Friday, December 27, 2019
The Gender Wage Gap: An Old Problem in a Modern World The pay gap between men and women has been a pressing issue that is still at the forefront of many political and everyday discussions. Women are currently about half of the U.S. labor force and are increasingly becoming the breadwinners of their families yet some statistics show that they still make about 77% less than men. This number is even lower when it comes to women of color in the workforce (WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Bureau U.S. Department of Labor). Although liberals and conservatives agree that there is a difference between what men and women make, their explanations for why this is the case differ tremendously and their approach to a solution differs greatly as well. The liberal politicians in our country feel that the pay disparity between men and women is due to discrimination and they have a set approach to how this can be resolved as soon as possible. The approach used the most in order to lessen the pay gap has been to put various acts and policies into play. The Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009 was the first bill that President Obama signed into law, this act allowed claimants of pay discrimination to be able to bring their case to court over an extended time period. By making this law, women could sue their employer if a male coworker was being paid more for an equal amount of work, they could now initiate a lawsuit from the period of time they found about the discrimination instead of from when theShow MoreRelatedThe Gender Wage Gap Within Society1050 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescounterparts. The gender wage gap has been a real and prevalent thing in our society. Even in the present, women are inclined to get lower salaries than men throughout the world, and most importantly the United States where the constitution says Ã¢â¬Å"all men are created equal.Ã¢â¬ All salaries are on a weekly basis and percentages are cents a woman earns per dollar a man earns. Although, there is much we can do as indiv iduals to stop discrimination in the work force. The United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ wage gap is caused byRead MoreGender Wage Gap And Gender Inequality855 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages In general, the wage gap has narrowed at a slow, and uneven, pace over last three decades. Recent data shows that women in the American workforce earn 77 cents for every dollar a man earns (Trevino). The existence of this Ã¢â¬Å"gender wage gapÃ¢â¬ has been an issue since women entered the workforce. The ongoing issue of the past has now become an apparent problem in our modern-day, progressive society. Women nowadays have opportunities that were not obtainable in past decades but must overcome, or ignoreRead MoreEarning Differences by Gender1121 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespersist. According to some the pay gap persists because: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Men are more likely to pursue college majors and advanced degrees in fields that lead to higher-paying careers. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Women are getting graduate degrees, but not necessarily in fields that give the best salaries. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Discrimination remains a factor and it is difficult to document and measure. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Women on average are working fewer hours than men, often to care for children or other family members. The wage gap narrowed steadily through the 1980sRead MoreGender Wage Gap Of The American Association Of University Women1236 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Gender Wage Gap Lisda Lara Professor Akpo GOVT 2305-P50 August 4, 2016 Throughout our worldÃ¢â¬â¢s history we have seen many grievous instances where discrimination caused severely negative repercussions on how our society functions. The inequity demonstrated by our nation in the past has estranged its residents based on their religion, the color of their skin, their beliefs, and even their gender. With time, our community has become more accepting which has led to the abolishment ofRead MoreThe Gender Wage Gap Within Society1281 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThroughout history females have never been treated fairly compared to their male counterparts. The gender wage gap has been a real and prevalent thing in our society. Even in the present, women are inclined to get lower salaries than men throughout the world, and most importantly the United States where the constitution says Ã¢â¬Å"all men are created equal.Ã¢â¬ All salaries are on a weekly basis and percentages are cents a woman earns per dollar a man earns. Though many are currently working to fix the situationRead MoreThe Gender Wage Gap And Focus On The Discrimination Against Working Women1350 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesurpose: The purpose is to highlight the gender wage gap and focus on the discrimination against working women Thesis: I intend to assert that women deserve to be paid as much as men for the same job by the same employer. Introduction For the same employer and for the same job in the US, on an average, women get 79 cents for every dollar earned by their male colleagues. This indeed is an alarming figure noting that women haveRead MoreThe Equality Between Women And Men1732 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespercent of what men were paid, a gap of 21 percentÃ¢â¬ . Using the formula, pay gap=(menÃ¢â¬â¢s median earnings-womenÃ¢â¬â¢s median earnings)/menÃ¢â¬â¢s median earnings .In 2014, median annual earnings in the Untied States women and men working full time, year round were $39,621 and $50,383, respectively. 2014 earnings ratio=$39,621/$50,383=79%. 2014 pay gap= (50,383-$39,621)/$50,383=21%. So the earnings differentials between men and women mean that there is a wage gap. The wage gap is a statistical indicator oftenRead MoreEducation And Pay Equality Between Men And Women1105 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFor each problem humanity tries to solve, a new one appears. To add on, humanity now faces two new issues: the fight for e ducational and pay equality. Boys and girls are no longer receiving balanced treatment for education. Parents want the children to have the best education out there and the pay to be equal, but the balance beam that represents equality is tipping side to side instead of staying in place. In America, educational and pay equality between men and women is a serious problem. The payRead MoreGlobal Pay Gap Between Men And Women Essay1478 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAccording to the World Economic Forum, it will take 118 years to close the global pay gap between men and women (WEF). Common recommendations on how to fix this problem, like improved child-care and maternity leave policies, are difficult to implement and costly. However, there are ways to fix other large contributors to the gender wage gap. A frequently overlooked contributor is womenÃ¢â¬â¢s negotiations of their salaries, or lack thereof. Because women tend to negotiate less than men, they on averageRead MoreEssay about Analysis Gender Equality and Gender Discrimination913 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesparticularly bad crisis. But when he finds his father wearing an apron while washing dishes in the kitchen, the son recoils in disgustÃ¢â¬ ¦ The parents of an 18-year-old girl describe their fear that their daughter will be an old maid because she is so terribly bright and independent. They decide tha t the mother will have a Ã¢â¬Å"talk with herÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Changing Gender NormsÃ¢â¬ Eliman-Taggart)Ã¢â¬ An analogous philosophy is introduced in the novel A Game of Thrones by George R. R. Martin. In the series, Arya, daughter of Lord
Thursday, December 19, 2019
B.F. SkinnerÃ¢â¬â¢s theory had a great impact on theorists in modern psychology. His work played a big part in psychology and has been analyzed by people for numerous for years. SkinnerÃ¢â¬â¢s theories have advised and helped humans in many different ways. He was a very educated man and had studied the behavior patterns of many living organisms. His most important work was the study of behaviorism. What really makes Skinner s studies complicated was the fact that we are all different as humans. Human beings are unique in most of their operations and this made his research difficult. This made the analyzers have meticulous observation and deep studies in their actions. This research paper will explore the life, achievements of B.F. Skinner and his theories on human behavior. Primarily focusing on the contributions that Skinner has made in the field of psychology. In addition, it will describe some of the theories that Skinner uncovered. Skinner s early life Burrhus Frederic (B.F) Skinner was born on March 20, 1904, in Pennsylvania in a small town by the name of Susquehanna, (population about 2,500). He was raised in that town until the age of eighteen when he left for college. Skinner s family was considered a middle-class family. He was raised by his parents William and Grace Skinner. She almost died while giving birth to Skinner. His mother, Grace Skinner was a stay home mother. She was well known in her community for her amazing voice and her beauty. His father, WilliamShow MoreRelatedThe Skinner s Theory Of Self Awareness, And Moral Autonomy Of The Individual Essay1604 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesB.F Skinner was one of the most intelligence physiologist and a man who borderline on frightening traits for a physiologist when it came to creating learning theories, due to his cruelty towards his experiments and the way he view society structured. Learning theories can be viewed as mental concepts informing human beings or society, how informa tion is gathered, processed, and how individuals retained it during learning concepts. Skinner created concepts such as conditioned behavior,Ã¢â¬ positive reinforcementRead MoreThe Theory of Operant Conditioning1136 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages The Theory of Operant Conditioning PSY390 October 6, 2014 Introduction The study of human behavior by psychologists such as B.F. Skinner, Edward Thorndike, Ivan Pavlov, and Watson is fascinating. These five psychologists each have different theories on human behavior. There are similarities and differences in each of the theories. Ivan PavlovÃ¢â¬â¢s classical conditioning theory, studied animals and formed the basis for behavioral psychology (Cherry, 2013). Edward ThorndikeÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of connectionismRead MoreClassic Behavioristic Principles of Psychology Developed by B.F. Skinner1372 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAccording to Gewirtz and PelÃ ¡ez-Nogueras (1992), Ã¢â¬Å"B. F. Skinner contributed a great deal to advancing an understanding of basic psychological processes and to the applications of science-based interventions to problems of individual and social importance.Ã¢â¬ He contributed to Ã¢â¬Å"human and nonhuman behavior, including human behavioral development, and to various segments of the life span, including human infancyÃ¢â¬ (p. 1411 ). One of Skinners greatest scientific discoveries was Ã¢â¬Å"single reinforcementÃ¢â¬ whichRead MoreCarl Rogers Vs. F. Skinner : Which Perspective Is The Most Important?1419 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Carl Rogers vs B. F. Skinner Ã¢â¬â Which Perspective is the Most Important? A long-debated argument in the field of Psychology has been which theory or explanation of human behavior is the most important and the most viable. Is B. F. SkinnerÃ¢â¬â¢s theory that behavior is the result of manÃ¢â¬â¢s response to external stimuli or is Carl RogersÃ¢â¬â¢ theory that manÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior is the result of his determination to achieve self-actualization the best explanation? After much research and thought, I will argue in favorRead MoreEssay Operant Conditioning1743 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesserved . The bell was repeatedly used as a neutral stimulus. The dogs then grew to associate the sound of the bell with food. This type of response is known as a learnt Ã¢â¬Å"conditionedÃ¢â¬ response. The bell is now a conditioned stimulus. Pavlov created a theory to describe the process. The unconditioned stimulus is the object or the event that provokes a response naturally. The response is known as unconditioned response. A neutral stimulus would be a new stimulu s that does not have a response. When theRead MoreF. Skinner s Operant Conditioning Theory1356 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBurrhus F. Skinner or more commonly known as B. F. Skinner is regarded as one of the most influential psychologists in the world by his peers. In comparison to other behaviorist Skinners approach was referred to as radical behaviorism. Behaviorist search to find answers to how humans behave through observations in the environment not in the mind (Conversation 1973). Specifically, B. F. Skinner was not interested in theories that involve speculation, but more importantly theories that could be provenRead MoreUnderstanding the Psychologist Called Burrhus Frederick Skinner1190 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesValerie Rountree Walden University Management in Human and Social Development - MGMT 8010 June 28, 2014 Understanding Burrhus Frederic Skinner B. F. Skinner was one of the most influential of American psychologists. A radical behaviorist, he developed the theory of operant conditioning, the idea that behavior is determined by its consequences, be they reinforcements or punishments, which make it more or unlikely that the behavior will be repeated again, (NNDB, 2014). His principlesRead MoreSkinner s Theory Of Operant Conditioning Essay860 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Burrhus Frederic (B. F.) Skinner, an American behavioral psychologist who believed the idea that human free will was an illusion and any human action was the result of the consequences of that same action, developed an experiment to verify if superstition was present in pigeons. SkinnerÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs led him to conduct this research experiment which ultimately declared him as one of the top psychologists of his era. Skinner believed that the best way to understand behavior was to look at the causesRead MoreIvan Pavlov, John Watson, And B. F. Skinner1272 Word s Ã |Ã 6 PagesLearning Theories are one of the largest branches of modern psychology, branching mainly from the theory presented by Ivan Pavlov in the early twentieth century. Learning, as defined by the Merriam-Webster dictionary, is described as the modification of a behavioral tendency by experience. In psychology terms, learning is often known as a lasting change in behavior as a result of experience. The psychology behind learning became more and more of a focus in the early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s as behaviorism (the theoryRead MorePerspectives Paper1467 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesschools of thought that dueling informational ideas have been born. Originally, behaviorism was the leading school of thought being led by John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner. Later new ideas regarding the mind became more prominent. Edward C. Tolman was one of the more prominent figures of this field. Behaviorists looked for more evidence of behavior and rejected any ideas about the mind. An idea that was highly l ooked into by cognitive psychologists. Behaviorists emerged from frustration with psychoanalysts
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Describe about the Unfair Contract Terms and the Consumer. Answer: The issue that has to be decided in this case arises on the basis of the facts that Drew Breeze wanted to climb the Sydney Harbour Bridge so that he can see the spectacular view of the city. But when Drew started the climb, there was thick fog. Janet, an employee of SCST assured Drew that the fog always lifts during the day and definitely, it will be gone by the time Drew climbs and reaches the top. However when Drew reached the top, there was thick fog. Moreover, when he was climbing down the bridge, Drew slipped and fell 3 meters as the safety straps provided by SCST were badly worn and therefore they came apart when Drew fell. However when Drew asked for a refund, SCST claimed that they cannot control the weather. At the same time, when Drew claimed his medical expenses of $2900, the company refused to pay and pointed out towards the contract between them. According to clause 45 of the contract that has been mentioned on the second page, it was stated that the parties acknowledge that the standard terms and conditions of SCST applied to this contract. The standard terms and conditions of the company have been permanently mentioned in their office. However these terms and conditions have been located in a wall under a coat rack. One of the terms provided that the company or its employees will not be liable for any injury or damage suffered by the customers. Under these circumstances, the issue arises if the exclusion clause is applicable in this case and if Drew can claim compensation for his loss and medical expenses. A disclaimer that is present in a contract can be described as clause with the help of which, one party to the contract tries to limit the application of some terms of the contract audit otherwise denies the right or the liability of the party under the contract. An example in this regard can be given a situation where a party wants to clearly express that it does not give any warranty or representation regarding the accuracy or the completeness of any information provided by it (Darlington Futures v Delco Aus., 1986). However, such a disclaimer will not be considered as effective if it can be established by the other party as a question of fact that certain representations were made. An exclusion clause also operates in the same way as it tries to exclude or limit the liability of a party under the contract. For instance, a party may want to exclude its liability regarding a particular matter to the extent that is permissible under the law or such party we want to exclude its liability for negligence or want to qualify the rights of the other party in case of a breach of contract (Davidson, 2007). At this point it needs to be mentioned that the law does not allow a party to exclude its liability in case of fraud or he cannot contract out of the applicable laws. In this way, it can be said that generally an exclusion clause is present in writing and it provides that one party will not be held liable in case of a certain happening. Therefore, for instance it has been commonly seen that when a person goes to the gym, the contract mentions that the owner of the gym will not be liable in case the person suffers an injury while exercising. In the same way, when a fee has been paid to park the car at a public car park, the owner of the car park may try to exclude its liability by inserting a clause in the contract according to which the owner will not be liable in case any damages suffered by the car. It needs to be noted that an exclusion clause is valid and enforceable under the law if such a clause has been properly inserted in the contract and at the same time, the clause is not contrary to law (Howell, 2006). In order to be properly incorporated in a contract, an illusion clause cannot be inserted in the contract after the contract has been concluded between the parties. Therefore in case of a signed contract which contains the exclusion clause, generally it will be considered that the clause is a part of the contract (Horrigan, 2004). On the other hand, if the parties have not signed the contract, but there are certain printed documents on signs that have been posted, which mention the terms, such a clause can only be considered as a part of the contract if it has been brought to the notice of the other party before the contract has been made. An example in this regard can be given of the case titled Thornton v Shoe Lane Parking Ltd. (1971). In this case, a driver has to take a parking ticket from a ticket vending machine at the time of printing the car park. The court stated that the driver will be bound only by the terms that have been brought to snow days before taking the ticket. The reason is that according to the law of contract, contract is created between the parties and the ticket is taken. Therefore the owner of the car park cannot rely on the exclusion clause that has been mentioned on the back of the ticket if it has not done anything beforehand to make the drivers aware of the presence of an exclusion clause. For example in such a case, the exclusion clause would have been prominently mentioned at any point before the ticket is taken. Hence in such a case if the car is damaged as a result of the negligence of the employees of the parking company, the owner of the car park will be held liable even if it has men tioned an exclusion clause. However, what are the reasonable steps that need to be taken in order to draw the attention of the other party towards the presence of an exclusion clause, varies from case to case (Griggs, 2005). For example, these days in case of most of the car parks, there are printed signs at the front of the ticket window according to which, the car park will not be liable for any damage caused to the cars that have been left on the premises. Another requirement regarding the enforceability of an exclusion clause is that the clause should be lawful. In this regard, certain significant obligations have been imposed by the law towards the customers. These obligations can be implied by statute (Australian Consumer Law) in case of consumer contracts and therefore, these obligations cannot be excluded by adding a contractual term to that effect. It also needs to be mentioned at this point that generally the courts give the narrowest possible rating to an exclusion clause. Therefore in case of a doubt, the courts adopt the interpretation that is most favorable for the consumers. At the same time, generally an exclusion clause will not cover a breach that has taken place outside the four corners of the contract, for example when something has been done by the other party that was not authorized under the contract. In the present case, Drew has entered the contract on the basis of the representations made by Janet, an employee of SCST. However, on the second page of the contract, clause 45 mentions that the parties will be bound by the standard terms and conditions of the company. On the other hand, the standard terms and conditions of SCST have been displayed at the office of the company. Moreover, these terms and conditions have been placed on a less conspicuous place on a wall of the office. According to one of the terms, it has been mentioned as the company or its employees or represented this cannot be held liable for the injury or the damage that may be suffered by the customers. However in this regard it needs to be noted that this term cannot be considered as a part of the contract between Drew and the company. The reason is that this clause is not a part of the signed document. Moreover, no efforts were made by the companies bring this clause to the notice of Drew before he had entered into the contract with SCST. It also needs to be mentioned that the clause was not seen by Drew before he had entered into a contract with SCST. Therefore in this case, it can be said that SCST cannot rely on his term and conditions in which it has been mentioned that the company will not be liable for any injury or damage suffered by the customers. References Davidson, J. (2007) Unfair Contract Terms and the Consumer: A Case for Proactive Regulation? 15 Competition and Consumer Law Journal 74 Griggs, L. (2005) The (Ir)rational Consumer and Why We Need National Legislation Governing Unfair Contract Terms, 13 Competition and Consumer Law Journal 51 Horrigan, B. (2004) The Expansion of Fairness-Based Business Regulation Unconscionability, Good Faith and the Laws Informed Conscience, 32 Australian Business Law Review 159 Howell, N. (2006) Catching Up with Consumer Realities: The Need for Legislation Prohibiting Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts, 34 Australian Business Law Review 447 Case Law Darlington Futures v Delco Aus (1986) HCA 82 Thornton v Shoe Lane Parking (1971) 2 WLR 585
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
This essay discusses the causes of poverty in the world. Poverty and related social inequality are as old as human history. Over the years, people have postulated many causes of poverty and social inequality. The many causes of poverty not withstanding, many definitions of the phenomena have been established. Whichever the definition, poverty is associated with want, lack of or deprivation of necessities in life. According to World Bank, people are individuals who survive on less than a dollar per day. Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on What causes poverty in the world specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Despite the fact that living below a dollar, especially in urban areas, is an indicator of being poor, this definition does not apply in given contexts. For people living in some rural areas, the value of what they use as per their market pricing is lower than a dollar. However, considering the quality of life th ey live, they are better off than many others who live on more than ten dollars a day in the big cities of the world. Therefore, poverty is a complex concept and highly relative in its application or misapplication. Poverty Rates in the World The world of today has the many people living in better socio-economic conditions than a century ago. However, the divide between the rich has widened over the years with the poor in the world forming an overwhelming majority. Statistics indicate that Africa carries the bulk of the poor in the world. However, even in highly developing nations like India and China, given regions are notably highly impoverished. The impoverished regions of the world are characterized by dilapidated housing, lack of access to education, health care, frequent famines and other humanitarian disasters and catastrophes. Due to poor infrastructure, response to problems is not efficient and effective enough thus resultant high impacts of disasters that would otherwise be averted. To understand this point better, one has to consider how a natural disaster like a tsunami of say KatrinaÃ¢â¬â¢s magnitude would affect a third world country. The effects would be high due to poor response unlike what actually happened in the USA. Overpopulation and World Poverty One of the major factors that have contributed to poverty in given areas of the world is overpopulation (Jones 137). The condition of having many people with fewer available resources combined with little space inevitably results in poverty. Uncontrolled birth rates, in places like Africa, have resulted in a general population boom. The population upsurge has continually exerted pressure on available resources in the world. The available resource in given countries can only support a given number of people (McCarthy 42). One of the critical resources that support mankind is farming. A majority of people around the world depend on farming or general agriculture for sustenance. Population upsu rge and resultant splitting of land into smaller pieces has led to less food production.Advertising Looking for assessment on political sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Culture and World Poverty Culture is one of the reasons why people remain glued to practices that perpetuate poverty. For example, in some developing countries the more children one has the higher he or she is regarded in society. Cultural practices in traditional rural communities usually sanction the ability of large members of the family (Baker 154). The governments of most third world countries give little or no attention to family planning because it goes against the cultural assumptions of the people. People anticipating to have smaller families experience difficulty in realizing this as others consider them weird (Rohr 105). Surging population rates point to even higher poverty rates in developing countries (Rohr 149). Global Distribution of Res ources: Historical Injustices and Poverty in Nations Some thinkers have attributed poverty in some parts of the world to unequal distribution of resources. The legacy of colonialism is largely blamed for unequal resource distribution in the world economy (Baker 1). Most of the developing countries have put more efforts to develop and strengthen their economies with technology and industries but this has been unsuccessful. The inequality in world economy due to historical events has largely hampered poverty alleviation efforts in the world (Pogge 17). Colonialists, for example, left Africa with a very weak infrastructure i.e. transport systems, power generation and communication after bludgeoning the resources of the colonies. These happenings have derailed all aspects of moving away from poverty because the infrastructure is critical in the development of industries and expansion of the economy (Pogge 123). In recent years, wealthier countries have been accused of neocolonialism i .e. economic based dominance. This influence has enabled the wealthier countries to acquire inexpensive resources such as oil, ores and mineral from poor countries (Fields 59). Education and Unemployment Lack of educational opportunities hampers development especially of children from rural areas (Baker 26). For the educated, lack of employment opportunities denies them an opportunity for social mobility. The rural areas in most countries of the world have high rates of illiteracy. Illiteracy has been more severe in developing countries especially Africa south of the Sahara. Governments of poor countries have faced the inability to provide good and efficient public schools thus not marching with developments in the developing countries. Without good and sound education people fail to find a meaningful income. Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on What causes poverty in the world specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Most poor people, in rural areas, forego going to school to facilitate concentration on how to make a minimal living (Iceland 79). Developing countries provide minimal employment opportunities, especially for women, which dampens the youthÃ¢â¬â¢s morale of going to school. When people do not work, there is no money which is earned and thus this increases high unemployment rate which in turn increases the level of poverty (Gilbert 131). Environmental Degradation Environmental degradation in many parts of the world has led to the increase of poverty in the world. The world natural resources, which support mankind and enable growth and development, are slowly getting depleted due to unsustainable usage. The climatic conditions have been changing gradually and natural habitats have slowly but surely been severely changed (Fields 167). Water bodies, atmosphere, forests and soils have deteriorated and this is a major cause of increasing world poverty. Global environmental degradation has led to the phenomenon of global warming. Weather conditions are no longer steady but rather erratic and unpredictable. Over use of fertilizers and other wrong use of land has highly affected crop yield. Intensive farming or land over use, for instance, has lead to soil infertility and decrease in crop production (Fields 218). Pollution from industries such as power production, mining, automobiles, agricultural fertilizers and chemical production has adversely affected adequate food production, availability of clean water for drinking, and facilitated destruction of natural habitats especially for aquatic beings. Deforestation has brought environmental effects especially in developing countries where some sections of the population depend entirely on forests as source of food and wood to power their activities. Their survival efforts have largely contributed to deforestation and its related effects (Fields 225). Forests absorb pollutant and offers catchment area for water. With out forests, the rain cycle is affected leading to increased famines in the world. Inflation and Development Approaches Poverty in the world is linked to economic trends. Developed countries, such as the United States in the 1950s, experienced high income growth (Dudley 167). Most families doubled their income within this period. However, in 1970s and early 1990s, inflation grew steadily hence raising the cost of living. Advertising Looking for assessment on political sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The economic recession of the 1980s adversely affected families; the young and less educated people could not get well paying jobs to support themselves. The change of labor market in most developed countries has also further aggravated the situation of poverty in the world today (Dudley 215). The number of well paying jobs in the manufacturing industries has declined whereas in the service and technology industries, workers have significantly increased. Most people who cannot afford college education experiences hardship in securing a well paying work hence they are locked out of social mobility. Moreover, in most wealthy countries, many people living in poverty have increased because of the rising inequality in the way resources are distributed. For instance in the United States, 20% of the poor have got smaller percentage of the total national income whereas the wealthy have increasingly earned much higher national income of 45%. During this period, the middle and bottom income distribution has been progressively worse as the cost of living has gone up (Kendall 67). Demographic shifts have contributed to poverty especially among the children. In the US for example, family structures have been altered significantly increasing single parenting. This has increased poverty in the world (Kendall 73). Conclusion Poverty levels have been soaring around the world despite improved economic fortunes for a minority. The major causes of world poverty are improper policies and development approaches or plans undertaken in different nations. Economic imbalance or inequalities resulting from historical injustices also maintain a world order that does not sustain all. To alleviate world poverty, issues like overpopulation, environmental degradation among other factors have to be looked into more closely. Works Cited Baker, Judy, L. Poverty Reduction and Human Development in the Caribbean: a cross- country study, Parts 63-366. Washington: World Bank Publication.1997 Field s, Gary, S. Poverty, Inequality, and Development. Florida: CUP Archive. 1980 Gilbert, Geoffrey. World poverty: a Reference handbook, Contemporary world issues. California: ABC-CLIO. 2004 Iceland, John. Poverty in America: a handbook. California: University of California Press. 2006 Jones, Philip, W. Education, Poverty and the World Bank. New Jersey: Sense Publishers. 2006 Kendall, Diana. Sociology in Our Times. Connecticut: Cengage Learning, 2007 McCarthy, Callaghan. The Causes of Poverty. East Yorkshire: P. S. King Son, 1908 Pogge, Thomas, Winfried, Menko. World Poverty and Human Rights: Cosmopolitan Responsibilities and Reforms. Cambridge: Polity, 2008 This assessment on What causes poverty in the world was written and submitted by user Kas0n to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s performance plummet (Assignment) Summary XYZ CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s profits are solely based on its sales volumes. In the recent past the sales reports recorded a slump in the figures. Market conditions are favorable for the products and it has been identified the reason for sales drop is the low motivation and morale of the employees. Superiors are facing difficulty to manage day today work as employees have developed a habit to go on unplanned unapproved leave. Some of them notify their superiors or a colleague on the day of the leave and some never. Sabotage acts have created mistrust. Integrity in the organization has become a thing in the past. The latest developments were the clashes between superiors and subordinates reported by the human resources to the CEO showcasing the infested relationships within the organization. This report evaluates the on going crisis of the XYZ Company, the reasons for such behavior from organizations and individual point of view based on the theories in organizational behavior. We will write a custom essay sample on Organizational Behavior or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Recommendations to overcome this challenging situation will be suggested using the results proven concepts and theories in the field. Literature Review MARS Model McShane, S. L. , Glinow, M. A. V. , Sharma, R. R. (2008) uses the MARS model to explain the drivers of individual behavior and results. The authors have used this to highlight the factors influence the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior which results in the performance. The four factors are Motivation, Ability, Role Perception and Situational Factors. The model explains the combined effect of these factors for the performance of an individual. Big Five Personality Traits Costa McCrae, (1992) explained the five traits of personality which have been scientifically discovered to define human personality. This model explains the positive relationship of the five characteristics and performance, motivation and job satisfaction. SchwartzÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ ValuesÃ Model Shalom Schwartz (1992, 1994) used his Schwartz Value Inventory (SVI) with a wide survey of over 60,000 people to identify common values that acted as guiding principles for ones life. He identified ten value types that gather multiple values into a single category. The values namely are Power, Achievement, Hedonism, Stimulation, Self-direction, Universalism, Benevolence, Tradition, Conformity, Security, Super-grouping. They can also be collated into larger super-groups namely Openness to change ( Stimulation, self-direction and some hedonism) , Self-enhancement(Achievement, power and some hedonism) ,Conservation (Security, tradition and conformity) and Self-transcendence( Universalism and benevolence) Employee Engagement McShane, S. L. , Glinow, M. A. V. , Sharma, R. R. (2008) defines employee engagement as Ã¢â¬Å"EmployeesÃ¢â¬â¢ emotional and cognitive (rational) motivation, their ability to perform their jobs, their possessing a clear understanding of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s vision and their specific roles in that vision and a belief that they have been given the resources to get their jobs doneÃ¢â¬ . What is happening? If XYZ company challenges were to analyze many years ago, according to Theory X assumptions, by the scholar Douglas McGregor, a pay revise, ensure security of the job or a favorable working conditions (Luthens, Fred, 2008) would have been recommended to boost up the morale and increase the productivity of employees. Many research has identified people are extremely complex, and theoretical understanding empirical research is needed to, implement solutions in order to manage people effectively. As Sir Richard Branson, Chairman, Virgin Group, says Ã¢â¬Å"Engaged employees create loyal customers who in turn create bigger profitsÃ¢â¬ . From the description given on the characteristics of the employees at XYZ, it is obvious employee engagement does not exist in the slightest way resulting sales drops caused by poor performance. Employee engagement is described in the book Organizational Behavior by McShane, S. L. , Glinow, M. A. V. , Sharma, R. R. (2008) that the concept refers to, Ã¢â¬Å"EmployeesÃ¢â¬â¢ emotional and cognitive (rational) motivation, their ability to perform their jobs, their possessing a clear understanding of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s vision and their specific roles in that vision and a belief that they have been given the resources to get their jobs doneÃ¢â¬ . As stated in the literature review reasons or drivers for different individual behaviors have been in the focus of organizational behavior experts. Experts have identified the main factors influencing the individual behavior as Motivation, Ability, Role Perception and Situational Factors defined in the MARS model. The model says the four factors have a combined effect on individualÃ¢â¬â¢s good or poor performance. These four factors are influenced by individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ variables such as values, personality, perception, emotions and attitudes and stress. The most stable important variables in the model are the personality and values (McShane, S. L. , Glinow, M. A. V. , Sharma, R. R. (2008)). Then the importance comes as perception, emotions attitude and stress respectively. The main challenge XYZ company is facing at present is the low morale and low motivation of the employees which has been affected the individual performance and thereby the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s performance resulting sales drops. Motivation can be either intrinsic or extrinsic. The intrinsic motivation is an incentive to do something that arises from factors within the individual, such as a need to feel useful or to seekÃ self-actualization. These factors can vary from individual to individual. Then the extrinsic motivation is an incentive to do something that arises from factors outside the individual, such as rewards or punishments. The promise of a bonus if one meets agreed performance targets is an obvious example of such motivation. In this case, with the given context, the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ motivation has become low. Therefore it can be assumed that XYZ CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ intrinsic or extrinsic drive or both have diminished at present. First factor adversely influencing the individual behavior and results of XYZ company in MARS model is Motivation. According to the context of the XYZ Company it is assumed that its cadre is skilled and competent to do each of their roles. This can be made under the assumption of XYZÃ¢â¬â¢s sales figures had been superior in the past. As a result, the factor Ã¢â¬ËabilityÃ¢â¬â¢ in the MARS model is present in XYZ Company. Further employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ morale or the dictionary definition, self-confidence or self-esteem or spirit(s) or team spirit or enthusiasm is low. In management subject point of view employee morale is how employees actually feel about themselves as workers, their work, their managers, their work environment, and their overall work life. It incorporates all the mental and emotional feelings, beliefs, and attitudes that individuals and groups hold regarding their job. It could be seen that employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ perception on what they how they do and to whom they do is distorted and unfavorable. This can be seen in MARS model point of view that another factor namely the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s role perception is weak or in danger in XYZ Company. XYZ employees at different levels experience difficulties to carry out their jobs. Assume the company still posses an engaged supervisor, and he / she does not get the support from the subordinates to perform his/she job. On the other hand assume an engaged sales officer does his job and he is unable to complete is job if his / her supervisor is absent. Therefore the situational factors are not in favor of the XYZ Company individuals. In summary, XYZ CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s employee behavior displays that there are issues in areas of motivation, role perception and situational factors. MARS model says, the four factors (Motivation, ability, role perception, Situational factors) have a combined effect on individual performance. (McShane, S. L. , Glinow, M. A. V. , Sharma, R. R. (2008)) Further it says if any factor weakens there will be an impact to employee performance in a negative manner. Figure 1 depicts what has happened to XYZ Company in the purview of the MARS model. Values Personality Perceptions Emotions Attitudes Stress Individual Characteristics Motivation Ability Role Perception Situational Factors Individual Behavior Results Decreased Performance Figure 1. MARS model of individual behavior and results for XYZ Company Reasons for weakened motivation, role perception, situational factors It is of great importance to evaluate the reasons for issues in the areas of motivation, role perception and situational factors. MARS model indicates the individual characteristics which influence the four factors as values, personality, perception, emotions, attitudes and stress. Out of these factors the two deeply held characteristics of people that influence their attitudes, motivation and behavior and therefore it is vital to study XYZ companies values and perceptions in detail as a measurement to understand why these things happen at the organization. Personality A personÃ¢â¬â¢s personality is like all other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s, like some other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s, and like no other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s. Ã¢â¬â¢ This statement was made by kluckhohn and Murray and it explains how complex and diverse a personality is. The experts say heredity, the brain, environment, maturation and learning contribute to the formation of human personality. These complex characteristics are simplified in Th e Ã¢â¬ËBig FiveÃ¢â¬â¢ personality traits. Research shows a positive relationship between the Ã¢â¬ËBig FiveÃ¢â¬â¢ and performance motivation and job satisfaction. Figure 2 analyzes the XYZ employee personalities as specified in Ã¢â¬ËBig FiveÃ¢â¬â¢ core personality traits. Core Trait| Characteristics of High Scorers| XYZ individuals Score| Conscientiousness| Dependable, Hardworking, organized, self-disciplined, persistent, responsible| LowNeeds attention| Emotional Stability| Calm, Secure, Happy, unworried| LowNeed attention| Agreeableness| Cooperative, warm, caring, good-nurtured, courteous, trusting| LowNeeds attention| Extraversion| Sociable, outgoing, talkative, assertive, gregarious| OK| Openness to Experience| Curious, intellectual, creative, cultured, artistically sensitive, flexible, imaginative| OK| Figure 2. The Ã¢â¬ËBig FiveÃ¢â¬â¢ personality traits and XYZ CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s standing Experts have proved that the most important trait of the five, which has a strong positive relation to performance, is conscientiousness. The background of XYZ Company shows the negative set of characteristics from individuals for the most vital trait, the conscientiousness for high performance. Values Ã¢â¬Å"Employ the whole person, the mind and the soulÃ¢â¬ (McShane, S. L. , Glinow, M. A. V. , Sharma, R. R. (2008)) Tom Chapell, the co-founder of TomÃ¢â¬â¢s of Maine, speaks about importance of values of an individual to an organization. Values are the stable evaluative beliefs that guide our preferences for outcomes or courses of action in a variety of situations. XYZÃ¢â¬â¢s individual behavior actions at different circumstances are evidence for adverse set of personal values among individuals. Although it is necessary to conduct a survey among employees to come in to a accurate picture of the individual value distribution for the different values identified by S. H. Schwartz, with the individual actions at XYZ company it can be identified the majority of the individual values fall in to the colored area (Blue Lines) of the SchwartzÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ ValuesÃ Model depicted in Figure 3. Self-transcendence Openness to Change Conservation Self-enhancement Figure 3. SchwartzÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ ValuesÃ Model and XYZ CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s behavioral study Ethics Ethics is defined by the dictionary as a branch of philosophy dealing with values relating to human conduct with respect to the rightness or wrongness of certain actions. As mentioned earlier humans are complex and ethics is based on their values, perception and attitudes making the problem of ethics too complex. People perceive things in different ways, but most people agree that ethics involves a lot of common sense. Peoples ethical standards are often based on values instilled in them in their youth, and in their environmental background. As the definition says ethics deals with individual values, XYZ CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s ethics can be assessed based on the SchwartzÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ ValuesÃ Model distribution (Figure 3. ). Among XYZ individuals it is often observed disturbing actions for the daily activities of the company. So me of the ethically deficient behaviors are unplanned leave without notifying, conflicts, loss of integrity and acts of sabotage. Therefore, since these actions are hindering the company performance this behavior can be seen as unethical self conduct, among groups of people in the organization. As Figure 4. depicts when observed the XYZÃ¢â¬â¢s individuals, considering the three principles of ethics it can be derived that the interest is towards Ã¢â¬ËMy interestsÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËOur interestÃ¢â¬â¢, but not Ã¢â¬ËEverybodyÃ¢â¬â¢s interestÃ¢â¬â¢, in other words not Company interest. Utilitarianism Individual Rights Distributive Justice (Group) Figure 4. Ethical Principles standing at XYZ Company Revisit To the Outcome of Applied Theory To XYZ Company In Summary, from the MARS model it, it says in the given context of XYZ Company, it has issues in Motivation, Role Perception and Situational Factors. It was considered that the most important factors to affecting performance are Values and Personality. When analyzed the personality in detail, the Big Five personality trait showed that the employees has low score characteristics for the core traits namely Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability and Agreeableness. In the area of values XYZ company employee displayed strength in openness to change qualities defined as Stimulation, Self-Direction and Hedonism. In the same way they had the strength in self-enhancement defined as Achievement and Power. The ethical principles analysis showed that the employees are only interested in themselves and the group they are in but not the company. Recommendations Therefore XYZ company has a talented set of employees who has a high ego and talent whoÃ¢â¬â¢s values are not aligned with the company values. Value motivated workforce is more long lasting than a incentive motivated workforce. They are proven to be more engaged. Starting from the company values ethics should be considered as a vital component for success. The ethical values of the company should be shared with the employees and those should be implanted in them. As David M. Taylor is a professional engineer, says companies having shared values that are consistently modeled within the organization results in: Employees focused on what is important to the organization Less stress on individuals ,Less tension between individuals and departments Enthusiasm in the workplace , Pride in work , Direction in the workplace Less bureaucracy , Positive attitudes , Positive momentum Examples of companies that did not have proper alignment around a value system and paid the price in the marketplace; WorldCom , Enron , Bre-X Examples of companies that have built themselves around their values; Disney , Home Depot , Walmart , Starbucks Some suggested morale-boosters for the high talented employees suggested by MoraleÃ Encyclopedia of Management Practicing of fairness and consistency ,Bestowing praise in public while leveling criticism in private , Encouraging humor and fun in the workplace, Communication ,Listening and remaining receptive to new ideas , Getting to know something about employees personal lives and treating them as individuals, Creating opportunities for employees to learn and grow, Sharing decision making and offering employees choices, Promoting from within, and most importantly Leading by example. Organizational Behavior free essay sample Managers and employees alike should have a set standard of ethics to abide by. While it is impossible to not have any cases of unethical behavior, all organizations should strive to have the least amount of unethical cases as possible. 5. Which of the seven moral principles in Table 1Ã¢â¬â4 appear to be in force at Whole Foods? Explain. There are a few moral principles that appear to be in force at Whole Foods. Humaneness is defined as having actions that Ã¢â¬Å"ought to accomplish goodÃ¢â¬ (Kreitner Kinicki, 2013, p. 24).Whole Foods appears to be committed to doing Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ by changing and improving the world. They sell products that are natural and healthy for all. They believe that they are a heroic company because of this. This also ties into the seventh principle of Ã¢â¬Å"the common goodÃ¢â¬ . The company truly does look out for the common good of all. The company encourages consumers to buy their healthy, organic products as opposed to consuming Ã¢â¬Å"junkÃ¢â¬ food that over time deteriorates the human body. We will write a custom essay sample on Organizational Behavior or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Finally, Whole Foods appears to be loyal to consumers, employees, and stakeholders.They constantly keep the public trust and abide by all laws. They sell quality products and are proud of their work. While Whole Foods appears to be successful in three of the seven moral principles, they need to strive to achieve all seven. Each moral principle is important and all companies need to strive to be consistent in each of the seven principles. 6. What appeals to you (or does not appeal to you) about working at Whole Foods? Explain. I believe that Whole Foods is a good company to work for.I believe that they do hire managers that will motivate, train, and help their employees achieve success. They appear to be committed to serving the public and try to help the environment. However, I believe that Whole Foods has room to grow. They need to create programs to improve their employees and help them gain even more knowledge. Employees want to feel like they can grow within a company and I am not sure if they are at that point. With the right leadership, direction, and ideas, Whole Foods can become even more successful then they already are. Organizational Behavior free essay sample Is OB Mod a form of manipulation and if it is. Is it unethical for managers to manipulate the behavior of employees? Need to support the argument. Behavioral Modification is used as a technique in both schools and therapy to modify behavior of students and clients, respectively. Likewise, it is used in organizations and referred to Organizational Behavior Modification (OB-Mod), and is used to meet the productivity challenges associated with employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. With its roots in modern behaviorist psychology, OB- Mod is a human resources management technique aimed at improving job-related behaviors that are observable and measurable, such as absenteeism or tardiness, or toward behavior products, such as quality or quantity of work. OB Mod calls for intervention to encourage desirable performance behavior and discourage undesirable behavior. The major intervention strategy involves: 1. Feedback on the critical performance-related behavior and 2. Positive reinforcement for progress and attainment Although some argue that OB-Mod it is a form of managerial manipulation and unethical, behavior modification aimed at increasing productivity is aimed at meeting the organizational goals and mission. We will write a custom essay sample on Organizational Behavior or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Therefore, it could be argues that it is not unethical, but just good business practice. For example, this approach to motivation and dealing with problem behaviors is based on the application of learning theory to people in the workplace. This hardly seems unethical since it is used in schools and therapy regularly to change problem behaviors. However, it does limited the freedom of choice for the employees, so in this sense, it can be considered some form of managerial modification. Whether a person accepts reinforcement theory or not, will determine if you consider it a form of manipulation. Reinforcement theory holds that a desirable behavior can be increased by linking that behavior with positive outcomes, while undesirable behaviors can be decreased by linking them with negative consequences or by eliminating reinforces. Although it is sometimes eferred to as manipulation (and therefore unethical), the advantage of this approach is that it focuses on specific behaviors in the workplace and is thus performance based. It also, at least to some degree, avoids sensitive personal counseling issues in a persons personal life, by focusing on what needs to be done to improve performance. Finally, it provides a clear structure and consequences to employees that encourage them to change in an observable way in a structured time frame (http://faculty. ss. edu/dswenson/web/OB/obmod. html). There has been some reported effectiveness of OB-Mod. For example, B. F. Goodrich has used OB-Mod to increase productivity by more than 300%, and Weyerhauser increased productivity in three different groups by 8%. However, a program initiated by Standard Oil of Ohio was discontinued due to failure to meet objectives, and A Michigan Bell program was considered only modestly successful. However, it is not always successful, because managers cannot find enough reinforcers at times. Perhaps there is a better way to influence and motivate employee behavior in a more open manner. Selling the vision, inclusion, open communication to name a few, have also shown to be highly effective in motivating employees. Organizational Behavior free essay sample The job had met his personal goals and expectations perfectly, and Tony believed he had grown greatly as a person. His work was appreciated and recognized; he had received three promotions and many more pay increases. Tony had also liked the company itself. The firm was decentralized, allowing its managers considerable autonomy and freedom. The corporate Culture was easygoing. Communication was open. The people had been another plus. Tony and three other managers went to lunch often and played golf every Saturday. Their boss had been very supportive, giving them the help they needed but also staying out of the way and letting them work. After the final closing was announced, he spent only a few weeks looking around before he found a comparable position at Reece Enterprises. Well, comparable probably was the wrong word. Indeed, Reece and OÃ¢â¬â¢Grady were about as different as you could get. Top managers at Reece apparently didnÃ¢â¬â¢t worry too much about who did a good job and who didnÃ¢â¬â¢t. We will write a custom essay sample on Organizational Behavior or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page They seemed to promote and reward people based on how long they had been there. Reece was a bigger organization than OÃ¢â¬â¢Grady and was structured much more bureaucratically. No one was allowed to make any sort of decision without getting three signatures from higher up. Those signatures, though, were hard to get. All the top managers usually were too busy to see anyone, and interoffice memos apparently had very low priority. Tony also had had some problems fitting in. His peers treated him with polite indifference. He sensed that a couple of them resented that he, an outsider, had been brought right in at their level after they had had to work themselves up the ladder. Tony wondered if perhaps he had made a mistake in accepting the Reece offer without finding out more about what he was getting into. What advice can you give Tony? How would this advice be supported or tempered by behavioral concepts and processes? Is it possible to find an ideal place to worh? Explain. Organizational Behavior free essay sample Organizational Behavior Instructor: Rachana Misraraj December 10, 2012 Organizational Behavior Analysis Organizational Behavior is the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations. Ã¢â¬Å"Organizational behavior is a misnomer. It is not the study of how organizations behave, but rather the study of individual behavior in an organizational setting. This includes the study of how individuals behave alone, as well as how individuals behave in groups(Werthiem, 2004). Ã¢â¬ The purpose of organizational behavior is to gain a greater understanding of those factors that influence individual and group dynamics in an organizational setting so that individuals and the groups and organizations to which they belong may become more efficient and effective. The field also includes the analysis of organizational factors that may have an influence upon individual and group behavior. Much of organizational behavior research is ultimately aimed at providing human resource management professionals with the information and tools they need to select, train, and retain employees in a fashion that yields maximum benefit for the individual employee as well as for the organization. We will write a custom essay sample on Organizational Behavior or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The purpose of the paper below is to analyze the organizational behavior of my current or former employer (current: Street, Water, and Sewer Department for my town), by describing how each of the components listed below influences the behavior of the organization in a negative or positive manner, and they include, the Type of culture (Pluralism, Dualism or Salad bowl? ); Modes of communication (Describe the dominant communication form used, e. g. written or verbal); Nature of authority (recognized social rank); Motivational techniques (Describe the motivational driving forces e. g. Intrinsic or extrinsic used to influence productivity and performance? ); Areas of EQ incorporated (Describe how the organization embraces the theory of emotional intelligence); and How are the components of a virtual organization embraced? (Explain how the organization embraces new paradigms such as teleworking and virtual offices? ). Grasping a complex and knowledgeable understanding on why, when, where and how, organizational behavior functions and operates, can provide great tools and skills to an individual or organization to better manage behavior and productivity within a company. I currently work for as a laborer for the Water/Sewer department for my county/town. As a member of the STREET department which is responsible for the maintenance and repair of City roads and right-of-ways; maintenance and repair of drainage located on City property; installation and maintenance of signs and roadway markings; and removal of snow and ice. The EmployeeÃ¢â¬â¢s operates, maintains and repairs various machinery, tools, and equipment. As for the water department, this position is responsible for maintenance and repair of Citys WATERLINE system. Installs any and all new additions to the existing distribution system as well as performs necessary maintenance and or repairs to any part of the water distribution system. Performs miscellaneous duties such as operating and repairing equipment, general clean up, concrete finishing, painting, etc. Uses various hand tools, power tools, heavy equipment and machinery. As a member of the WASTEWATER(Sewer)Department which is responsible for maintenance and repair of the Citys sewer line system. Employee performs necessary maintenance, repairs, and/or replacement of sewer system components. Employee uses various hand tools, power tools, heavy equipment, trucks, and machinery. Employee performs miscellaneous duties such as operating and repairing equipment, general clean up, concrete finishing, painting, etc. Good communications skills are required as this position frequently deals directly with the public. The primary hours of this position are Monday through Friday during the day; however, extended shifts and overtime on weekends, evenings, and holidays may be required. Therefore organizational behavior skills are a must. Type of culture (Pluralism, Dualism or Salad bowl? ) Culture can be defined as the cultivated behavior that is socially transmitted. It involves the accumulation of knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, experiences, religion, relations, concepts of the universe, values, meanings, roles, notions of time, relations, material possessions and objects acquired and a way of life of a group of people throughout the generations. When it comes to the type of culture on my job I would have to describe it as a pluralism type of culture. This refers to the type of culture whereby smaller groups of people within a large society tend to maintain their unique culture identities and their values, behaviors and identities are well accepted by the wider society or culture. The minor groups of people participate fully within the dominant society while still maintaining their cultural differences. It involves coexistent of different cultures in a location without the domineering of one particular culture. The human differences that exist are accepted by the majority and hence it eliminates discrimination in the form of racialism or sexism. It can also be refereed to as multiculturalism (Henry, 2011). Ã¢â¬ Within the three departments that I participate and work in, there are 5 different nationalities of workers who coincide within the organization, and they include African American, Mexican, Caucasian, Latino, and American Indian. Each and every one of these individuals, have their own way of living, eating, etc.. But when everyone clocks in in the morning, we are all one cohesive group, who knows that the main goal is to come to work, be safe, respect your fellow co-worker, get the job done in a professional manner, and most importantly be in the best interest of the tax payers and the town in general, while at the same time excepting who each individual is a person, where they come from, and their cultural differences. This influences the company in a positive manner because, it incorporates good behavior on the job, respect for the job, positive progress for the people participating at the job, and goal completion. Modes of communication (Describe the dominant communication form used, e. g. written or verbal) Ã¢â¬Å"Communication consists of transmitting, receiving, and processing information. In organizations, communications flow between individuals, between levels in the organizational hierarchy, between departments, and between the company and outside publics. Effective communication has often been linked to interpersonal and company success (Baak, 2012). Ã¢â¬ Communication is of high importance on any job, especially the one that I work for, due to the risks that are associated with the work and projects that we take on. Even though we may use written communication from time to time, describing what our daily goals and tasks are, verbal communication is the dominant mode of communication throughout the organization. Whether it be verbal or non verbal, both revolve around the importance of everyone, working in sync with one another and most importantly working safely around your fellow co-worker. One example is, when we are replacing larger water lines (12 inches in diameter) within a trench, which may be at a depth of 2ft to 14ft. Therefore, when a worker is in the trench digging around and locating the pipe, there must to be a competent person at the top of the trench looking for cracks or imperfections in the walls, where a potential cave in could happen, injuring or killing the person in the hole. So, verbal communication is regularly used when there is no machinery running, and you have to alarm the workers of a dangerous situation. And non-verbal communication is used, when a gas powered saw is in operation to cut a pipe, in which, the worker cannot hear you verbally, thus non verbal actions and communication are used to alarm the worker of potential danger and they are pulled out of the trench before anything catastrophic occurs. On that note, this influences the company on a postive level, because, both verbal and non-verbal communication is the dominant and vital mode of communication, that provides protection for a safe work environment. Nature of authority (recognized social rank) The nature of authority is also very important on my job because, each individual respects the fact that one should not go over the next persons head of authority, or having curiosity about a co-workers way of life without discussing it with them first. Because, there are individuals on the job who have been there 20 years, 10 years, 5 years, etc, therefore when you join a team or a group of people, you become part of that organizations social system, and you must adjust and relate to that world of work. Ã¢â¬Å"The variables in an organizational system operate in a working balance called social equilibrium. Individuals make a psychological contract that defines their personal relationship with the system. Ã¢â¬Å"When they contribute to the organizations success, we call their behavior functional. The broad environment that people live in is their social culture, and a major change in it can lead to cultural shock. People need to accept and appreciate the value that cultural differences can contribute to the success of an organization (www. angel fire. com). Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Other important cultural factors include the work ethic and corporate attitudes toward social responsibility. Role is the pattern of action expected of a person in activities involving others. Related ideas are role perceptions mentors, role conflict, and role ambiguity. Status is the social rank of a person in a group, and it leads to status systems and possibly status anxiety. Organizational cultures reflect the assumptions and values that guide a firm. They are intangible but powerful influences on employee behavior. Participants learn about their organizations culture through the process of socialization and influence it through individualization (www. angel fire. com). On that note, the nature of authority can be both positive and negative, because, from a negative standpoint it can be used for growth in power in domination. But from a positive standpoint, it can be sued for uplifting other coworkers, by improvising their skills, capabilities and more importantly, their motivational drive on the job. Motivational techniques (Describe the motivational driving forces e. g. Intrinsic or ex trinsic used to influence productivity and performance? ) Due to the constant and unpredictable adjustments that my organization goes through, behavior can change in a instant, with each and every individual on the job. Therefore, motivational techniques are a concurrent thing, on a day to day basis. Ã¢â¬Å"There is no doubt that motivation is the driving force by which humans achieve their goals. Motivation can be intrinsic or extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the actions required to achieve a goal, without relying on external rewards or pressures (Amin, 2011). Ã¢â¬ In my organization the motivational driving force is intrinsic, because pride is everything to a man more than anything, therefore everyone on the job feels a sense of obligation to achieve the goals presented to them to their best ability. Productivity and performance stays at an all time high and positive level, thus, whatever daily goal is presented to us, is handled with confidence and integrity. Our motivation consist of reminding ourselves that what we do, is what we enjoy to do, what we do is appreciated by the tax payers family and most importantly we enjoy knowing that our skills and capabilities are worth the time and effort that we put forth to learn and achieve the skills and tools to complete present and future organizational objectives. Areas of EQ incorporated (Describe how the organization embraces the theory of emotional intelligence) Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the ability to perceive, control and evaluate emotions. Some researchers suggest that emotional intelligence can be learned and strengthened, while others claim it is an inborn characteristic. And it consists of four branches that include perceiving emotions, reasoning with emotions, understanding emotions and managing emotions (Cherr y, 2012). Ã¢â¬ Based on the high demands of my job, my co-workers and myself included, may at times have high emotions about whether something on the job is not going right, and show some form of frustration without even knowing it sometimes. Therefore my our organization constantly issues EQ (emotional intelligence ), reminder courses, that helps the crews keep a stable mind set when working in dangerous areas, and if something goes wrong, we use the EQ tools to control and manage our emotions for the sake/safety of our well being the others that are around. EQ classes have been very positive for the organization over the past 5 years, and every since the integration there have been no altercations, accidents, or incidents on the job at all. A 100% success rate. How are the components of a virtual organization embraced? (Explain how the organization embraces new paradigms such as teleworking and virtual offices? ) Ã¢â¬Å"Traditional brick and mortar businesses may become a thing of the past. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s modern workplace has embraced the virtual environment. The ultimate goal of the virtual organization is to provide innovative, high-quality products or services instantaneously in response to customer demands (Hamilton, 2012). On that note, my organization has embraced the components of a virtual organization on a very positive and useful level. For example, in the Water/sewer department, we are responsible for the distribution of bills/and cut-off notices for the water use throughout the city. For decades, this task was done by hand; by hand I mean driving to each and every house in the city, knocking on the door, and handing the customer their water/sewer bill for that month. Ever since the company embraced the compo nents of a virtual organization, these tasks are now obsolete. Now we contact the customers, through email, text messaging, and voicemails. When the customer has a question about their bill, they are able to contact the office and have a videoconference with the workers in the water/sewer department, to discuss whatever problem they are having with their water/sewer bill, or their water/sewer in general. My organization has also embrace the concept of a virtual organization in the street department. When there is a down power line, streetlight, street sign, blocked up drain pipes, etc. my organization has integrated a beacon system that alerts us when any of these incidents have occurred and in what area. All we have to do is acknowledge the beacon alert, log on to our computers, locate the problem, and proceed to fix the issue at hand. Integrating the components of a virtual organization has been immensely helpful and positive to our over all daily tasks and duties. In conclusion, Organizational Behavior is the study and application of knowledg e about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations. The purpose of organizational behavior is to gain a greater understanding of those factors that influence individual and group dynamics in an organizational setting so that individuals and the groups and organizations to which they belong may become more efficient and effective. Culture can be defined as the cultivated behavior that is socially transmitted. It involves the accumulation of knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, experiences, religion, relations, concepts of the universe, values, meanings, roles, notions of time, relations, material possessions and objects acquired and a way of life of a group of people throughout the generations. When it comes to the type of culture on my job I would have to describe it as a pluralism type of culture. Communication consists of transmitting, receiving, and processing information. In organizations, communications flow between individuals, between levels in the organizational hierarchy, between departments, and between the company and outside publics. Effective communication has often been linked to interpersonal and company success. The nature of authority is also very important on my job because, each individual respects the fact hat one should not go over the next persons head of authority, or having curiosity about a co-workers way of life without discussing it with them first. Due to the constant and unpredictable adjustments that my organization goes through, behavior can change in a instant, with each and every individual on the job. Therefore, motivational techniques are a concurrent thing, on a day to day basis. Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the ability to perce ive, control and evaluate emotions. Some researchers suggest that emotional intelligence can be learned and strengthened, while others claim it is an inborn characteristic. And it consists of four branches that include perceiving emotions, reasoning with emotions, understanding emotions and managing emotions. Traditional brick and mortar businesses may become a thing of the past. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s modern workplace has embraced the virtual environment. The ultimate goal of the virtual organization is to provide innovative, high-quality products or services instantaneously in response to customer demands. All in all the purpose of the paper above, was to analyze the organizational behavior of my current or former employer (current: Street, Water, and Sewer Department for my town), by describing how each of the components listed below influences the behavior of the organization in a negative or positive manner, and they include, the Type of culture (Pluralism, Dualism or Salad bowl? ); Modes of communication (Describe the dominant communication form used, e. g. written or verbal); Nature of authority (recognized social rank); Motivational techniques (Describe the motivational driving forces e. . Intrinsic or extrinsic used to influence productivity and performance? ); Areas of EQ incorporated (Describe how the organization embraces the theory of emotional intelligence); and How are the components of a virtual organization embraced? (Explain how the organization embraces new paradigms such as teleworking and virtual offices? ). Grasping a complex and knowledgeable understanding on why, when, where and how, organizational behavior functions and operates, can provide great tools and skills to an individual or organization to better manage behavior and productivity within a company. References Amin,. (July 21, 2011). Motivate your team intrinsically or extrinsically? Retrieved on December 10, 2012 from http://blog. 7geese. com/2011/07/21/intrinsic-vs-extrinsic-motivation/ Baack, D. (2012). Organizational behavior. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc Cherry, K. (2012). What Is Emotional Intelligence? Definitions, History, and Measures of Emotional Intelligence. Retrieved on December 10, 2012 from http://psychology. about. com/od/personalitydevelopment/a/emotionalintell. htm Hamilton, D. Dr. (April 23, 2012). TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s Organizations Embracing Virtual Business. Retrieved on December 10, 2012 from http://drdianehamilton. wordpress. com/2012/04/23/todays-organizations-embracing-virtual-business/ Henry,. (April 4, 2004). Culture Definitions and Types. Retrieved on December 10, 2012 from http://language. ezinemark. com/culture-definitions-and-types-17b25a011fd. html Wertheim, E. G. (February 22, 2004). Historical Background of Organizational Behavior. Retrieved on December 10, 2012 from http://ehcweb. ehc. edu/faculty/ljcumbo/downfiles/historyofOB. pdf http://www. angelfire. com/blues/cannonsessays/org_behavior/ORGANIZATIONAL_BEHAV
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Microplastics and Their Environmental Effects Microplastics are small fragments of plastic material, generally defined as smaller than what can be seen by the naked eye.Ã Our increased reliance on plastics for countless applications has negative consequences to the environment. For example, the plastic manufacturing process is associated with air pollution, and volatile organic compounds released over the life of the plastic have deleterious health effects for humans. Plastic waste takes up significant space in landfills. However, microplastics in the aquatic environmentÃ has been a newly emerging concern in the public consciousness. As the name implies, microplastics are very small, generally too small to see although some scientists include pieces up to 5mm in diameter (about a fifth of an inch). They are of various types, including polyethylene (e.g., plastic bags, bottles), polystyrene (e.g., food containers), nylon, or PVC. These plastic items become degraded by heat, UV light, oxidation, mechanical action, and biodegradation by living organisms like bacteria. These processes yield increasingly small particles that eventually can be classified as microplastics. Microplastics On the BeachÃ It appears that the beach environment, with its abundant sunlight and very high temperatures at ground level, is where the degradation processes operate fastest. On the hot sand surface, plastic trash fades, becomes brittle, then cracks and breaks down. High tides and wind pick up the tiny plastic particles and eventually add them to the growing great garbage patches found in the oceans. Since beach pollution is a major contributor of microplastic pollution, beach cleanup efforts turn out to be much more than esthetic exercises.Ã Environmental Effects of Microplastics Many persistent organic pollutants (for example, pesticides, PCBs, DDT, and dioxins) float around the oceans at low concentrations, but their hydrophobic nature concentrates them on the surface of plastic particles. Marine animals mistakenly feed on the microplastics, and at the same time ingest the toxic pollutants. The chemicals accumulate in the animal tissues and then increase in concentration as the pollutants are transferred up the food chain.As the plastics degrade and become brittle, they leach out monomers like BPA which can then be absorbed by marine life, with relatively little known consequences.Besides the associated chemical loads, ingested plastic materials can be damaging for marine organisms, as they can lead to digestive blockage or internal damage from abrasion. There is still much research needed to properly evaluate this issue.Being so numerous, microplastics provide abundant surfaces for small organisms to attach. This dramatic increase in colonization opportuni ties can have population-level consequences. In addition, these plastics are essentially rafts for organisms to travel further than they usually would, making them vectors for spreading invasive marine species. Microbeads A more recent source of trash in the oceans is the tiny polyethylene spheres, or microbeads, increasingly found in many consumer products. These microplastics do not come from the breakdown of larger pieces of plastic but instead are engineered additives to cosmetics and personal care products. They are most often used in skin care products and toothpaste and wash down drains, pass through water treatment plants, and end up in freshwater and marine environments. There is increased pressure for countries and states to regulate microbead use, and many large personal care product companies have pledged to find other alternatives. Sources Andrady, A. 2011. Microplastics in the Marine Environment. Marine Pollution Bulletin.Wright et al. 2013. The Physical Impacts of Microplastics on Marine Organisms: A Review. Environmental Pollution.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Background Studies - Essay Example J. Acre realized that Ã¢â¬Å"there is a need for more research on critical pedagogy and elementary school practicesÃ¢â¬ (Arce). Ã¢â¬Å"Critical Pedagogy is a teaching approach that attempts to help students question and challenge domination, and the beliefs and practices that dominate. In other words, it is a theory and practice of helping students achieve critical consciousnessÃ¢â¬ (Wikimedia Foundation, Inc, 2009). It is concerned with Ã¢â¬Å"how education can provide individuals with the tools to better themselves and strengthen democracy, to create a more egalitarian and just society, and thus to deploy education in a process of progressive social changeÃ¢â¬ (21st Century Schools , 2004). Arce observed that the foci of previous researches are Ã¢â¬Å"prosocial education, whole language theory and classroom practices, learning conditions and bilingualism and language acquisitionÃ¢â¬ (Arce). On the other hand, there are only a few studies that Ã¢â¬Å"demonstrate the application of critical pedagogy as it relates to elementary school bilingual studentsÃ¢â¬ (Arce). Most of these related studies Ã¢â¬Å"address questions of student learning, whole language instruction, and relationships between schooling and the sociocultural processÃ¢â¬ (Arce). Arce realized to conduct such a study and he made use of a First Grade Two way Spanish Classroom as a participatory study. The second of these two studies is by S.P. Gillian which is Ã¢â¬Å"An Assessment of the Cross-Cultural Training Needs of South Carolina CounselorsÃ¢â¬ . He mentioned that there are already a lot of studies on cross-cultural counseling to the point that they point to different findings and conclusion. His study then is not in a new arena but it is unique in a way that it focuses on the areas that are yet to be dug in. Ã¢â¬Å"The overall aim of [the] present study is to (a) bring attention to areas of need counselors have with respect to cross-cultural counseling, (b) sensitize counselor education program administrator to these needs for
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Interactive Whiteboards - Essay Example "And the color, movement, sound and participation all come without messy chalk, stinky dry erase markers and copies of transparencies" (par. 2). Interactive whiteboards offer tremendous benefits not only for students, but also for teachers. They assist "people of many learning styles and save teachers time and space. Lessons can be saved into the system and can easily incorporate countless videos, maps, photos and websites. Teachers can pause videos and write notes on the screen, science classes can explore frogs through virtual dissection and geometry figures can be rotated, shrunk or expanded" (par. 18). In short, they make classroom instruction more efficient and learning more fun and interesting. The ability to harness the power, depth and breadth of the internet in this manner offers infinite new ways to try and reach out to students to grab their attention and improve their understanding of the material. There are many examples of ways in which this new technology has been and can be applied within the classroom. "Teachers can put a pyramid on the board and turn it so the class can see all the angles and sides. Students can count vertices by touching them on the board and setting them off in another color. Teachers can bounce between editing a paper on the board to searching for something online to illustrating what 1/16th of an inch looks like on a ruler" (par. 4). Any subject from math to literature to art and music can greatly benefit from these cybertronic chalkboards. This emerging hardware technology is significant because of its potential to revolutionize classrooms and teaching approaches. In the past, classroom instruction has tended to be one dimensional, very static, and non-interactive. Teachers would write on chalkboards or overhead slides, and would often be confined to the limited universe of often out-of-date instructional aids and materials to which they happened to have access. The ability of students to actively participate in a lesson, beyond raising their hand to answer the teacher's questions or make comments in a class discussion, was quite limited. With interactive whiteboards, teachers have the ability to take their lessons "outside of the box." Virtually any material available on the internet that pertains to the subject matter being taught can be summoned right then and there during a classroom lesson. This enables a much more detailed, nuanced and up-to-date discussion of the material. Further, students have a much greater opportunity to participate in the lesson in a meaningful way in which they can really interact with and digest the material. For example, at Centerville Elementary School in Minnesota, the technology prompted students to utilize their down time more productively, gathering around the board to review the material that had been taught earlier. "Using their fingers they dragged numbers on the screen into blank spots on a triangle as part of a math problem. When it's time for the class to leave for their next activity, one student pleads to the teacher, 'Can we check if it's right before we go'" (par. 11). As part of a literature lesson at the same school, teacher Tony Valenti used the device to bring to life the book
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Enhancing Employability in Marketing - Assignment Example Particularly, the banking and finance industry has witnessed this and there is since a vacancy hence the need to employ more marketers and advertisers in London as its the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s hub. Financial services, professional services, not-for-profit and media are hiring the majority of marketers in London (Anderson & Marsh, 2011). Also, another current trend worth taking note of in the marketing and advertising industry in the U.K is high demand for digital marketers. Technology has revolutionized the traditional way of doing business. Companies are now hiring personnel who can compete globally and those who are techno-savvy. For example, online marketing is a tool used by most companies that want to gain a global audience. This therefore means that there will be a very high demand for digital marketers who can use various online methods as channels of communication. Another significant trend in this industry is demand for marketers driven by regional specific industries. Each region in the U.K has a specialized marketing need. They will therefore hire marketers who they think will be most appropriate for those various needs. An example would be Leeds is dominated by retail, financial and professional services; Sheffield by manufacturing and public sector; Greater Manchester has a diverse mix of industry, com merce, public sector, as well as dominating the creative agency sector outside of London. The location of the port cities of Liverpool and Newcastle mean they operate almost as separate economies in their own right. This means that the demand for marketers will vary greatly and will definitely depend on the demand and supply rule otherwise known as Adams invisible hand theory. (CBI employability report 2010). Finally, the industry has also experienced a high turnover in the fast moving consumer goods sector.
Friday, November 15, 2019
Indonesia And Its Past Economic Crisis Economics Essay Indonesia is one of the most promising and fast developing countries in the world. After the financial crisis in 1997, this country has managed to demonstrate the great pace of development and to become one of the worlds leading economies. It has become possible because of the combination of internal and external factors and reasonable macroeconomic policy of the government. The economic and geopolitical potential of Indonesia is tremendous. It has a lot of natural and human resources, large potential market and appropriate corporate and organizational culture of doing business. It also rely lowly on exports, hence Indonesia performed better riding through slump. Exports are equivalent to only about 25% of GDP, compared with over 100% in Malaysia in 2008. Moreover, Indonesias core exports are dominated by gas, oil and coal, so the country was less exposed to the sudden and drastic destocking that caused trade in manufactured goods in Asia to dry up in late 2008 (Indrawati 2009). The countrys $514 billion economy, which is the biggest in South Asia, has 240 million citizens. It means that the country is a great potential market in terms of domestic consumption. An emerging middle class (35 million) is driving the economic growth in the country. It means that the country is able to create demand for the goods and services provided not only by national manufacturers, but also by multinational companies. The middle class creates not only an attractive market for multinational companies, but also a basis for the development of small business. Under modern circumstances, small business is a foundation for an effective economy. It creates new working places, contributes to the national GDP and makes the national economy more flexible and resistant to crisis and fluctuations. Indonesia is also rich in different natural resources. The country is the worlds leader in the export of coal. It has the largest gold mine and the single largest reserve of recoverable copper. As we can see, export is an integral part of the countrys success. On the one hand, it creates a lot of benefits for Indonesia. However, on the other hand, it makes the countrys national economy dependent on the situation on global markets. Fluctuations in these markets may hinder the development of the country. This situation however may be improved by having a higher share of value-added goods. These goods are produced by using educated labor force, knowledge and IT technologies. Thus, Indonesia will be able to occupy another niche in the global market and make its economy more competitive. It will also make the development of the country more intensive. One should mention that the current development has an extensive character. The development that has an extensive character is based on the use of resources, labor force, etc. At the same time, intensive development is based on innovations, investments, production of high value-added goods. The country also has some geopolitical advantages. It is close to China and Japan its biggest export markets. It means that transaction costs are insignificant. As a result, the efficiency of business is increasing. Moreover, these countries are not only Indonesias biggest partners, but also some of the biggest markets of the world. The combination of all the above-mentioned factors leads the country to the status of one of the best-performing economies in the world. According to the experts, the national economy of the country is going to grow 6 percent this year. It will make it the best-performing economy after China and India. The current GDP per capita is about $4.000 in Indonesia. Respectively GDP of Indonesia was about $960 billion in 2009 (Indonesia GDP Per Capita (PPP)). According to the experts, Indonesia should be included in BRIC club in the nearest future. Probably, we should explain what the so-called BRIC club is. The BRIC thesis posits that China and India will become the worlds dominant suppliers of manufactured goods and services, respectively, while Brazil and Russia will become similarly dominant as suppliers of raw materials (Brazil, Russia, India And China BRIC). It only proves our assumption that one of the strong sides of the countrys economy is its export of raw materials, including coal, metals, etc. However, as we have already mentioned, the share of these raw materials should reduce in the nearest future. Being a powerful country in the worlds economy also means being a leader in the worlds politics. Thus, the political influence of Indonesia in the world is also going to grow. At least in the Asian region, it is expected to happen very soon. We have said a lot about the countrys competitive advantages. Now it is time to analyze the potential risk factors that may scare the foreign investors and hinder the sustainable development of Indonesia. First of all, one should mention terrorism among the disadvantages that create risks for investors. Terrorist attacks in Jakarta and other similar countries scare foreign investors and thus hinder the economic development of such countries. Islamist terrorist actions have always been usual for the country. Foreign companies do not have any desire to invest in a country, where their facilities may be destroyed or their managers and workers may be killed. That is why decisive steps should be taken to solve this problem. Such steps are currently being made. The current government of the country is fighting against Islamist terrorist factions. However, its efforts should be combined with the assistance of the international community. We believe that this risk factor is going to be eliminated in the nearest future. Another risk factor is potentially dangerous natural factors. We mean, for example, tsunami in 2004 that killed a lot of people and shocked the world. In fact, there is a risk that such a cataclysm may occur again. The scope of that cataclysm can be described by the following words. Massive sea surges triggered by an earthquake under the Indian Ocean have killed over 10,000 people in southern Asia, with many more feared dead. Indonesia is thought to be the worst-hit country in the region, with 94,000 dead, 132,000 missing and 132,000 (Government of Indonesia 2005). Possible consequences of natural disasters may be the following: death of thousands of people (labor force and intellectual potential); destruction of infrastructure; destruction of material objects, including factories, offices, etc.; expenditure of billions of dollars on reconstruction of the country, etc. In general, it, of course, hinders the sustainable development of the countrys economy. This factor should be taken into account by the investors in Indonesias economy. Not only does the country have to fight against possible natural disasters, but it also has to handle other problems related to the natural environment, including climate change and depletion of natural resources. It can be proven by the following quote. The government in 2010 faces the ongoing challenge of improving Indonesias insufficient infrastructure to remove impediments to economic growth, while addressing climate change mitigation and adaptation needs, particularly with regard to conserving Indonesias forests and peatlands (Indonesia Economy 2010). After comparing the advantages and disadvantages of Indonesias economy, we have to talk about the main problems of its current state and prospects for the near future. Nowadays the main problem of Indonesias economy and financial system is a danger that its financial market may be overheated. It is essential to take this factor into account because a few years ago it caused a lot of problems. Ten years of growth resulted in the financial crisis in 1997. One of the reasons was the overheated regional financial market, including that of Indonesia. The influence of that financial crisis on the national economy was enormous. After an average annual rate of between 5% and 7% during a long-term growth in the last two decades, Indonesia has been hard hit during the recent wave of the Asian monetary crisis. With an economic growth of 4.7% in 1997, the 1998/99 State Budget envisages a minus 12% economic growth with an inflation of 66%, which gradually developed into an economic crisis (Indonesias Economy. Economic Growth and State Finance). That is why it is very important to evaluate whether the market is overheated now or not in order to avoid a similar crisis. We believe that we have to explain the term overheated market. It means that market prices of different assets, including stocks, raw materials, etc., do not correspond to their fundamental prices. Thus, the assets are overestimated and the so-called bubbles are formed because of some speculative tendencies. When investors realize that the assets are overestimated, the whole system ruins, creating terrible consequences. As a result, the whole national economy is harmed. The most recent and vivid example of such a cataclysm is the global financial crisis 2008-2010 that was caused by the bubbles in the markets of leading assets. Despite that fact, the tendencies for such bubbles to form are still observed in the global economy. Thus, to conclude, we would like to say the following. Despite the crisis in 1997-1998, Indonesia has managed to demonstrate the rapid pace of economic development in the past decade. As a result, nowadays a lot of people tend to treat Indonesias economy as one of the most promising economies in the world. We also support this opinion and believe that its economy is going to become one of the leading ones. It is possible because of the combination of the countrys advantages and effective governments policy. The countrys advantages are the following: beneficial geopolitical location; rich natural resources; cheap labor force; large internal market. The government economic policy is based on the use of liberal principles that are traditional in the developed countries. The most important thing is that the countrys leaders desire to see their country as an innovative and prosperous state. The countrys economy may also be characterized by some risks, among which some of the most important are a danger of terrorism and possibility of natural disasters. These risks should be taken into account by investors and internal policy makers because they are able to hinder the sustainable development of the country. If they cannot be avoided, they should be forecasted and minimized.