were allowed them to create a new name that characterized a new identity. The characters in Fifth Business shape identities when they react to adversities. The way they are recognized is due to the actions they take to face these challenges. The most prominent challenges in Roberson Davis’ novel are the challenge of a guilty conscience, being better than others and escaping past identities. People react to one adversity differently and a good or bad identity depends on their reactions.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Pestel Analysis of Coca Cola

Discuss the PESTEL changes of an organization over the last decade. PESTEL Analysis for Coke Coca-Cola, the largest manufacturer, distributor and marketer of beverage concentrates and syrups in the world. Coca-Cola is recognized as the world’s most valuable brand. They market four of the world’s top five non-alcoholic sparkling brands, including diet and light beverages, mineral water, enhanced waters, juices and juice drinks, teas, coffees and energy and sport drinks. Through the world’s largest beverage distribution system, consumers in more than 200 countries enjoy the company’s beverages at a rate of approximately 1. billion servings each day. The Company generates revenues, income and cash flows by selling beverage concentrates and syrups as well as finished beverages. [pic] Even Coca Cola, the worlds’ largest beverage company has to consider about their macro environment and its opportunities and threats. They too have to analyze their Politic al, Economical, Social Environment and Legal Factors in order to catch up with the fast changing world. Political Analysis Non-alcoholic beverages fall within the food category under the FDA. The government plays a role within the operation of manufacturing these products in terms of regulations. There are potential fines set by the government on companies if they do not meet a standard of laws. The following are some of the factors that could cause Coca-Cola Company’s actual results to differ materially from the expected results describes in their underlying company’s forward statement:- Changes in laws and regulations, including changes in accounting standards, taxation requirements, (including tax rate changes, new tax laws and revised ax law interpretations) and environmental laws in domestic or foreign jurisdictions. Changes in the non-alcoholic business environment. These include, without limitation, competitive product and pricing pressures and their ability to gain or maintain share of sales in the global market as a result of action by competitors. Political conditions, especially in international markets, including civil unrest, government changes and restriction on the ability to transfer capital across borders. Their ability to penetrate developing and emerging markets, which also depends on economic and political conditions, and how well they are able to acquire or form strategic business alliances with local bottlers and make necessary infrastructure enhancements to production facilities, distribution networks, sales equipment and technology. A threat that the Coca-Cola Company had to face recently due to the changes in the political factors was the War against Iraq made USA and UK very unpopular in Middle East as well as in other Muslim countries. Because Coca-Cola is known as the very American company, this had a huge effect on the sales of its products. Economical Analysis Last year the US economy was strong and nearly every part of it was growing and doing well. However, things changed. Most economists loosely define a recession as two consecutive quarters of contraction, or negative GDP growth. In 2008, we are witnessing a global economic crisis which was suggested by several important indicators of economic downtown worldwide. These included high oil prices, which led to both high food prices (due to a dependence of food production on petroleum, as well as using food crop products such as ethanol as an alternative to petroleum) and global inflation; a substantial credit crisis leading to the bankruptcy of large and well established investment banks as well as commercial banks in various nations around the world; increased unemployment; and the possibility of a global recession. As the inflation rate grows higher and higher, consumer buying power will represent a key threat in the industry. The rivalry between Pepsi and Coke has produce a very slow moving industry in which management must continuously respond to the changing attitudes and demands of their consumers or face losing market share to the competition. In addition, consumers can easily switch to the other beverages with little cost or consequence. Social Analysis Many people nowadays are practicing healthier lifestyles. This has affected the non-alcoholic beverage industry in that many are switching to bottled water and diet colas instead of beer and other alcoholic beverages. The need for bottled water and other more convenient and healthy products are in important in the average day-to-day life. Possible substitutes that continuously put pressure on Coke include tea, coffee, juices, milk and hot chocolate. Consumers from the ages of 37 to 55 are also increasingly concerned with nutrition. There is a large population of the age range known as the baby boomers. Since many are reaching an older age in life they are becoming more concerned with increasing their longevity. This will continue to affect the non-alcoholic beverage industry by increasing the demand overall and in the healthier beverages. Increasing awareness among consumers, public health professionals and government agencies of the potential health problems associated with obesity and inactive lifestyles represents a significant challenge to the Coca-Cola industry. The company has recognized that obesity is a complex public health problem. Their commitment to consumers begins with the company’s broad product line, which includes a wide selection of diet and light beverages, uices and juice drinks, sports drinks and water products. Coke has hot lot of sugar by which continuous drinking of Coca-Cola may cause health problems. Being addicted to Coca-Cola also is a health problem because drinking of it has an effect on your body after few years. Technological Analysis The effectiveness of company’s advertising, marketing and promotional programs. The e new technology of internet and tv which use specific effects for advertising through media. They make some products look attractive. This helps in selling of the products. This advertising makes the product attractive and is being used in media to sell their products. As the technology is getting advanced there has been introduction of new machineries all the time. Due to introduction of this machineries the production of the Coca-Cola company has increased tremendously then it was few years ago. A latest technical achievements made by the Coca-Cola Company was the new environmentally friendly version of the iconic â€Å"Coca-Cola† Contour bottle which has won number of awards for its light weight. Environmental Analysis The Coca-Cola system’s environmental commitments are focused on the areas in which they have the most significant opportunities to make a difference – water stewardship, sustainable packaging and energy management and climate protection. In 2007, the company used approximately 300 billion liters of water in their plants to produce beverages. To meet their water needs while helping to conserve watersheds and improve community water access; water stewardship leads the list of the companies’ sustainability efforts. In 2007, Coca-Cola announced their aspirational goal to return to communities and nature, an amount of water equal to what is used in the company’s beverages and their production. Coca-Cola calls this water neutrality. Coca-Cola vision is to advance a packaging framework in which their packaging is no longer seen as waste, but instead as a valuable resource for future use. To realize this zero waste vision, they have been guided by a commitment to continuous improvement. They continues to make strides by advancing packaging initiatives focus on reduce, recover and reuse. They invested in designing and producing sustainable fashion apparel made from recycled PET bottles too. Legal Changes Analysis Marketing decisions are strongly affected by developments in the political and legal environment. This environment is composed of laws, government agencies and pressure groups that influence and limit various organizations and individuals. Sometimes these laws also create new opportunities for business. Here are some legal affairs that Coca-Cola had to face recently: The European Commission has alerted EU member countries to ban Coca-Cola drinks because of recent poisoning of 100 children in Belgium and cause seems to be the wrong carbon dioxide which was used in the soft drinks. In 2003, the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) a non-governmental organization, said Coca-Cola contained toxins including lindane, DDT, malathion and chlorpyifos – pesticides that can contribute to cancer and a breakdown of the immune system.

A brief history of shia muslims

It is a fact that Muslims all over the world are divided in two large groups -Shias and Sunnis. They have strong differences in political and religious views.Though they share the same Quran and Hadith but their interpretation of Islam has very few things in common (Lucas, 2008). That is why they have been at logger-heads throughout Islamic History. Both claim to be the righteous one and regard another one as strayed away from the right path.Shia literally means group or comrade. And Shias were originally those people who were with Hazrat Ali and were normally called as Shia-e-Ali, i.e., comrades of Ali or his companions. Later on ‘Ali’ was dropped and they are now only called Shias.It is interesting to know their history. How they came to existence is a good point to start from. When the Prophet (pbuh) passed away the question of his successor rose and each group among Muslims claimed his right to form the government.Ansars (Muslims of Medina) and Mohajireen (Muslims of Mecca who had migrated to Medina) were strong claimers but the matter was sorted out amicably when somebody from the righteous companions narrated one Hadith in favor of Mohajireen (Lucas, 2008). As a result Hazrat Abu-Bakr was made the Caliph.When he was on his death bed, he appointed Hazrat Umar as his successor and he ruled for ten years without any dissent. When he was fatally wounded and people lost their hope of his recovery, they asked him to appoint his successor following the toe of his predecessor. Initially, he declined but when they insisted too much he suggested six names including the names of Hazrat Usman and Hazrat Ali.Majority of Muslims preferred Hazrat Usman to Hazrat Ali and ultimately he was made the Caliph. He ruled for twelve years but in the last phase of his tenure, he was accused of nepotism.Actually, there was a Jew named Abdullah Ben Saba. He had a long grudge against Muslims due to several reasons. He could not tolerate it that Muslims prospered and dev eloped in such a short span of time. It was beyond his patience that Islam had been spreading so rapidly.But he was shrewd enough to realize the fact that he was incapable of fighting Muslims who were the most powerful in the world then. So he put upon himself the guise of a Muslim and came to Iraq among Muslims who had just converted to Islam and were quite unaware of the fact that Islam abolishes every claim on the ground of birth, caste, race and kinship. It doesn’t buy the argument that a ruler’s son should be made the ruler when his father dies though he may be bereft of the qualities of a ruler.These ideas were not known to these new comers in the fold of Islam. They were familiar with the ways of their old monarchs who followed the general rule of hierarchy in which the son automatically occupied the throne of his father when he passed away. In the absence of a son the close relative was crowned.Therefore when Abdullah Ben Saba came to them and said that very gr ave injustice has been done to Hazrat Ali as his caliphate has been usurped by others, they were easily convinced. They thought it their bound duty to stand for Hazrat Ali and provide him with his due right.Abdullah Ben Saba had hatched a very dangerous conspiracy. He never touched the Muslims of Mecca or Medina as he was fully aware that they will easily find out him as a bloody conspirator and will reject his wrong ideas. So he chose the soil of Egypt and Iraq for the propagation of his hierarchal ideas. Muslims of these places were new converts and were therefore easily deceived.In a nutshell, Abdullah Ben Saba spread his snare with too much care. He managed to spread rumors against Hazrat Usman. He got people write letters from Iraq to Egypt and Egypt to Iraq and from different parts of the Islamic Empire to Medina spreading the rumors that the Muslims of those places were suffering from different problems due to the inefficient rule of Hazrat Usman.People were aghast with these news. They strongly suspected that Hazrat Usman was not dealing with problems properly. A committee was formed which looked into the alleged problems. It found all the charges baseless and pointed that there were a few mischievous people in those province who wrote all these letters aiming at disrupting the rule and order of the Islamic Empire.But being very lenient Hazrat Usman let all these miscreants scot free and did nothing against them. Ultimately, they felt encouraged and came marching to Medina with the sole intention to assassinate Hazrat Usman.Hazrat Usman tried to clear their doubts with arguments and they lost their ground logically and were forced to return as they had no legitimate cause to rebel against Hazrat Usman.But they assembled again outside Medina and produced a fake letter of Usman in which it was stated that they should be punished by the governors of their provinces after their returning. Claiming this false charge they surrounded Hazrat Usman’s hou se and slain him brutally. After the assassination of Hazrat Usman, people were at the mercy of these rebels.The entire empire felt itself in the grip of anarchy. Hazrat Ali saw all these and was too much worried about the affairs of the community. He was approached by the same rebels to take the rein of the caliphate. He hesitated as he was fully aware that though those people insisted on their allegiance to him but they were basically against the very soul of Islam.They were introducing such a version of Islam which had nothing to do with the Islam he knew. But he was also requested by those sincere and age-old companions of the Holy Prophet who had selected his three predecessors. Therefore keeping the welfare of Islam above any consideration he accepted the responsibility of caliphate and was made the fourth rightful Caliph.Events which unfolded afterwards paved the way for the tow major division of Muslims which seems destined to remain unbridgeable till the last Day of Judgmen t. So it is clear that this difference of views was political in nature.But the early Muslims were so much religious that nothing could claim their attention except that which had some religious ground (Esposito, 2005). They were so much religiously charged that only religion could satisfy them. In this manner they were easily cheated by conspirators like Abdullah Ben Saba and his companions.It is noteworthy that there were a few sincere Muslims too who were of the opinion that Hazrat Ali had been the most deserving candidate of Islamic caliphate after the death of the Holy Prophet due to his relation and station in Islam.He was an important member of the household of the Prophet and was one of those few people who had embraced Islam in the very beginning. There were other grounds also which are not accepted by all sects of Islam such as his being protected from the possibility of committing any mistake, etc.Thus Shias came into existence and flourished. Later on they developed thei r ideology systematically. Now their ideas are very sophisticated and particularly their notions of ‘imamat’ are very complex. They hold the view that only those people who are completely protected from any potential sin deserve to be made Caliphs or Imams.Thus they believe that there are twelve Imams such as Hazrat Ali, Hazrat Hassan, Hazrat Hussein, etc. It is also noteworthy that all the Shias are not of the same view nor they follow only one ideology.   There are fissures and cleavages among them too and they are ripped apart in their ideology. But as a matter of fact they did not undergo any divisions during the imamate of the first three Imams: Ali, Hassan, and Hussein.But after the martyrdom of Hussein, the majority of the Shias accepted the imamate of Ali Ben Hussein al-Sajjad, while a minority known as the Kisaniyah believed that the third son of Ali, Muhammad bin Hanafiyah, was the fourth Imam as well as the promised Mehdi, and that he had gone into occultat ion in the Radwa mountains and one day would reappear.After the death of Imam al-Sajjad the majority of the Shias accepted his son, Muhammad al-Baqir as Imam while a minority followed Zayd al-Shahid, another son of Imam al-Sajjad, and became known as Zaydis.Following Imam Muhammad al-Baqir, the Shias accepted his son Ja'far al-Sadiq as Imam and after the death of Imam Ja'far the majority followed his son Imam Musa al-Kazim as the seventh Imam. However, one group followed the older son of the sixth Imam, Ismail, who had died while his father was still alive, and when this latter group separated from the majority of Shias it became known as Ismailia.Others accepted either ‘Abdullah al-Fatah or Muhammad, both sons of the sixth Imam.Finally, another party stopped with the sixth Imam himself and considered him as the last Imam. In the same way, after the martyrdom of Imam Musa al-Kazim the majority followed his son, Ali al-Rida, as the eighth Imam. However, some stopped with the se venth Imam and became known as the Waqifiyah.

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Plagiarism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 4

Plagiarism - Essay Example Electronic communication has become prevalent in the modern era, such as through the internet or telephone. In particular, the internet has become a popular method of spreading information, both positive and negative (Buttle, 1998). Other potential WOM mechanisms that are not included in Arndt’s definition are forms of written communication such as e-mail, letters and faxes. The second problematic aspect of this definition is that the person communication is considered to be unassociated with the item that is being discussed. Consumers are becoming more wary about how independent advice from a third party is, but WOM remains an influential source of information. Many businesses have been working to try and take advantage of the ability of WOM to promote goods or services, by playing a direct role in the recommendation process. For example, relationship marketing uses the approach of rewarding customers who recommend family or friends. Likewise, the use of reciprocal referrals has been developing in many businesses (Stokes & Lomax, 2002). One form of this is schemes that are known as Member Get Member (MGM). In addition, network marketing has developed to the extent that the personal relationships that an individual has and that clients have, have become crucial in the development of sales. The fact that this form of recommendation is often successful shows that although the person giving the recommendation is not independent, there is still a significant effect on behaviour, and thus, it is a WOM activity. These arguments have resulted in the development of a more up-to-date definition of WOM, which is all communication that occurs between people that focuses on either products or services, where the communication is believed to be impartial by the receiver (Stokes & Lomax, 2002). The use of personal referral is often considered to be a highly effective method of influencing the behaviour of consumers.

Tuesday, October 8, 2019

Medieval gargoyles Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Medieval gargoyles - Essay Example representing animal faces, or anthropomorphic, i.e. representing human form. The term â€Å"gargoyle† is extensively used with any grotesque carving of buildings of medieval times. They are a fascinating element of medieval architecture and are not only related to medieval churches and cathedrals, but also associated with English gothic castles. Gargoyles are ideal resemblance of great lords, who in order to crush and make natives do what they want, built such intricate fortresses and castles (Stratis Demon). Although the word â€Å"gargoyles† in plumbing sense appear to be followed since Ancient Greek times or even before that but they became popular in medieval times during the Victorian era. During Elizabethan period, channels or troughs used had no carved shapes on them (Stratis Demon). Initially most of the gargoyles used were usually made of wood and were generally undecorated. Along the progress in time, gargoyles were made with stone and lead and were made in the form of carvings of or absurd representations of animals and people. Those carvings were the creation of imaginative and proficient hands, often so ingenious as to carry a little or no resemblance to normal creature. During the first appearance of gargoyles in 1200 century, the people of other faiths were so much influenced by Roman Catholic Church that they converted to Catholic. An argument for attractive looking gargoyles at that time appeared, since most people were not literate at that time and therefore the images of gargoyles were of great importance then. In addition, many non-believers of Christianity were used to with the religious images like of animals or of those that included both humans and animals (e.g. unicorn, horned God). They were greatly encouraged to join the Christianity by putting similar images on churches and cathedrals as they felt more complacent about it. It is important to mention that some other accommodations like gargoyles were made by churches at