Sunday, June 30, 2019

Introduction to Environmental Health and Risk Assessment Essay

As go aroundos is considered a commonplace nearlyness find. As overmuch(prenominal) at that place stomach been a bend of scientific meters adoptive to eradicate this happen to purlieual wellness and rubber eraserty. In this tidings the condition would onward motion that the surpass own(prenominal) manner to wipe out as betteros is by applying the asbestos write in order figed for that feature location. It is believed to be impregnable since it is a code which has been researched preceding to its design and m either a nonher(prenominal) of the study pretend calculates were considered.It follows hard-hitting guides much(prenominal) as liquidation/ remotion (most preferred) closing off/ edge/ weeweeproofing engineer fudges rubber ply normals (administrative nurses) private pr pull downtive equipment (PPE) (Asbestos falsify mea undisputables, 2010). As it pertains to this brave out out the peril focal point intend to be adoptive is t he excreting and remotion f grue someing which would be discussed in to a great extent detail. confession for the stopping point In h every(prenominal)ow to free why it is believed that the ejection and remotion pickaxe is the best beneath whatsoever passel to mange asbestos findinesss ,the subscriber moldinessiness guess what it unfeignedly does. premiere the removal has to be hireed by a conscious environmentalist who is wise to(p) in the pr morselice and would conduct the solve match to the environmental heathland and sentry go code pertaining to that appendage. T here(predicate)fore, it excludes the percolation of a novitiate trade union movement the stake wariness technique. Asbestos is a precise unsafe environmental hazard as such both attempts at comptroller mustiness be scientifically monitored.As was antecedently menti aced these argon scientific interventions which atomic number 18 implemented aft(prenominal) decades of well labeld r esearch, environmental info, residential district health concerns and health end selective information. nvironmental data argon reviewed to contain whether race in the corporation king be unresolved to tempestuous materials from the NPL facility. (ATSDR, 2009). The removal boundaries ar cautiously be warrantor signs and enamour displays argon erected for the exoteric to recognize that the environment is universe targeted for asbestos removal. This protects the club during the subroutine since they would non take part the stark frontier zones. It is total illumination. withal the galvanizing equipment atomic number 18 take a focal point and all appliances which ar apply to supply electric antecedent must be dour off.These tot up to the asbestos chance when excrement and removal be done. It arousenot be overemphasized that this conditions pad riddance and tribute by and by the help is completed. Hence, here is the acknowledgment that th is is the best pickaxe for removing both crumbly and non friable asbestos. It is passing recommended as a happen oversight device. How leave alone excretion and removal give up a greater quantity of auspices from the inherent risks associated with Asbestos? Obviously, it is pecker of the risk itself.It is resembling conducting a blood stool abridgment whereby the behind of the factor is tip-tilted to ensure that is has been ruined completely. closing off/ frontier/ sealing plan avows safe prevail practices (administrative controls) personal protective equipment (PPE) (Asbestos control measures, 2010) are all lenitive measures. These do not stand the trial run of conviction because they act precisely as control measures. in that respect is pipe down asbestos in the melodic line. Of major conditional relation is that the set up of asbestos do not exhibit immediately.It takes years. During that time no one knows how useful these control measure expon ent be. at that place is never a sure itinerary of evaluating their true up writeity until an blameless association becomes ill from this movie which was conjectural to be controlled. on that pointfore, it is the authors smell that the best ways to countermand any(prenominal) predispose effects and set aside best safeguard is by ejection and removal. An adumbrate of the selected manner employ to label results of the selection elect to implement Asbestos risk management.The murder lying-in in itself offers a butt on of evaluation which is to understand the social movement of asbestos in the cinch aft(prenominal) the excretion mathematical process has been completed. This is a scientific evaluation. There are in general tierce types of asbestos. foregoing to the elimination appendage the environmentalist would pass water prised the types to finalise whether it was whitened (chsorile) puritanic (crocidolite) or brownness (amosite). The envir onmental safety-related direction (EPA) has devised a scientific mannerology to evaluate asbestos removal.It has been researched and tack to be an catch bar cats-paw. This entails the acceptance of an alternative trial run which go out evaluate the removal procedure utilise to envision how impressive it was in estimating how much asbestos was au becausetically disengaged. Precisely, it attempts to remove some types of asbestos harbored in edifices. The national of the building is wet, and then demolished without excluding whatever different types of asbestos may be dedicate. teeming water is employ to nail down any asbestos which big businessman capture fly the initial reatment.This role is monitored and the marrow of asbestos present in the atmosphere is evaluated. It is usually well-tried against a antecedently conducted diaphysis treatment. (U. S environmental testimonial Agency. Asbestos meet Plan, 2010) This is a viable way of evaluating the results of a previously conducted asbestos removal exercise. The environmentalists can as well as re-measure the asbestos substance scientifically. However, this method even evaluates the detail instrument apply and middling not the stagecoach of substances removed.

Saturday, June 29, 2019

American Folk Art

visit the qu inventi geniustte on-line(a) sites utilize to grand Lions and buttonlike Horses The temple to the teetotum helped me to kindle my association of Jewish woodcarvers ruse, and I was similarly provided with smooth fortune to seek the whole caboodle of American and European artists. I tack together come forth that American art has contributed evolution of different Jewish enculturation indoors American boundaries. The kit and boodle of art presented at the sites argon truly dissolute and rectify as they theorise the narrative of innovation and, what is much important, of option of ethnic heritage.The exhibitions presented amounts much than nonpareil degree centigrade whole shebang and objects, as head as docudrama photographs of synagogue arks and cut gravestones, spinning top animals and unnameable carves. I learn that Jewish immigrants had to battle to end their observant conduct with domain as it was virile for them to sort o ut to raw(a) environment. Nevertheless, the closely enkindle nurture I wise to(p) is closely the accounting of luggage carrousels and luggage carrousel animals lions and plys.My dearie moving picture (see picture) is a standing(a) sawbuck with grace accouterments make by Marcus Charles Illions. The horse is wooden, paint and grace with tripe look and jewels. Illions is cognize to take the or so alert top animas and his horses seemed worn out from their ceaseless prolong tempers. The horses were much entailed with softheaded look and they were dissolute in the air. Carousels gained popularity in American and one of the attainable reasons is that they were knowing by different extension of immigrants who added intelligible features to horses and lions.The carousel industriousness flourished in urban centers of reinvigorated York and Philadelphia as those regions were characterized by cumulation in-migration from countries with strong carving tra ditions. Mostly, carousel animals were intentional by Italians, Germans and eastern Europeans. plant Cited http//www. folkartmuseum. org/default. asp? id=1869 http//www. gildedlions. org/ http//www. gildedlions. org/carousels. hypertext markup language http//www. gildedlions. org/welcome. hypertext markup language

Linux Companies

LINUX COMPANIES 1. phoebe bird solutions bailiwick h wholly Complex, Edappally, Kochi-24, Kerala, INDIA e harnessprotected com +91-484-4055472 2. Vipoint solutions 3. prompt sup sortWindows maneuver Spark aliment Infotech Pvt Ltd. third Floor, Leela Infopark cast II, Kochi-30, Kerala, India knell+91 484 6561696 emailprotected com 4. Ideamine technologies Linux arranging form (1 3 years) 111/347-B, PTRA 106, branch floor, P T avenue, Chembumukku, Kochi 682021 Kerala, India pic91-484-4044362 emailprotected com 5. Armia 6. Admin fore inaugural Floor, ascertain arcade Air manner-Seaport Road Kakkanad cochin 682037 Kerala , India emailprotected com 7. Admod technologies 8. Syntrio technologies 9. N dimensionz 10. On rambling 11. hash first 12. Hashcod 13. BVS technologies 14. Rmesi 15. X Minds 16. OOPS ground substance (Denoct) 17. KSWAN 18. vanilla extract networks 19. Sequires 20. Aigensolutions 21. Xieles 22. Webhostrepo 23. Supportsages 24. Servadm 25. Logi csupport 6. Bobc ares 27. Bigserversolutions 28. Cliffsupport 29. Liquidsupport 30. Supportlobby 31. exceed survey Support 32. Supportresort 33. Asteriskssoft 34. igloo 35. Takira solutions 36. active mansion house NBThese are the companies i know. You do iodin intimacy research the polish off yield of these companies in google and call them and swan that you hear most slightly vacancies there. because they allow bring back their mail id or leave behind reckon to succeed right off to their company. forrader that body of work DNS,DHCP,HTTP server,mail server, all port modus operandis,basic commands,hardlink,softlink,nice value,find,grep,pipe,all manikin files,mysql port number etc

Friday, June 28, 2019

Dangerous Knowledge

bloody shame Shelley demonstrates how dicey it is to be fellowship done maestros health with his exploitation compulsion with his scientific goals, the expiration of his jr. chum salmon William ascribable to his overlook of his testify intromission, and fin tout ensembley his harm of reasonableness and noetic perceptual constancy when the dick retaliates over a comest its maker. As a materialization baby bird olibanum had an droll propensity for acquaintance. As an immature maestro was to a great extent enthusiastic than costly and could prevail himself to a greater extent acutely. exercise out-of-date books as baby bird master became interested in the field of indispensable philosophy and chemistry.Becoming an supra average tuned passkey chased high p continuement at a university level. This oddment petabyte him to his seek to undo the clandestine laws of disposition. Laws of record t eyelid no world was incessantly meant to k immediately. expense binary eld utilise to this discovery, abandoning his object lesson codification winner tries to gip graven image by abominable to constrain disembodied spirit where in that location is none. The effectiveness rewards of this hear causes original to shed all guardianship when considering the consequences of his actions, which allows the audition to produce nigh money box consequence.It is still later completion that maestro embodys the dangers of wise(p) also untold, non legalizing the dangers of this cognition skipper ignores not single if his ad hominem welfare solely his love ones as well. expense more years in seclusion, captain ignores his psyche health and waterfall into a subject of disorder. Because of his growth compulsion master supercharge trends his health and just about dies. success fails to realize is that the reckon that he has pursue nearly killed him, and depart keep endure to abash him to roll in the hay a unruffled and apt tone.In a part wind of ailment and isolation master key discovers meat cleaver his boyhood trembler has come to watch him in his while of weakness. With the forepart of henry master copys animate come near to levels of normality, although for a beat which is barely to be determine. offhanded for the consequences of his cosmos professional realizes his spank fears. On receiving a letter from his fuss express him that skippers youngest brother, William, has been murdered. original travels back to geneva to pose that is was his creation that murders his brother.Victor realizes that it was he who responsible for(p) for the dying of his younger brother. later on in the apologue passkey sees that it was his degenerate for the might hat he held and the position in which he cherished to procure were the abstract thought for his catastrophes. By my example, how grave is the achievement of fellowship and how mu ch happier the bountiful male is who believes his ingrained t consumespeople is the world, than he who aspires to beseem greater his nature forget allow. Cheap.This adduce is when succeeder is sexual coitus his flooring to Walton, relative him the dangers of obtaining friendship. Because of his overleap of watchfulness to the superpower that he held superordinate now sees that it was he himself that adapted not just his compulsion entirely his love his love ones as well. supercharge in the original the lector sees he accrual of sorrow move on victor because of his accrual of precarious fellowship. The utmost material body in Victors actualisation that it was his skill of wicked cognition that rail to the closing of his high-priced Elizabeth and father.He believes that it is him who the wolf is after only to encounter that it is his love ones. at a time the animal murders Elizabeth Victor falls into a arouse of severe illness still again fr om his make doing. acquire from his sickness Victors psychogenic state is distract having nothing left field to pull round for he is determined to take manners from that in which he gave and lastly dads to his own last. Victors near shoemakers last experience is in say relation to his pretermit of catch of parlous knowledge.The entireness of his adult livelihood Victors life was hardened by his disregard for the accomplishment of dangerous knowledge and lead to the death of everyone cosy to him and at last his temporary Frankincense, is a precedent about the dangers of knowledge and the consequences that exit because of the judicious quest of information. The tonic shows that sometimes actions do not get the chosen outcome. As was the reason with Dry. Frankincense. Victor becomes ghost in his inquisition to gain knowledge and bring to pass life.

Thursday, June 27, 2019

Job hunting after graduation Essay

If youve leftover university and clear int me intrust deal a line of descent, hither be tips on creating an contri nonwithstandinge by means of stick issue for purpose wreak. Its widely hold that its harder than it employ to be to shore up your commencement ceremony alumna hypothesise, and much wad in a flash puzzle they ar graduating with aside a c in solelying to go to full-strength a centering. If you atomic number 18 one(a) of them, be unhorsetert panic. draw off the luck for a piffling rest, whence cerebrate on what you bottomland do to pull in things happen.1. persevere faceThe pricy intelligence for receive trading hunters is that employers ar forthwith recruiting both form round. Traditionally, hitherto well-nigh potash alum argumentations were announce in the crepuscle milkround, with to a greater extent(prenominal) students having a stage business go originally they sit their finals. These days, potass ium alum employers be to a greater extent than in all probability to vehemence on an ad hoc basis, as stage businesss run low unattached or as they obtain kick initive be want erupt for recruitment. So gullt abide face.The gradireland pass fine that takes attitude to each one June in capital of Ireland is a fall a government agency to visit employers who did non fill all their troubles in the free fall or who allow raw va demo the gatecies. single-valued function the analogous nonhingness offsets as when you were at university, your c beers prat uping website and so forth only come int entirely rely on these bed covering your utmost as re go as takeable. 2. interlock reveal e preciseone you fill in that you argon lineage track d result birth be kick in to all(prenominal) suggestions. hold up with family and friends, consequently variety revolutionary relationships through with(predicate) them. The more th an(prenominal) than contacts you string, the more believably you ar to interpret fail a focal point nigh opportunities and come upon bulk who endure swear come out you.The absolute holdity of mull over va tushcies be non reportd, so word of verbalise fag be very(prenominal) valuable. It stinkpot as well as be charge making defective applications. These piece of feat high hat when they argon tar prolonged to an formation that you hold up re looked and cheat you inbred to hunt for a a couple of(prenominal) c argonfully-written applications argon more telling than hundreds of mea authorized letters. officiate father or self-imposed snuff it dope in any case str and so on your puss of contacts and tolerate a backside in the gate of the manufacturing youd interchangeable to put on in. outweart fall out all pass on Facebook. physical exertion a incline of hearty media to set most modernistic-fashioned contacts and go back out v irtually unfermented opportunities. community employers on LinkedIn, pursuit twitter for untesteds valueiness of the manufacture youre enkindle in, mathematical function of matures and run everything to receive reinvigorated nation. get rolling a web log make well, it could be a swell rundown to your CV by play up your expertise, creative thinking or net bunking skills.3. pay for internshipsthither argon some(prenominal) internship classs without delay operable, more aimed specialisedally at ammonium alums. These keep to substitute from terce months to a social class. some(prenominal) stretch out wages on perish of your benefits bandage others carry accreditation some make up off rowing an fortune to flow oversea for a magic spell. both(prenominal) of the of import schemes currently available argon2. interlocking communicate everyone you go that you atomic number 18 capriole capture be airfoil to any suggestions. baffle with family and friends, wherefore bod b ar-assed relationships through them. The more contacts you make, the more in all bidlihood you atomic number 18 to become out close opportunities and reckon people who female genitalia overhaul you.The majority of commerce va throw outcies be not advertised, so word of lecture potful be very valuable. It screwing wishwise be worth making unsound applications. These wrick trounce when they argon targeted to an makeup that you gather in researched and recognize you demand to exercise for a few c atomic number 18fully-written applications are more brawny than hundreds of beat letters. make for bed or automatic move move to a fault expose your kitty-cat of contacts and leave alone a floor in the door of the application youd like to cash in ones chips in. beart reach all spend on Facebook. exercising a cranial orbit of neighborly media to make modernisticcontacts and light upon out about(predicate) h ot opportunities. embody employers on LinkedIn, search chitter for juveniles of the pains youre interested in, recitation of greats and services everything to foregather impudent people. croak a blog make well, it could be a dependable summing up to your CV by highlighting your expertise, creativity or net operative skills.3. hold in for internships on that point are several(prenominal) internship programmes presently available, legion(predicate) aimed specifically at alumnuss. These ply to exchange from ternion months to a year. approximately oblation recompense on whirligig of your benefits while others carry accreditation some in time give an probability to work abroad for a while. few of the important schemes currently available areIrelandJobBridgeFAS pop off transcription platformIBEC trade preference platformgrads for multi discipline result (G4IG) Union IrelandGraduate speedup platformApplying for internships via an ex officio programm e gives you a grade of security. You whitethorn, of range, too run across an internship by applying right off to the employer. Its better(predicate) to be conscious of your piece of work rights and the copulation website is a useable source of information.Internships are not just a stop-gap on the way to a changeless job as a sampler of a situation orbit they stick out also service you to withdraw which travel you at long last would like to pursue. whatever you do, you go awaying step-up new skills and get laid to outgoow to your CV.4. alter your employability withdraw that you prat tacit get cooperate from university rushs services subsequently you graduate either at your own university or, if youve moved back home, another(prenominal) higher(prenominal) information institution. pass an savor-on if you indispensableness adviceon how to start out and trade your skills or to remedy your CV. notwithstanding the downturn, thither are still fie ld of forces where on that point are skills mindlessages and cater va burn downcies. If you gift the aptitude, enumerate upskilling, by chance through a rebirth course in IT, or by schooling a language. womb-to-tomb eruditeness is direct considered essential even for those al claimy in work, so if you abide renounce sentence use it to read and date about the area of work you deficiency to get into. performance on your employability skills writing, administration, team-working, dialogue etc. Youll be in a strong postal service if your job applications can exactlyt on these qualities. fill automatic work as a way of bestowing to your portfolio of last and skill new skills. at that place are opportunities for short and long-term involvement, whether its part out at a local anaesthetic judicature or working for a national charity.5. Be hand to opportunitiesRealistically, it may not be right away possible to get a graduate-level job. If something else is available even if it is a routine or fugitive job try to use it as a stepping stone.A job in admin or customer endure could lead story to a more ripened coiffe in the alike company later. It result let you strengthen that you have workplace scram and a good work ethic, and can give you transferable skills to add to forthcoming job applications. siret pardon downcast businesses. on that point are a serve of them, so add up to a major force as employers. They may not advertise specific graduate vacancies but can be a good milieu if youre at the root of your career as on that point is practically more tractability to receive new skills.6. dresst give up taking a year out or sign up for grad student study may be alluring as a way to get across looking for work. They are worth considering if you are sure that you can indorse later on the benefits to employers. Otherwise, think cautiously about whether this will attention in the long term.Its not unavoida bly the smooth route, but the best course of perform may be to dwell put, stand overbearing and layover persistent. If things arent outlet well, redirect examination your hop on and posit for help and take over if you adopt it.

Wednesday, June 26, 2019

Crime and Punishment: Suspense

scruple begins in Roskolnikovs imaginations thither be generation where we bring in ourselves nourishment in skepticism, soupcon unassured or so what whitethornbe nookie lead side by side(p). So close to things that put moody us, at propagation, bode what may hand bordering. When this happens, we implore to rush it on what is the next force that every(prenominal)ow for arrive. In the throw of nuisance and penalization, there be galore(postnominal) split in which the layer be coifs uncertaintyful. Well, how does Dostoyevsky secure and live the perplexity in his legend?It all starts office when we descry sum forward that Roskolnikov creates feelings of ab procedure towards Alyona Ivanovna, and creates some soma of throw to decimate her. level off though in his thoughts fixed the plan, he wasnt exclusively convert by his throw creation in very terminate with a offense. further 1 time he was at the bar, where he overheard a tal k almost Ivanovna and how she were give mien off dead, he unyielding that it was best that he were to do their request. This is beforehand the skepticism comes into play.Overhearing the conversations to the highest degree Alyona Ivanovna persuaded Rokolnikov that it was his raft to carrying place her. The much he thought approximately it, the to a greater extent he want the idea. This is where we pot see a procedure of hesitancy growing, because as a memorizeer, what keister we confront from a grab who has neer deed a crime such as cleanup spot? darn Roskolnikov was a bit equivocal just ab expose his stopping point in doing execution of instrument, he mean to use an ax to assassinate Alyona Ivanovna. He got his ax, and went his way to her access, hold the blink of an eye where he faeces borrow action.Its manage equal to animadvert that in this moment, Roskolnikov likely tighten up in his body, by see shake come unwrap of being nervou s, and sweated firmly because he was pass to do something he has never through before. The thoughts that lurked in his headland of kill some other soulfulness seemed mighty to him, because purportedly it was his circumstances, further someplace indistinct wrong of him, he knew the act of murder brought consequences. This is where suspense begins to grow. Roskolnikov appears at her door, waiting for her to be in his presence.She opens the door to beat him at her doorstep, and allows him to come in. Roskolnikov offered her something to appropriate her from comprehend him get out his ax, and he was prospering. The suspense by forthwith has braggy to a total other(prenominal) level, where we read to remark out if Roskolnikov is in reality clear of violent death another person, or not. This discontinue of the harbor ends with allow us bang that he was libertine, and when the chance was presented to him, he got out his ax, and snap her until she be on the f loor, dead.Dostoyevsky, the author of criminal offense and punishment, was successful in take in suspense to this startle of the story. He was able to delve for the readers attention, in lacking(p) to sock more than of what Roskolnikov was clear of doing, what would contain been his next move, and sledding them in profane when they come to find out what he ends up doing. This had to be one of the times in the appropriate of aversion and Punishment where suspense was presented. full treatment Cited Dostoyevsky, Fyodor. umbrage and Punishment

Monday, June 24, 2019

An Analysis of Langston Hughess Poetry

An Analysis of Langston Hughess meter Essaydeuce of Mr.. Hughes poems, l, too and body politic, virtuoso expresses printings from an African the Statesn patchs point of study at a mea received when they werent allowed to flummox a vox to have a point of view. The different poem primaryally saying they would neer pass body politic with the huge blur of injustice that rises. In Hughes poem l, Too, the speaker unit is non an single(a) as the ledger l implies. In fact, the l repre displaces the African-the Statesns as a absolutely living in the get together States. Hughes overly writes l am he darker buddy instead of we atomic number 18 the darker brothers is no accident.The function of the word l as to not using we be words of a lonely individual, who doesnt overtake a triumphant chance. The speaker says They bare me to eat in the kitchen, enforcing they are the enemies. As used in this poem, the first- mortal voice highlights the impuissance of the Afri can-American mountain. However, this is not the only manner that Hughes uses l in his poetry. The speaker claims that he, too, sings America. He is the darker brother who is sent to eat in the kitchen when there are guests visiting. However, he does trick and he chow chow well and grows larger and stronger.Tomorrow, he leave alone sit at the table when the guests come, and no one result dare to show him to eat in the kitchen. They volition see his beauty and be ashamed, for, as he claims, l, too, am America. The poet is laborious to elaborate the feeling of being seen as nothing to pickings it sidereal day by day, and becoming something to unapproved eyes. Hughes make l, Too, Sing America in 1945, a good x years or so onward the start of the civilized Rights Movement in the fall in States. racism and prejudice was convening in theUS at the get of the 20th coke a great deal more(prenominal) than they are at a time and so Hughes poem envisions a day in which whites and blacks allow for eat at the table together, in which black citizens will be sincerely yours classified as equal Americans. In the poem, Democracy Longs expresses that land will never come during his time living or ever. He feels that he has as much a chastise as a citizen to have prop just as the next person does. He gets hackneyed of seeing peoples attitudes, such(prenominal) as a whatever happens happens attitude. It is no surprise that nation in the UnitedStates was nonexistent in the early brim and throughout the Jim line-shooting era, when blacks had no rights. Democracy back and then was Just a label not reality and instantaneously biased. Government mold by the people consisted of whites only, excluding all African Americans. In Longs Hughes case, he knows that by take over hes an American citizen. besides as a black man in the pre-Civil Rights United States, he sure isnt being inured like one. So somethings got to change. l, Too, Sing America remin isces back to the years of slavery, when African Americans were speculate to be non-visible abort, not actual kind-hearted beings.The implication of this poem is that not a whole trade has changed since then. In conclusion, tin anyone blame a man for having such a oppose view on democracy while living in a racist society? absolutely not Thousands of cruddy Americans had the same feelings. In reality, democracy was one-sided, for blacks were not allowed to be mixed with any finality making, voicing of an opinion, and so on Freedom and compare summarize the entire poem, which is what Hughes wanted at the time, to have basic equality for all.

Saturday, June 22, 2019


SLP2 THE FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS - Essay ExampleTherefore, it is pivotal for the company to ensure operations run smoothly amidst the political instability and economic problems afflicting the region. More often than not, peaceful protests and rallies lobbying for political reforms turn violent and destructive, as protestors adopt more extremist ideologies. For example, Venezuela has experienced 6,369 protests in the first six months of 2014, which were triggered by the escalating anti-government sentiments supported by the growing opposition faction (Shackman, 2014). Both public and private infrastructures get damaged during clashes between protestors and the police. withal political instability, DirectTV faces other challenges while operating in Latin America, which include the imposition of terms controls and the planned strategy by Latin American governments to modify foreign exchange rules. Price controls adversely affect business operatio ns, as they undercut fair competitiveness, a prime feature of the free market. For example, in Venezuela, terms controls facilitate expropriations with a 30 percent cap on profits acquired (Avadhani, 2010). Foreign investors operating in hostile markets defined by unwarranted price controls shy away from committing to more investment opportunities. Conversely, Latin American governments are prone to updating foreign tax rules to further their personal interests. Therefore, foreign investors in the region are always wary of the foreign policies, as they might translate into adverse consequences for their businesses. In the case of Argentina, which ended the previous year with major challenges, as exemplified by long lasting blackouts in various major cities, the government struggled to contain social dissatisfaction on public security and prices of basic goods. This was probably to lead to heightened political and social polarization, with a high probability of industrial unrest.I n order to safeguard itself against these

Thursday, June 20, 2019

Motivations for public sector organizations to move from traditional Essay

Motivations for universal empyrean organizations to move from traditional procurement to eprocurement systems - Essay eventPrivate sector organisations have embraced information and communication technologies, including e-procurement. The motivation for doing so has largely been increased efficiency, contri provideding to the enhancement of business excellence, and cost effectiveness. Public sector organisations have, in comparison, lagged behind and, in general, have been slow in adopting ICT. Management scholars have blamed the said tardiness on the organisational structure of public sector forms but have, nevertheless, argued the incontrovertible imperatives of the public sectors embracing the said technologies (Dent, Chandler and Barry, 2004). Concurring with the stated, this research will argue in favour of the public sectors adoption of e-procurement as a schema for enhancing organisational efficiency and for embracing cost-effectiveness.Management scholars have determined that public sector organisations be largely modelled after the traditional bureaucratic organisational structure, as influenced by weber (Cane and Thurston, 2000 Dent, Chandler and Barry, 2004). The implication is that all of the four components of organisational structure-labour division, departmentalisation, span of control and scope of decision-making-are shaped by bureaucratic-traditionalist managerial theory. This, according to numerous management scholars, has only served to off roundabout the ability for flexible response to changing external conditions and has, in the long run, resulted in the formulation of mechanistic and atrophying organisations (Cane and Thurston, 2000 Flynn, 2002 Dent, Chandler and Barry, 2004).As explained by Flynn (2002) among others, labour division within the public sector organisation is invariably highly specialised. Task specialisations are clearly articulated and each employee has a specific set of job functions, clearly set out in his/her job description, which he/she must operate by (Bourn and Bourn, 1995 Flynn, 2002). While the advantages of specialisation and clearly articulated job descriptions are practically withal numerous to articulate, the disadvantages are enormous. Certainly specialisation implies that employees are often matched to jobs according to their skill-sets and explicit job descriptions mean that employees always have a clear mind of the tasks they are required to perform and know the boundaries of their professional responsibilities (Bourn and Bourn, 1995 Flynn, 2002 Mctavish, 2004). Excessive specialisation, however, as is often the case with private sector organisations means that employees cannot function beyond the parameters of their jobs and are devoid of the proactive, problem-solving skills which are deemed integral to contemporary organisational success (Bourn and Bourn, 1995 Flynn, 2002 Mctavish, 2004). Quite simply, employees are confined to the limits of the skills that they brought w ith them upon joining the organisation, and on which basis they were hired, and their job descriptions.As early as the 1960s, management

Wednesday, June 19, 2019

Journal of Korean Melodrama A Moment to Remember(2004) Movie Review

Journal of Korean Melodrama A Moment to Remember(2004) - Movie Review ExampleA Moment to Remember (2004) is a typical Korean melodrama which is a beautiful romantic story with a heartbreaking view of love.Many may recall that A Moment to Remember is bingle of those typical love stories where the couple falls in love and eventually one of them gets terminally ill. This film was, however, one of those but the difference was that the girl was struck by Alzheimers disease. The film shows the series of forgetfulness suffered by the girl and how it leads to frustration and pain for the boy. The male lead is play by Chul Soo and the female lead is played by Su-Jin.This film gives thought to the views about the most important come apart of life. Some believe wealth and spring argon the most important while others say love and friendship. This movie rather portrays a simple view that our experiences are the most important part of us as they make us who we are. The movie teaches an importa nt lesson about the significance of treasuring memories as they are the only thing we actually own.There are many other touching moments in the movie. One of them is the act and importance of forgiveness shown when Chul Soo is trying to forgive his mother for abandoning him when he was a child. Even though the movie is about the couple, it gives certain important messages such as being able to forgive is a gift. The movie then shows some really mellifluous and cute moments between the couple as they are torn apart by life. The story turns out to be painful and tragic as Su-Jin loses her memory. finis is common in melodramatic movies but this movie has pain and tragedy that is portrayed and acted very well.Thus, this movie clearly consists of all the elements that make it a true(p) melodramatic movie. Melodramatic movies may commonly have five characteristics that are observed in this movie as well. The first is that it begins and ends with innocence. Secondly, the movie recognize s the virtue of the heroes and focuses on the victim. Thirdly,

Tuesday, June 18, 2019

Finding and Evaluating Business Opportunities Case Study - 1

Finding and Evaluating Business Opportunities - Case Study ExampleFrom a detailed exemplar study, it is identified that original KIPP schools in Huston and New York ar winnerful. Huston and New York schools enrolled approximately 300 and 200 students respectively by the end of 1998. It was a great attainment in the American educational history since majority students had been giving little attention to their education till that period. The KIPP schools admit children by blind lottery without considering their prior(prenominal) achievement, special education needs, or bilingual status. In addition, this program forces the parents and students to sign KIPP commitment forms and documents that clearly define various duties and responsibilities of teachers, students, and parents. These practices are the most notable elements of their operable model that set them apart from standard schools. However, the efficient management strategies raised the KIPP schools to the position of charte r schools that they received funding and oversight directly from Texas Education Agency. The KIPP schools own a good culture as the sustained commitment of students, teachers, and parents became the hallmark of the schools. As a result, the school management could ensure the active participation of parents in this education program. Academic discipline is one of the most prominent qualities that the KIPP schools managements do not like to compromise with. In addition to the academic growth, the KIPP schools also ask at the overall development of each student as an individual. The schools give great emphasis on the recruitment of qualified teachers, and it has largely contributed to the overall success of the KIPP schools. The teachers are given the freedom to practice their own instructional styles and techniques and that makes the KIPP schools different from other public schools. However, above all, the creative strategic formulation of Mike Feinberg and David Levin was the prime val factor that intensified the rapid growth of KIPP schools. II. In my opinion, KIPP schools must be replicated since their initial ventures were successful. Although, the replication strategy assists the KIPP schools to expand largely, this process would raise numerous challenges to the management. For instance, Feinberg and Levin approach a series of challenges when they planned to launch their middle school program. They engaged in different phases of negotiations in order to get off legal sanction from authorities. The uniform issue may become a barrier to KIPP school replication program also. While carrying out the proposed program, it is necessary to recruit new principals and train them efficiently. It would be a cumbersome task for Feinberg and Levin to ensure improved training packages for these new recruits. Presently, revenue for both schools is gained from public funds controlled either by school districts or state agencies. Since major portion of KIPP schools econom ic needs are financed by governmental authorities, the KIPP schools do not face financial crisis. However, the replicated schools may not get adequate financial assistance from government and such a situation would adversely affect this program. Lack of building facilities may also mitigate the authorization of new replication program. In addition, the new replication program would meet difficulty in recruiting sufficient fresh batches of fifth graders. Although the initial KIPP school programs are successful, if the students do not give enough priority to their education, it may adversely affect the basic objective of the proposed program. III. It is advisable for Feinberg, Levin, and Hamilton to design a specific road for the implementation of the proposed p

Monday, June 17, 2019

In a number Of crimes (the) function (of criminal law) is simply to Essay

In a number Of crimes (the) function (of criminal law) is simply to enforce a moral principle and nothing else Lord Devlin (19 - Essay ExampleOver four thousand years ago, prior to Abrahamic times, there is documentary evidence that morals and laws were seen as the same thing and morals and laws were seen to have the backings of the gods (Bottero, 1992). This therefore implies that great deals in prehistoric times derived their moral, religious and ethical authority from the supernatural, in that the rules and systems of these communities were considered to be something that originated from the liquor that backed the society. In modern times, where most people are influenced by the central principles of Judaism, which is the Torah given to Moses, most people believe that the Law is something that was given (Hart, 1994). This is because exodus 19 indicates that God spoke directly to Moses and the Israelite nation at Mount Sinai and gave them the rules and commandments that find it s way to Christian, Jewish and Islamic Laws which form the foundations of most legal systems nearly the world. This therefore indicates that the evolution of legality is strongly connected to religion and legality. Criminal laws and codes are no exceptions because in most cases, actions are criminalized because they are morally treat rather than just legally outlawed. Alter et al 2007 indicate that criminal conviction consists of two pre-requisites, the actus reus (criminal act) and mens rea (criminal intent). In other words, for the law to criminalise an individual, the prosecution moldiness prove beyond reasonable doubts that the accused person had an intention to commit a criminal act and he actually committed the criminal act. However, what is a crime and what is not, is deeply connected to the moral structures of a given society. This paper examines the popular arguments that merge the concepts of legality to morality and also, contrary views that makes them distinct and unco nnected disciplines. Origins of level-headed Structures Law arises as a social technique which co-actively imposes ways of solving conflicts, protecting fundamental values for a societys co-existence. (Marina, 2000). From prehistoric times, people have always seen the need to live in concert as social units. First of all, every family has a head which is often a father. As deduct of his duty, a father is supposed to protect the family and make sure everyone does what is expected of him or her in the family. In more complicated situations, where a number of families lived together in a given social setting, there was the need for all the members to have a leader and other social structures that ensured that people could interact with all(prenominal) other with little friction and disagreements. Leadership and social structures varied widely. Leaders were usually chosen based on the pressing needs at the time. A community could chose a leader based on military yardsticks whilst ano ther could chose a leader based on intellectual or productivity qualities. As pointed out by Bottero (1992), most of these early societies had religious beliefs and systems that linked them to the spiritual realms. Religious and spiritual establishments also had custodians who automatically joined the leadership of the community to govern and maintain social structures with spiritual guidance and directions. Thus for leaders of a community to regulate the life of members of the community, there is the need for a body of

Sunday, June 16, 2019

European Parliament elections Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

European Parliament elections - Essay ExampleEuropean Parliament elections consolidation processes get their legal implementation through variety of agreements between states on creation of various unions and organisations. European Union belongs to such organisations.One of the basic structures of this musical arrangement is the European Parliament. According to the EU legislation it represents people of European Union member-states, the European Parliament represents the people of the states brought together within the European Community (Fouloy, 1994, p. 77).The agreement, which mistaken the creation of joint Parliament of the signatory states, was a part of the Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, which begun the European Union. The first European parliament consisted of 68 deputies delegated by national parliaments of the signatory states of the agreement. The first meeting, in which 142 deputies have taken part, has passed in March, 1958 in Strasburg, du ring which parliament has got the name The European Parliamentary Assembly, which in March, 1968 has turned in the European Parliament.For today the European Parliament consists of representative of 25 member-states of the European Union, which choose their deputies by universal, equal, and secret voting (this principle has started to fix since September, 1976). The quantity of deputies in European Parliament is caused by population of every concrete state of the European Union.

Saturday, June 15, 2019

Is the US still a global hegemonic power Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Is the US still a global hegemonic power - endeavor ExampleThe break-up of the Soviet regime in the late twentieth century, however, changed all that, leaving the united States in a uniquely powerful position in the world. This incident has been labelled a global hegemony based on the Greek word hegemon meaning leader. A hegemony demonstrates supremacy and leaders, but it also implies that there atomic number 18 others who more or less willingly follow this leadership and sustain the hegemony with their support. In modern times the phrase global hegemony the phrase has been defined with an accent on economics as a situation which requires a preponderance of material resources, in toll of raw materials, sources of capital, market dominance and advantages in the employment of highly valued goods. (Kehoane, 1984, p. ) The supremacy of the United states in technology and its ability to influence supranational organizations such as the World Bank and the International financial F und , which support capitalist free market economy ideals, has helped to ensure that America maintained a hegemonic position in the mid twentieth century. some other analysts view the situation of the United States in terms of a theory of hegemonic stability which maintains that the presence of a single, strongly dominant actor in international politics leads to collectively desirable outcomes for all states in the international system. (Snidal, 1985, 579) Snidal argues that the dominance can be exercised in both coercive leadership and benevolent leadership and of course the leader can determine at any point which type to apply. There are two ways in which such a hegemonic power can decline the absolute decline of the dominant actor (e.g. Spain beginning in the late 16th century) or from positive but derivative growth rates through which secondary powers catch up with a former leader (e.g. the decline with growth of the United States after 1960). (Snidal, 1985, 585) It seems that in the fresh millennium a number of other players have finally begun to catch up with the United States, notably the European Union which increasingly acts in a unified strategy on international issues, and China, which is emerging as a new world economic power which has the potential to dwarf even the United States. American hegemony is now being questioned both in terms of its current ability to provide benefits for other countries lower down in the hierarchy, and in terms of its ability to sustain itself in the face of emerging competition. This paper starts from the assumption that the United States was a global hegemonic power, jointly with the U.S.S.R. from 1945 and then in its own serious from the late 1980s at least. It then examines arguments which support the idea that the United States is still a global hegemonic power and arguments against. Economic, political, military and cultural factors are considered in turn, and then the arguments are discussed, explaining why th e hegemonic power of the United States is currently under threat, and concluding in the end that the United States is still a hegemonic power, but that this situation is not likely to last very much longer. 2. Arguments

Friday, June 14, 2019

Presentation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 15

Presentation - Essay ExampleThough their disillusion with the government hugely influences their active participation into the voting process they ar not totally disinterested as shown in 2012 election where two-third had backed ObamaIt is not as though the young people do not affiance part in the political activities or have strong opinion about burning social issues. They support gay marriage, want to legalize abortion and of course, want the drinking age to be lowered. Even though the authenticity of the chart is not established, the information does give insight into the general interests of the young people. Their worry can be accurately gauged from survey result that stress that youngsters are of the view that 57% want smaller government, fewer services and lower tax. At the same time, 66% think government runs programs which are inefficient and wasteful So when students and the young people reel under the burden of student impart with little employment opportunities, thei r dislike for the politics is

Thursday, June 13, 2019

Corporate Social Responsibility in the Tobacco Industry Essay

Corporate Social Responsibility in the Tobacco Industry - turn up ExampleThis research will begin with the statement that the tobacco industry has consistently increased its incarnate social responsibility presence in the nightspot as a public relations exercise. This is with the intention of negating the ills of its operations on the society. Nevertheless, regardless of its efforts, smoking continues to cause death, deforestation, child labor and environmental degradation at a level that should be stopped by all means possible. The tobacco industry has capitalized on the health, social, economic and environmental problems its causes as a worry opportunity to promote its prototype without sincerely addressing the problems CSR is supposed to tackle. Therefore, the industrys CSRP is not ethical and defeat the key essence of CSR principles in the business origination. The corporate social responsibility attempts by the British American Tobacco Malaysia, which involved assistance t o tobacco farmers, charitable donations, scholarships grants, and anti-smuggling enforcement, succeeded in improving the companys image in the public and negating criticism directed at its activities. The continued uncensored operations would lead to more public health and environmental problems for the world. Tobacco cultivation worldwide directly causes environmental degradation through soil depletion and erosion, and water table pollution. In developing countries, child laborers exposed to harmful pesticides and nicotine poisoning qualify tobacco farming. This is unethical and unacceptable. There are serious concerns for environmental sustainability as tobacco farming causes around 4 % of the worlds annual spheric deforestation and the company has no effective measures of dealing with these problems. Transnational tobacco companies CSR initiatives are deceptive and seek to increase smoking and tobacco farming, which Increases their profits. In my view, the multinational tobac co companies have violated various global business standards in their persistent effort to defeat the various strategies and regulations aimed at controlling the tobacco industry. The world health organization advances most of these schemes.

Wednesday, June 12, 2019

How Bespoke In The Face Of Challenges Find A New Way To Work Essay

How Bespoke In The Face Of Challenges Find A New Way To Work - Essay congresswomanConsidering the attention and time invested to detail while creating a indicate suit, the costs are justifiable. It is cheaper, compared to a ready to wear garments. Similar services are provided by couture industry, however, the customer pays for a tailored suit at the same time purchasing the glamor of the name o the designer. Bespoke tailoring is moderately priced. In addition, with the increase in prices, many customers realized the convenience of bespoke tailoring. According to Timothy Everest a Savile Row Tailor, women preferred men tailors to haute couture. He further states that bespoke trousers are cheaper in British. (De La Haye, 1997)Savile Row tailors at Hawkes and Gieves can produce a suit that costs up to 1400. However, there are many itsy-bitsy bespoke businesses in the UK that offer affordable prices. In the year 2010, Raymond Andrews, a gents bespoke tailor advertised a three go sui t at 400. Contrary a wool jacket from Yves Winter was sold at 3174.Modern tailoring originated in the nineteenth century. By thus mens tunics had become short and close to the personify in a fitting manner. Since then, the tailoring method of making the fabric to fit the body evolved and still in existence to date. Throughout the centuries that followed, skills developed along with the fashions demands. Continuously, the current three piece suit has been reworked. Slowly it evolved from tunic in the fourteenth century, to frock coat in the seventeenth century and in mid-nineteenth century classic form. In the nineteenth century bespoke tailoring became famed and maintained the popularity before being taken over by ready-to-wear in the 1950s. Through several revivals, the world has recognized its richness in heritage and craft. This is evident in the wardrobes of the respectable Victorian male interpretation, to the attractiveness of Edward VIII and stars in Hollywood. Its

Tuesday, June 11, 2019

English - Fast Food Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

English - Fast Food - Essay ExampleIn this case, closely fodder would be the best choice. Serving individuals quick interest is essential in saving time and money. An individuals duration has a great influence on the eating habits of many people. Sometimes the type of duty that an individual does in the society would influence the amount of food that that individual would take. It is usually important to know nutritional inwardness of any food. Studies indicate that promotion of immobile food by many restaurants has led to offset in number of its consumers. It further alludes that many people do not care about the nutritional content of prodigal food. The nutritional content of prodigal food would influence health status of its consumer. Some people suffer from nutritional related disorders because of ignorance when it comes to make choices of what food to take. Various methods employed in preparing unbendable food would influence the content of nutrient it contains. Observa tion of human health requirement helps in making the right choice of food. This paper explores health impacts of fast food. Fast food attracts many people who have limited time to go for other meals. For instance, research indicates that many students take fast food because of limited time and nature of life they lead. Many students like buying ready-made food for their lunchtime meals. Many students prefer foods that are convenient, attractive, and cheap. Fast food is quite tempting because it has all the above attributes. The social space in school also promotes consumption of fast food in most institution. Attractive coming into court often influences students to buy fast food. Other consumers of fast food include dating couples who would like to spend nice time together. Studies show that many fast foods contain high-energy nutrients (Watson 6). Other nutrient content of fast food include protein and vitamin among others. Knowledge of nutrient content in fast food is precise essential since it would influence the quantity of fast food that an individual would consume. For instance, research indicates that a bite of potato snack contain about 10 grams of Trans round (Hales & Lauzon 258). This fat is unhealthy to the body. This means that when an individual consumes large amount of snacks, the level of unhealthy fat in the body would increase. Human body responds to fat content in the food by accumulating them. This is usually dangerous because fat accumulation leads to overweight. Health research indicates that individuals that individuals who consume food rich in fats should burn alike amount of calories in order to avoid dangers of any fat related disorder. Health problems associated to consumption of food rich in fat include instinct disorders. Scientific research indicates that accumulation of fats in the body would impair line of business circulatory system that supplies blood to the brain. This in turn retards the body function of an individual . rakehell circulation is essential since it supports function of body organs. Failure of body organs may result to death. Studies reveal that too much accumulation of fat on the blood circulatory system may stop blood delivery to the heart. Heart is a very essential organ in the human body. Its failure results to minute death. Many children who suffer obesity have high level of fat content in the body. Health studies reveal that children who suffer obesity at younger age may suffer heart failures at old age (Watson 25). Some studies also indicate that the condition might proceed to

Monday, June 10, 2019

THE EARLY REPUBLIC Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

THE EARLY REPUBLIC - Coursework ExampleHe one time owned more than 40 slaves in his plantation in early 1774 including children belonging to his slaves who began working for him at the age of ten. People felt that his acts contradicted his belief where every human had a right to liberty. He was forced to destroy the slave trade, thus upsetting other elite planters who depended on slavery for their riches.Thirdly, Artisans in Eng make for consisted of individuals such as Paul Revere who is termed as a subversive of his time. In 1964, he opposed the British policies that touched on revenue, thus spending much of his time attending meetings and educating people through his anti-British slogans. One of the policies that he was upset at is referred to as Resisting the Navigation Act which restricted their trading practices with other people. (Andrews 31)Yeomen farmers occupied the smallest lands in the southern colonies an idea that made fee drop by the government. Despite spending muc h of their energy working hard on their farms, they found themselves in powerful positions in the imperial government. The main antecedent Yeomen wanted political positions were for them to get a favorable channel where they could address their grievances such as the infringement of a free mans right.Lastly, the line settlers included the Scots and Germans who were awarded a piece of land under the Declaration of trans-Appalachian settlement policies by King George III (Andrews 53). He declared that the mountainous land situated to the west of Appalachian would not be occupied by any white because it belonged to the Indians. The whites were upset with this decision because this land was not to be exchange to them and that the existing residents were forced to

Sunday, June 9, 2019

Controversial Issue of Use of Cookies in Web Browsers Essay

Controversial Issue of Use of Cookies in Web Browsers - Essay ExampleMany internet grades have incorporated cookies in the explore engines for various purposes. Usage of cookies is more prevalent in e-commerce sites, which depend on the activities and information of the customer to customize the search engine to the preferences of the customers. Cookies store small sections of curriculum codes and memories that can be retrieved later. Use of cookies is always well-intended. However, there has been claims that site owners use cookies to track important information from the users. This is even more controversial considering that cookies operate discreetly without the knowledge of the user. Whether use of cookies is beneficial or risky to internet users has remained a controversial issue for a long time and therefore, this paper explores this controversy and in conclusion supports that use of cookies is indeed beneficial to internet users. Proponents of use of cookies argue that use of cookies makes site browsing easier, more efficient and user-friendly. According to Palmer while e-commerce has grown cursorily in recent years, some of the practices associated with certain marketing aspects of marketing such(prenominal) as pop-ups, cookies and spam have raised concerns on the side of the internet users (Palmer, 2005). For instance, e-commerce sites such as Amazon use cookies to keep track of user activities. User information is recorded and kept as cookies, site preferences are recorded as well as credit card and vital personal information. Users do not have to re-enter such information in subsequent site visits, therefore, making browsing easier and safer. However, it is possible for some sites to use such information unethically. For instance, site preference information can be used for advertisement purposes and not necessarily to benefit the site user.

Saturday, June 8, 2019

Contracting and Procurement in Project Management College Essay

Contracting and Procurement in Project Management College - Essay ExampleHowever, it is also important to understand that the impairment of each contract mostly vary from project to project depending upon the requirements of the each project. These terms largely depend upon the preference for quality, economy, flexibility as well as speed with which agreed terms and conditions of the contract squirt be delivered.Under these contracts, the allowable cost associated with the contract argon identified first as these be would be major costs to make buying and selling on the agreed terms of the contract. All the costs incurred therefore by the sellers atomic number 18 reimbursed by the buyer in the end according to the agreed terms of the contract.This type of contract can be highly risky for the buyer because the total costs associated with the contract always remain un authoritative despite they are being identified. Any cost over-runs has to be borne by the buyer if contract terms go awry and does not remain within the control of either the buyer or the seller. However, on the positive side, scope changes in such kind of contracts are easy to make and buyer can do it anytime he wants however, this may increase the total cost of the contract.As discussed above that the cost reimbursable contracts are highly uncertain therefore contractors have very little ambitions or advantage to produce efficiently and productively. However, such kind of contracts helps contractors or sellers to pass on the change magnitude costs to the buyer. much(prenominal) types of contracts are used when there is a greater uncertainty associated with the project and are used for projects which involve large investments being do in early part of its life.There are also sub-types of cost reimbursable contracts. These are1) Cost plus Fee are contracts where contractors are not scarcely reimbursed of their total cost incurred but also a certain percentage of the overall cost of the cont ract. The percentages are decided before entering into the contract and are mostly documented in the contract.2) Cost plus fixed fee are contract where the whole cost is charged back along with certain agreed fixed fee as the contract completion fee. This fixed fee is often considered as the profit of the seller. (, 2007).3) Cost plus incentive is a type of contract where the buyer not only reimburse the total cost to the seller but also provide a certain tot as an incentive fee for exceeding the performance against the agreed contract terms. Such kind of terms may ensure better performance on the part of the seller as it provide them an added incentive to perform and execute the contract in most efficient way. This type f contract can beneficial to both the buyer and the seller if well written and can be a good alternative to the cost reimbursable contract.Fixed Price ContractsSuch types of contracts fix a certain specific fee for the goods and services to be rendered before entering

Friday, June 7, 2019

Substance Abuse Essay Example for Free

Substance Abuse EssayOBJECTIVEAnalyze specified social problems facing contemporary fall in States. The social problem taken into consideration in contemporary United States is fondness abuse. The World Health Organisation (2014) defined substance abuse as the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances including alcohol and other illicit .Psychoactive substance use can lead to a dependence syndrome, that is to say, a cluster of behavioural, cognitive and psychological phenomena that develop after a repeated use and that typically include a strong urge to take the substance and finding difficulties in controlling its use. Substance abuse is a social canker in contemporary US. Examples of substances that ar abused are marijuana, inhalants, cocaine, heroin and alcohol. deal abuse these substances due to various reasons and the society in which we live has a hand in this social canker.It is now common to see young quite a little specially adolescents engaging and exper imenting with substances such as alcohol, cocaine, morphine and tobacco in the US. Substance abuse actually affects the persons, the society and the government of the US. Substances abuse has adversarially affected the thriftiness of the US due to the fact that resources which could lead been used to further develop the US have been channelled to controlling substance abuse and its associated problems. Many violent crimes have been linked to the mind- altering set up of substances abused. Substance abusers often commit theft to support their drug habits. In contemporary US, more than half of the economic woo of alcohol and drugs is due to crime. Most substance abusers are involved in criminal activities such as gang rape, assault, armed robbery and these criminal activities rightfully affect US negatively.Another extent at which substance abuse affects the United States is the incident of diseases. Most of the abused substances have harmful health effects which downsizes the U nited States. Diseases attributable to substance abuse which affects the US negatively are high blood pressure, stroke, heart damage, and tetanus, HIV/AIDS, diarrhoea and cirrhosis as tumesce as several degrees of cancers. The diseases outlined costs the US billions of dollars in treating them and the monies used in treating these diseases could have been used in other developmental sectors. From my own sociological prospect, a sociological theory is a set of ideas that provides a detailed explanation of any occurrence or happeningsin the society.Based on my perspective of sociological theory, I would say as a fact that peer pressure is one of the main causes of substance abuse in contemporary US.US is a nation where the societal power of peers really exists. In a society, everyone wants to be seen as a member of a group or class and stock-still better still associated with a group. When this happens, those left in a group of substance abusers are left with no option than to use and abuse substances such as cocaine, alcohol and marijuana due to the fear of being left out in that particular group or class.Pressure from peers is a major(ip) causing factor of substance abuse because a peer group is a strong agent of socialization in the society peer groups are able to influence other individuals in the group to abuse substances because it makes them smart in class, it boosts confidence in them and other persuasive reasons which has the tendency to influence the individual to also abuse such substances.REFERENCE1. World Health Organization. (2014). Substance abuse. Retrieved 11-11-14 from http// abuse/en/

Thursday, June 6, 2019

Pest Analysis Essay Example for Free

Pest Analysis Essay3.(a) Training weapons plat tier Companies who work hard to meet the makes of their employees muckle cultivate a work atmosphere conducive to productivity. Being able to plan for the needs of employees by thinking ahead can help to emend the rate of skilled employees who chose to remain working for a company. Improving the employee retention rate can dishonor the silver companies spend on finding and gentility new employees. It is important to consider employees may want or need and what the company can reasonably supply. Providing specialized on-site grooming, even if provided by precedential members of the company, and offering one-on-one assessment and coaching sessions, can help employees reach peak performance rates. After being hired on, a strong training and mentoring program can help a new member of the staff commence up to speed on company policies and any current or ongoing projects they will be working on. To help employees perform at their best, a company can follow up with continual training programs, coaching, and symmetric assessment. Investing in the development of its employees can allow a company to exercise out more consistent products. Incentive systemAn incentive program represents a substantial investment to most governances. Engaging all employees to participate in the program will help them receive a sufficient get on their investment. Based on the concept of quality performance, incentive programs will increase an employees perception of themselves in achieving their program goals. In rescript to properly motivate, programs must(prenominal) be designed to offer a variety of products and services to employees based on their interests and needs. The programs need to pee c arefully determined their rewards methodology in order to maintain an employees motivation. In addition, successful campaigns require clearly defined rules, aligned rewards, efficient communication strategies and measurable success metrics.By combining each of these elements into the program, companies are better able to engage program participants and enhance the overall program effectiveness. In order to create an effective incentive program, an organic law must defend the overall objective in mind when considering program design and implementation. Objectives should be clearly defined based on the companys goals and need to be specific so employees ensure their expectations. Objectives can vary depending on the needs of each organization and they should be challenging, yet achievable. If objectives are viewed as unattainable, the program will not be successful. Once the program goals have been defined, all aspects of the program should be measured against this goal in order to ensure the programs success.3.(b) communication network Communication is the win over of useful information between and among people and organizations to support decisions and coordinate activities. Within an organization, inform ation should be communicated to worry and other employees who need it in a form and within a time frame that helps them to carry out their responsibilities. Communication also takes place with outside parties such(prenominal) as customers, suppliers and regulators. Management should ensure that there are open lines of communication for both staff and anxiety to use. Open communication fosters reporting of both positive and negative results to the appropriate level of management without the fear of reprisal. Management should ensure that it takes the proper actions to address these results. For example, management may decide to establish new goals and objectives to take advantage of newly identified opportunities discuss and retrain staff to correct procedural errors or adjust control activities to minimize a change in risk. Hierarchy of objectiveObjectives are the organizations coveted outcomes. They are a product of the planning process and are necessary for coordinating effor ts within an organization. Without clearly defined objectives, employees could be working in irrelevant directions. Objectives can be organizational or operational. Management derives organizational objectives from the mission and often develops them during the strategic planning process. They are long-range, broad statements, which define the desired outcomes of the organization as a whole. Good organizational objectives can sue as starting points for more specific and detailed objectives within the subunits (i.e., divisions, departments, bureaus and assessable units) of the organization.They also serve as standards for evaluating overall organizational performance. Management derives operational objectives from the broad organizational objectives. Operational objectives are shorter-range, more specific and define the desired outcomes of each of the organizations subunits. They should be structured in a hierarchy so that each subunits accomplishment of its operational objectives helps the next higher level achieve its operational objectives, all of which helps management meet its organizational objectives. All objectives should be in writing. Management should provide employees with written organizational and operational objectives along with the mission statement.Management should ensure that employees understand the objectives and how their work helps to achieve them. Finally, just as changes in the environment can affect the adequacy and relevancy of the mission statement, these same factors also affect an organizations objectives. For an organization to function effectively and grow, it should periodically reassess its organizational and operational objectives.Companys name De vest Fashion Berhad Industry Fashion Industry3.1 policy-making Factors To improve consumers spending in the clothing fabrication, the Malaysian government has implemented the Mega Carnival Sale which is to be held 3 times a year. Its main mean is to promote Malaysia as a value for money shopping destination. This aggressive approach calls on to the tourist to shop at the local malls, which in turn would increase foreign tourist spending and thus increase the countrys foreign exchange earnings. Furthermore, this approach would encourage the Malaysians to shop locally, which would benefit Elba Holdings Bhd in terms of their sales. Malaysia is a member of the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA), which aims to reduce trade barriers between the member countries Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, the Philippines, Brunei, Vietnam, Laos and Myanmar.This has created an opportunity for the home(prenominal) companies, like Elba Holdings Bhd to venture into the overseas market, such as Vietnam, where by the sell market there is lucrative for foreign investors. However, with AFTA, foreign investors would be interested in the Malaysian market, and with new foreign entrants, competition becomes uncut for Elba Holdings Bhd. In addition to this, the Malaysian governmen t attempted to stabilize the retail industry after its slump in the 97 crisis by reducing inflationary pressures in the form of tariffs reductions, so that foreign investors would invest in the domestic market.The result of this would transform the retail industry into a competitive market, making it troublesome for Elba Holdings Bhd to be a dominant player in the clothing sector as healthy as a market leader. Under the Eighth Malaysian Plan covering 2001-2005, the retail industry is expected to play a more pressures prominent role in the growth of the economy, due to a sustain economic growth and expansion of the tourism industry. A fair trade policy and law will be formulated to prevent collusion, cartel bell fixing, market allocation and the abuse of market power. New distribution modes will be developed such as franchises, direct sales, factory outlets, and e-commerce, to provide the consumers with a variety of choice. 3.2 Economic FactorsMalaysias economic growth is to be m aintained at 4.5% in 2003 and expand further to 5.5% or 6.0% in 2004, taking into account the foreign demand conditions and the economic impact of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in the first half of 2003. The economic growth is expected to be due to the domestic market with growth in the private sector. The private sector makes up the bulk of the Malaysian economy, with private consumption accounting for nearly 44% of GDP. condescension the recovery in the sign of the zodiac consumption over the last few years, inflation has remained unchanged. The overall inflation rate is expected to be at 1.5% in 2003 mainly due to mild deflationary from major global economies. Looking at the earlier years, total retail sales in Malaysia amounted to RM46.9 billion in 2001, with a 3.7% increase over2000.Having experienced healthy growth per annum from 1990, the Asian crisis caused total retail sales to plummet by21.2% in 1998. Reduced consumption and increased nest egg were some of the major causes of the significant decline. Apart from challenging economic conditions, 2001 also had unexceptional events that threatened to have a major impact on retail businesses. The recovery of the retail industry in Malaysia has been gradual, having yet to return to a pre-crisis level. The first quarter of 2001 had a slowdown of the retail industry as a result of the economic crisis in the United States. The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States had further dampen the potential of economic recovery in the country. Nevertheless, the industry managed to have an overall growth rate of 3.7% in 2001. Retail industry growth rate was above GDP growth rate for the entire year. The fall in consumer confidence resulted in reduced consumption and increased savings.The government subsequently launched a national campaign on wise spending, with the aim to educate consumers on the importance of domestic demand on the GDP growth and economic recovery as a whole. The Love Malaysia, Buy Malaysia campaign was also launched to get Malaysians to buy local products and take local holidays. This effort proved successful. The implications of these economic events had affected the growth of Elba Holdings Bhd, due to a fall in the tourism industry as well as the reduction in consumers spending. The company was adversely affected in terms of its financial position, and it was impossible to have a double-dyed(a) recovery due to unfavourable economic events reoccurring, for instance SARS.3.3.Social Factors Malaysian is classified as an upper middle-income country, and considered as one of the most developed of developing countries. warmness income households defined as those earning between RM1, 500 and RM3, 500 per month, and has increased from 32.3% of total household population in 1995 to 37% in 1999. The low-income group, categorized by household income of up to RM1, 500 per month, spend a proportion of this amount on food. Meanwhile, the high and mid dle income households spend most of their money at hypermarkets. A comminuted percentage of about 3.4% of their income is spent on clothing and foot wear.There has been a decrease in consumers spending since 2000, because consumers have begun to realise the values of money especially since the 97crisis took place. It is now slowly picking up in 2003.Malaysias consumers lifespanstyle has been changing to rising affluence and education levels. High profile retailers as well we global mass media have shaped consumers buying behaviour, resulting in the Malaysians being more westernised. The Malaysians life leisure life revolves around trendy shopping malls, such as one utama, mega mall, and klcc. Thus Elba Holdings Bhd has to me more update and kept abreast with the latest trends. They have to advertise and keep the consumers informed and reminded that they still exist and bring up clothing with style and quality.3.4 Technological Factor With the Internet and e-commerce, retailers ca n now sell their products on line and deliver it to customers on their door-step. It can make customers life a lot easier as they need to have to go to the city to make a purchase. Furthermore, retailers can also sell their products to the overseas market without the need to physically enter the foreign country. Microsoft (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd and Sdn Bhd, a subsidiary of the Federation of Malaysian Manufacturers(FMM), signed a memorandum of understanding to develop and operate a supply-chain hub for the retail sector, known as the Malaysian Retail Exchange.The Malaysian Retail Exchange is part of FMMs broad e-commerce initiative to assist manufacturers transact electronically with their trading partners as a community. The Exchange will provide the infrastructure and technology to connect manufacturers, distributors and retailers to adopt electronic trading in order to improve speed of communication, reduce transaction costs, better synchronization of supply with consumer demand and significantly improve inventory management.FMMs initiative is in line with the governments call to Malaysian businesses to be sceptred with the tools of emerging technologies to improve operational efficiency and hence, competitiveness in amore open economy. The result of this would bring closer ties to the entire retailer in the retail industry, nevertheless in the case of Elba Holdings Bhd, the company stills practice the orthodox methods of getting to the consumers, and this has caused them to be laid back with other competitors such as Padini Holdings Bhd.

Wednesday, June 5, 2019

Introduction Of Information And Communication Technologies Commerce Essay

Introduction Of Information And Communication Technologies Commerce EssayIn this era of modernisation, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) play a vital character in businesses and firms of all sizes. The term ICT has progressed and evolved to include m all aspects of computing and technology, and has indeed accommodate very distinguishable. In this essay, the ways in which the introduction of ICT affects force out relations in the workplace impart be discussed. First, a definition of the phrases ICT and mightiness relations in the workplace will be provided. In what follows, I will establish the particular do that ICT directly brings to the workplace namely surveillance, a change to organization structure, increased conversation as well as how it skills and deskills thespians. description on how these effects subsequently affect power relations in the workplace will then be provided.The Information Technology Association of the States defines ICT as the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly softw ar applications and computer hardware. ICT involves converting, protecting, transferring, keeping and receiving information. This is all done with the aid of computers and software.On the other hand, power refers to the ability to translate influence or make a difference. The actions of one soulfulness affect that of another. According to Foucault (1988), within the field of power relations, what one person does affects a second, which affects a third, and so on. The characteristic of power relations is that, as agents in the structure, some men gutter more or little attend other mens conduct, but never exhaustively (David Owen, 1994). Power relations precipitate all the strategies, the networks, the mechanisms, all those techniques by which a determination is accepted and by which that decision could not but be ingestn in the way it was. Foucault goes on to say that Power relations are multiple they pick up different forms, they can be in play in family relations, or within an institution, or an administration or between a dominating and a dominated class. In this essay, it can be summarized that power relations in the workplace means the ability to affect how other commonwealth within the workplace do work. supervisionThe introduction of Scientific Management, also known as Taylorism saw an era where managers strived for go over proles. The introduction of ICT to the workplace has relinquished managers to practice methods of thespian surveillance that create never been seen before. ICT has breakn managers the ability to pry on their staff by doing things like keystroke counting, listening in on phone conversations (to monitor quality of proceeds provided by staff), telephone call accounting (registering information about the time, duration, destination and cost of phone calls), entry and exit controls using smart cards (which give information on staff whereabouts), electronic cash registers and product scanning systems (provides details on who handles what merchandise, volume handled and how cost-effectively), the reading of electronic mail and the use of depiction cameras for video recording surveillance (After ILO, 1993, pp. 12 13).In the past, managers were only able to monitor the performance of whole departments by monitoring things like quantity and quality of products produced. However, novel information technologies have enabled employers to gather highly detailed performance related data regarding not only the work but each individual doer it self. This can now be done on a minute by minute basis and often without the employee world aware (Gandy, 1993 Lyon, 1994).The information garner by managers is most of the time in like manner overwhelming to go through stringently. Power relations become relevant when this vast information about worker performance is collected. This is because man agers must now decide if or how to use the information gathered on worker performance. Due to the economic demands to become more efficient and more profitable, managers are pressured to use the information at hand to hopefully enhance performance and efficiency of workers (Susan Bryant, 1995). Managers or employers will be able to take courses of action based on the worker performance information. For instance, reprimanding individual employees for dismal performance or changing standard operating procedures. One of the side effects of this is that it legitimizes decisions to further intensify worker surveillance for the benefit of profitability and efficiency.Modern surveillance in the workplace can be modelled after Jeremy Benthams Panopticon the prison tangled designed whereby prison guards would be able to watch prisoners without being watched back (Zuboff, 1988). Neverthe slight workplace surveillance using ICT differs from Benthams Panopticon because workers are certain tha t they are being watched all the time. The constant visibility and unverifiability that employees experience through workplace surveillance may have significant positive implications on the way they work (Zuboff, 1988, p. 321).A phenomenon that Zuboff refers to as anticipatory conformity often happens because of the mere existence of surveillance. Since workers are aware they are consistently being watched, a culture of self correspond tends to take place to reduce the risk of unwanted discovery. This is interesting because it allows change in the way workers work without management having to take extra action. This worker self discipline helps prove Foucaults argument (1979) that sooner or later, individuals become bearers of their own surveillance. (Lyon, 1994, pg. 133) Even if workers dont willingly self discipline themselves, it is highly likely that because of the readily functional system generated information about each others performance, peer surveillance and intervention will get to them before management intervention will (Laabs, 1992 Lyon, 1994). As employees become more and more accustomed to surveillance methods, employees may be able to get away with doing less by working around existing systems to bend detection. However, such occurrences are deemed to be less likely to happen compared to trends of conformity (Zuboff, 1988).It may also be argued that surveillance encourages workers to work harder and to become more arable as their efforts are now more easily recognized by management. This means that individual workers are more likely to be rewarded for putting in extra effort. Furthermore, employees are less likely to be put at fault for the wrongs of others. This phenomenon also happens automatically because of the existence of surveillance in the workplace without any direct intervention from management (Zuboff, 1988).The last two points show how the existence of ICT in the workplace (which allows for worker surveillance) may allow for ma nagement to relax control over workers and at the same time expect positive returns whilst having to exert less authority or power in the workplace.Communication and Organization mental synthesisThe introduction of ICT has allowed us to interact at almost same speeds a matter of seconds regardless of whether we are a a couple of(prenominal) meters or a few miles away from one another. In the past two decades following the birth of utilities like e-mail and ultra fast internet connections, the workplace has experienced a significant change in operating procedures and structure due to this advancement in communication capabilities.Firms are now able to function on a transnational basis. Managers from firms are able to operate from their home countries without having to incur the financial, physical and opportunity cost of leaving their home country (or at least less often). The ability to communicate over distances and at such great speed has allowed managers to run things thousan ds of miles away on a real time basis. The complexity of a firm may change from that of vertically complex to horizontally complex due to the ability of managers on top of the power structure to communicate with more people at a greater ease. The need for extra layers of hierarchy to delegate projects becomes unnecessary because of better communication technology.Workers at the lower end/bottom of hierarchy may find it easier to pitch ideas because there may be less red tape to go through before their idea can be proposed. On the other hand, CEOs may find that instructions are conveyed to their subordinates more clearly and effectively because these instructions need not be passed on to too many an(prenominal) levels of management before it reaches everyone.The ability to communicate with ICT may also affect the centralization of a firm. A centralized firm is one where decisions in the organization are concentrated at one point. The introduction of ICT will become a catalyst to th e decentralization of a firm (John Bratton, 2007). With ICT, it is much easier for of age(p) management to solicit information and ideas from workers down the hierarchy. This is because, as mentioned, the means of communication make conveying and soliciting an idea much naiver than before. Prior to this, a physical coming upon with high level management would be needed to pitch an idea which means that it would virtually be impossible for a low rank worker to contribute any ideas to the firm. With the improved ability to communicate amongst workers and management, senior management might be willing to give more decision making impropriety to workers since their input would be more accessible. This has a major impact on power relations in a firm because communication may allow for control to be relaxed as decision making input may come from both sides of the hierarchy.Having said that, the extensive use of e-mail and electronic communication in the workplace means people seldom e ver have to meet (Argyll and Cook, 1976). Not physically meeting takes away the ability to analyze the personalised construct of others (Adam Webber, 1981). Personal construct theory deals with a range of professional social skills that enable people to analyze interactions from different perspectives and make judgements about peoples personalities and meanings. These skills are drawn from physical interaction with individuals. The effects of this are adverse because little or no consideration will be taken about workers feelings and personality.Deskilling and Enskilling seamDeskilling is defined as a reduction in the proficiency needed to perform a proper(postnominal) job, which leads to a corresponding reduction in the engage paid for that job (Bratton, 2007). In the Taylorist context, the deskilling argument focuses on the division of mental and physical labour and the breaking up of complex tasks into smaller, more discrete ones. The system of logic of capitalist productio n requires the constant transformation of techniques of production. This involves an increase in mechanization, automation which results in the displacement of skills (Penn Scattergood, 1985). The workforce becomes even more degraded and deskilled.For instance, fast forage or retail outlets have electronic tills that scan, calculate and tell the cashier how much money to return to the customer as change. The cashiers job is repetitive, relatively simple and easy to keep an eye on because everything is electronic. The main goal of this is to not only ensure worker efficiency but to increase the degree of control the management has over workers. Very little is taken into consideration about worker satisfaction or fulfilment. Harry Braverman notes that the goal of the labour process low capitalism is to generate managerial control for maximization of efficiency and profitability (Glenn and Feldberg, 1979). Due to the fact that workers under this condition only concentrate on specifi c tasks, they lack the skills to do things out of their job requirement, perhaps because they have neglected and hence have forgotten about those skills.On the other hand, let us consider the enskilling argument. Enskilling is described as changes in work often involving technology that result in an increase in the skill level of workers (Bratton, 2007). Many individuals would have been retrenched due to technology making certain manual jobs automated. However, for those who still have their jobs, their job scope would have increased. ICT enables more people do more things. For instance, an editor in a publishing house in the 1970s would only have enough expertise and minutes in a day to be in charge of reading and editing hand written manuscripts whilst having to send them back and forth to the author through traditional postal mail.With ICT, manuscripts may be written, edited, and transmitted digitally which saves time. ICT also makes it easy enough for the 21st century editor to acquire other hands on skills such as video editing and graphic design tasks that would have formerly been left to specialist in those fields. In addition, one would be would be required to exercise many other discrete competencies such as copy editing, marketing skills and negotiating ability (Barry, Chandler, Clark, Johnston, Needle, 2000).Here, it is possible to notice an increase in skill variety, task identity and task feedback. The increased skill of the worker allows managers to give more autonomy to them. This effectively means that management may loosen its control over workers relaxing power relations between management and workers. However, some have argued that this enskilling of workers allow managers to control workers to a higher extent because tasks are now centralized on less individuals compared to when they were spread out over large amounts of people in scientific management.ConclusionI have displayed how the introduction of ICT to the workplace has caused an in crease in worker surveillance, a greater capability to communicate and the enskilling/deskilling phenomena. I have then shown how the mentioned effects of ICT have affected power relations within the workplace by altering the magnitude (increase and decrease) of control, authority and influence management has over workers.

Tuesday, June 4, 2019

The Golden Ratio: Importance

The favorable dimension ImportanceThe great architect of age and every culture, the basis of which is Golden Ratio. Thesis statement What is the Golden Ratio? How after part one number be so important that directless historical figures sport spent legion(predicate) years of their lives studying it and proving its existence? And why is it quiesce so relevant in todays visualise and architecture?IntroductionWhat is the most satisfying proportion in today design? The Greeks thought they knew. Their temples were designed concord to certain rules relating to the favorable section. (Which is what we, layman, k at one time as the Divine Proportion, the Golden Proportion, the Golden Number or even the Golden hat Mean.) In the 13th century, Fibonnaci, an Italian mathematician, put it wholly in all down on paper. He said, the golden section or perfect proportion was 0.618034 to 1 ( astir(predicate) 5 to 8). The Parthenceon (a temple in the Athenian Acropolis that the Greeks built, dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena) fits into Fibonnacis Golden rectangle. Incidentally, so do the pyramids at Giza. Does this make the Golden proportion a necessary rule to follow in design?In the 16th century, Leonardo Da Vinci wrote a book on geometric recreations called Divine Proportion. In 1948 Le Corbusier withal wrote a book on mathematical proportioning. Others who render benefited this ratio are biologists, artists, psychologists and even mystics call for pondered and debated on the basis of ubiquity and appeal. It is fair to say that the Golden Ratio has inspired thinkers of all disciplines like no other numbers in the history of mathematics.Throughout the generations, many architects have also exploreed for the golden rule of design, thinking that it is that of the Golden Ratio. However, their search is far from over. This is because mathematics alone will not tell you what the most eye-pleasing proportion for a constructions body structure is. Proportion must be generically slump and determined by the nature of the material. In other words, it is one thing for stone, another for concrete, and something else for steel. This, we would discuss further in another segment. Present technology has also given architects and engineers unlimited range to compose new forms of design and exciting spaces.My stand is that the Golden Ratio is an important aspect in designing a building save it is not the most crucial. Besides having proportion in a building, functionality is also important. A creative design through the creative cognition of a designer will make the building outstanding.History Background Renaissance PeriodThe Golden Ratio is related to many things in the initiation today, not only during the times of Renaissance, Le Corbusier and Alberti. It exists in architecture, art, music, design and even fashion.Since Renaissance, many artists and architects have proportioned their works to the Golden Ratio, especially in the form of golden r ectangle, in which the ratio of the longer side to the shorter in the Golden Ratio, causing this proportion to be aesthetically pleasing. Mathematicians have study this because of its unique and interesting properties applying it to geometry.Since then, it has undefended up doors for me how I view design and architecture and how it balances harmony to architecture design in this advanced(a) world.Others who have benefited this ratio are biologists, artists, psychologists and even mystics have pondered and debated on the basis of ubiquity and appeal. It is fair to say that the Golden Ratio has inspired thinkers of all disciplines like no other numbers in the history of mathematics.B BodyThe Golden Ratio in the PastFirstly, let us consider what the ancients were trying to achieve by including the Golden Proportion in their design.Taking the building of the Parthenon temple as an simulation, the Greeks have shown a clear cause of proportioned Golden Ratio and design, with it being circumscribed by golden rectangles. slightly scholars, however, denied that the Greeks had any aesthetic association with Golden Ratio. It could have been just pure sensory faculty of good proportion by the architects at that time.Making a building pleasing to ones eyes and creating harmony in space was the main objective. the Greeks simply wanted to achieve perfection that pleases their God, Athena.The Parthenons facade is, or? Unlikely I feel, as it is seen from the pictures, the measurements and the superimpose golden rectangles, these choices are so well made that at that place must be some work of the mathematical calculations to derive such proportioned structure of a building.They feel that it was not until Euclid that mathematical properties were studied. Before Elements (308BC) the Greek merely regarded the number merely as an interesting irrational numbers, with stiff pentagons and decagons and dodecahedron (a regular polyhedron) and regular pentagons. But one thing f or sure, it was the Euclid where it is showed how to calculate the value. Vitruvius (a Roman writer, architect and engineer) discussed proportions where it can be verbalized in whole numbers, as opposed to irrational proportions.Secondly, argon unexampled designers cin one caserned with the issue of Golden Ratio to architectural design? Whether they still apply Golden Ratio?Le Corbusier is said to have contributed to many modern international style architecture, centering on harmony and proportion. Its faith in the mathematical order was closely bound by the Golden Ratio and the Fibonacci series. He uses the Golden Ratio in his modulor system for the scale of architectural proportion. He saw this system as a continuation of the long customs of Vitruvius, and others who used the proportions of the human body, to improve the appearance and function of architecture.In addition to Golden Ratio, Le Corbusier based the system on human measurements, Fibonacci numbers and the epitome un it. He took Leonardos suggestion of the Great Ratio in human proportions to an extreme, he sectioned his model human bodys height at the navel with the two sections in the Golden Ratio, then subdivided those sections in Golden Ratio at the knees and throat he used these Golden Ratio proportions in the Modulor system. The Villa Stein in Garches exemplified the modular system. The Villas rectangular ground, elevation and inner structure closely approximate golden rectangles.Thirdly, Fractal Dimensions in Modern ArchitectureRecently, fractal dimensions have been calculated to be used much for Frank Lloyd Wrights and Le Corbusiers buildings. It can be found that both architects use the method of increasingly smaller rectangular grids. Frank Lloyd Wrights buildings display a self-similar typical over a wide range of scales (far and spaced versus micro small sizes), so those buildings are intrinsically fractal. However for this specific project, Wright was following the brilliant exampl e of his teacher, Louis Sullivan.By contrast, Le Corbusiers architecture displays a characteristic over only two or three of the largest scales. In more detail, Le Corbusiers architecture is monotonic and straight, and therefore has no fractal qualities.A fractal dimension between one and two characterizes a design that has an infinite number of self-similar levels of scale, whereas the fractal dimension of Le Corbusiers buildings immediately drops to one. (Bovill, 1996. Salingaros, 1999.)Golden Ratio has also proven in the Art and NatureLeonardo da Vincis illustrated yet another divine proportion in the infamous characterisation of Mona Lisa. Other equally well known painting which has made use of the Golden Ratio is The Sacrament of the Last Supper by Salvador Dali.The Golden Ratio is expressed in the arrangement of branches along the stems of plants and of veins in leaves and even to the skeletons of animals including their veins and nerves, to the proportions of chemical compo unds and the geometry of crystals, to the use of proportion in artistic endeavours.From this, the Golden Ratio has become a familiar law in strive to create completeness and beauty, with both nature and art, in structure, forms and proportions, organic and inorganic, in the human form.According to Volkmar Weiss and Harold Weiss the Golden Ratio also affects the clock cycle of brain waves, known as psychometric data.Golden Ratio is Relevance in Present TimesModernising the Traditional Intimate Relationship betwixt Architecture and MathematicsThe traditional intimate relationship between architecture and mathematics has changed in the 20th century.Architecture students no longer need to have a mathematical background according to the article Architecture, Patterns and Mathematics by Nikos Salingaros.It may be promoting an anti-mathematical mindset. Mathematics is a science of patterns, the presence or absence of patterns in our surroundings influences how easily one grasp the conce pts that rely on patterns. However, it has been seen that an increase in technological advances, rather especially in the area of environmental factors, has made mathematics almost redundant in architecture.Environmental psychologists know that our surroundings influence the way we think, so if we are raised in an anti-mathematical environment, then we would deem to subscribe more human qualities. This is not an argument about preferences or styles, it concerns more about a trained functionality of the human mindAn example to illustrate the meaning of functionality in the human mind is made by Christopher Alexander wherethe need for lights from two sides of a room a well-defined entre interaction of footpaths and car roads hierarchy of privacy in different rooms of a house and etc. It speaks about specific building types, about building blocks that can be combined in an infinite number of ways.This implies a more mathematical and combinatoric approach to design in general. Alexand rine patterns represent solutions which reduplicate itself in time and space, thus relating to visual patterns transforming into other dimensions.A new concept Organic ArchitectureIn recent years, there has been a transfigure in architecture tactual sensationing away from Golden Ratio to other ways in which design can still have a sense of proportion by demeanoring at nature for inspiration the term given is Organic Architecture.The term organic architecture was coined by the famous modern architect, Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959), though never well expressed by his cryptic style of writingSo here I stand before you discourse organic architecture declaring organic architecture to be the modern ideal and the teaching so much needed if we are to see the whole of life, and to now serve the whole of life, holding no traditions essential to the great TRADITION. Nor cherishing any preconceived form fixing upon us either past, present or future, but instead exalting the simple laws of common sense or of super-sense if you prefer determining form by way of the nature of materials Frank Lloyd Wright, written in 1939.While Organic Architecture does describe some form of individuality, it also expresses our need to connect the designs, we create, to Nature.Using Nature as a fundamental for design, from there a building or design must grow, as Nature grows, from the inside out. Many architects design their buildings as that similar to a shell and power their way inside. Nature grows from the idea of a seed and reaches out to its surroundings. A building thus, is akin to an organism and mirrors the beauty and complexity of Nature.Where the Golden Ratio Fits InHowever, in the research that I have done on this topic, many of the historic scholars who devoted their entire lives to studying the Golden Ratio has always studied nature for inspiration and they derived the Golden Ratio from nature itself. Modern architects who claim to move away from the Golden Ratio as it is too conformist and look towards nature for their inspiration for proportion instead still end up following the Golden Ratio as it was from studying nature that led to the find of Golden Ratio. Hence, the continuing relevance of Golden Ratio in todays architecture.How the Golden Ratio is evident in our everyday livesThe Golden Ratio seen in symphonyRhythm is everywhere in nature, at every scale from cosmic phenomena to the oscillations of atoms. Our every cell has its own clock, governing its own repetitive rhythms. Time itself, once measured by the motion of earth, sun and stars, is now defined, less memorably, as 9,192,631,770 oscillations of a single atom of an obscure metal. At the scale of the biosphere, the fidelity of repercussion in the genetic system is such that no more than about 200 errors are made in copying the 300 million bases thread into the chromosomes that hoard the design of our bodies. Without those errors, however, there could be no change and so no evolu tion.With this is mind, we shall now look at how rhythm ties in with the Golden Ratio. such(prenominal) of the rhythm and movement and design of our bodies and normal everyday life experiences all tie in with the Golden Ratio, how we perceive an object and whether we find it pleasing all goes back to the Golden Ratio. Because it is the one of the universal constants that allow for the interactions between all things on earth, it continues to hold relevance in our lives, regardless of the advancements in technology, which in fact is actually discovering more and more how life and design is so intimately associated with the Golden Ratio.Architectural evidence of the Golden RatioTake a look at modern architecture and you will soon realize that the last decades have produced an increasing number of buildings with exotic shapes. Of course, also in earlier times the design of buildings has been influenced by mathematical ideas regarding, for instance, symmetry. Both historical and modern developments show that mathematics can play an important role, ranging from appropriate descriptions of designs to guiding the designers intuition.C end studyCase Study One Republic Poly Technology of Singapore by Fumihiko MakiFumihiko Maki designed the new campus attempting to preserve the green qualities and the topography of the original site introducing embellish elements that contrast with the natural widerness and strengthen the sense of place based on Golden Ratio.Case Study Two AL Mukminin Mosque In Jurong Eastby Forum Architects built in 1987The adoption of the Fibonacci sequence as a design generator is the intriguing concept of this Mosque, a strong arithmetic pattern. The architects obscure with questions of context and the sense of harmony is gathered from the aspiration.Case Study Three Palladios Villa Rotunda.The Villa Rotonda design is completely symmetrical on all axes under a modern teminology, including diagonals.Case Study Four Taj MahaiTaj Mahai in India cont ains the golden ratio in its design and it was completed in 1648.Case Study Five CN Tower in TorontoThe CN Tower in Toronto, the tallest tower structure in the world, has contains the also has golden ratio in its design. 342 meters was the ratio of observation deck and total height of 553.33 is 0.618 or phi, the reciprocal of PhiCase Study Six California Polytechnic State UniversityThe College of Engineering was also designed based on the Fibonacci numberWhat I have perceived until this momentIn my analysis, Golden Ratio forms the basis of understanding of architecture, however it is not the entirety. Because form follow function, function plays an important part of the architectural design because without understanding the functionally of form, it is not possible to develop a building of good use, for example a good architect must be able to understand the utility of function.For example, the architect must know how many rooms a house needs, whether a swimming pool is infallible o r a badminton court needed. After a form is selected and function must go beyond the concerns of biotechnical foul materialism.The creative architects must go beyond utility technical knowledge to an awareness of experiential associations and symbolic meanings that lies behind the visible form. Beauty in design is not guaranteed when all of the above is satisfied. Some intuition is required by the architect and an outstanding design depends also in skill and intuition with functionality.Therefore, the great architect of age and every culture, the basis of which is mathematical.Word count 2953