Friday, May 31, 2019

A preliminary assessment of the Survey of the Gaelic :: Scottish Gaelic dialectology

Scottish Gaelic dialectology A preliminary assessment of the Survey of the GaelicDialects of ScotlandBetween 1994 and 1997, the get down questionnaires of the Survey of theGaelic Dialects of Scotland were create as a five-volume series (O Dochartaigh 1994-97), presenting narrow phonetic transcriptions of over 200 speakers responding to a fortypagequestionnaire. This publication marks the culmination of a project of nearly fiftyyears duration the main body of the interviews took place between 1950 and 1970across much of the Scottish mainland as well as the Western Isles. In many cases, someof the very last Gaelic speakers in a particular region were interviewed, and we thus havetranscribed physicaland some audio recordingsof dialects that are now practicallyextinct. Naturally, the historic quality of these transcribed and audio records rendersthem all the more valuable for close study.This paper willing assess the current state of Scottish Gaelic dialect study, with aparticular fo cus on the Surveys current and future contributions. designed in 1950 byKenneth Jackson to elicit data informing phonetic and phonological questions of bothregional and historical interest, the original Survey focused on pronunciation variation,providing limited information on morphology (although see especially OMaolalaigh1999), and virtually none on syntactic variation or lexical choice. With thepublication of the Surveys raw data in the form of unanalyzed narrow transcriptions, itis appropriate now to ascertain what we can learn from the published material.However, in the approximately 50 years since the fieldwork for the Survey wasbegun, methods, goals, and principles of dialect study have changed dramatically (cf.Kretzschmar 1996) furthermore, advances in media technologies have enabled linguiststo analyze and to present data in compelling new ways (cf. Kretzschmar & Konopka1996). In recent years there has been an important move towards a discipline-wideagreement on best practi ces for dialect study, nomenclature data management, and thepresentation of data and analysis (cf. Methods XI Conference on Methods inDialectology, August 2002, Joensuu, Finland the E-MELD website and affiliated workthe Linguistic Data Archiving Project at CNRS, etc). The presentation will concludewith a discussion of desiderata for Scottish Gaelic dialect study, and for the presentationand analysis of Gaelic dialect data.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Wars Of The Roses :: essays research papers

In the late 1400s the House of York fought the House of Lancaster for the English crown. Because Lancasters heraldic badgewas a red rose and the Yorks was a white rose, the long conflict became known as Wars of the Roses. The existent lives of themain participants of the Wars of the Roses will be displayed in this paper. In Shakespeares Richard III the participants in theWars of the Roses were not suitably displayed. The participants in Shakespeares Richard III were Henry Tudor, Clarence,Edward V, Richard III Queen Margaret will have their lives displayed in this paper.In the Shakespeare play Richard III was depicted as a malformed mean, ill looking, tyrant. But this was not the case. RichardIII was a nice and handsome man. Shakespeare only did this so that Queen Elizabeth would be pleased with what she sawwhen she went to watch the play. Because Queen Elizabeth was a Lancaster, Shakespeare wanted her family to look noble.Richard III couldnt have been deformed as Shakespeare verba lise that he was, because in real life Richard III was a gentle thatfought in battles. He couldnt have been deformed if he were a knight because he would have to fight with his sword and search stated that in the play Clarence was a good guy who loved everybody, but in real life Clarence wasjailed and executed for committing treason. search engine state that in the play, Shakespeare said that Richardhad Clarence killed so that he could have an uncontested line to the throne. Shakespeare also said that Richard killed youngEdward V and his brother so that he could be next in line for the crown. But that is not true for Richard really didnt do it.There is a lot of speculation about rather Richard did it or not. There is more evidence supporting Richard. Some scholarsbelieve that Richard didnt deposit the Southern English so he sent young Edward V and his brother up north to be guarded byone of Richards consultants by the name of Sheriff Hutton. stated that Shakespeare also said that Richardmarried Lady Anne but later killed her. In real life Clarence, disguised as a guardian, hid her in a London bakery. Richard laterfound her and brought her to a church sanctuary so that they could have a legal marriage, in which they later did. Shakespearealso said that Richard was always plotting ways that he could become king such as killing his brother Clarence and killing young

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Interpreting the Constitution Essay -- essays research papers fc

When the Federalist party was organized in 1791, those people who favored a strong underlying government and a loose geniusal interpretation coagulated and followed the ideals of men such as Alexander Hamilton. The first opposition semipolitical party in the United States was the Republican party, which held power, nationally, between 1801 and 1825. Those who were in favor of states rights and a hard construction of the constitution fell under the leadership of doubting Thomas Jefferson. These Jeffersonian republicans, as well as known as anti-federalists, believed in strict adherence to the writings of the constitution. They wanted states rights and individual rights, which they believed could only be granted under strict construction of the constitution. Thomas Jefferson, the third president, and James Madison, his successor, were close friends and lifelong political associates. Long regarded as advocates for liberty, Jefferson and Madison believed in the principles of govern ment and sought to restore the aim of the revolution of 1776. These republicans spoke out against anti-monarchial attitudes and opposed the aristocratic and elitist attitudes of the federalists (Peterson, 1975). A weaker central government by the people was the goal of the republican party. Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, were 2 presidents who believed in the theory of the republican party, but due to circumstances within the parties and the increasing conflicts between Britain and France abroad, they found it increasingly difficult to act in a manner which coincided with their republican beliefs and at times had to reconcile their actions.Jeffersons victory in the presidential resource is notable because this was the first transfer of national office from political group to another that was accomplished by peaceful and strictly constitutional means. He began his presidency with a plea for reconciliation and described his election as a recovery of the original intentions of the American Revolution (Ellis, 2000). In his true ideology, Jefferson said that a republic did not require a goodly central government to flourish. In fact, he felt that the health of the nation was inversely proportional to the power of the federal government. ******In Document A, Jefferson writes of the preservation of the constitution and the princ... ... 1801 to 1807, Jeffersons policies initially reflected these Republican priorities, which meant decreasing the power of the federal government and the army and navy, and ending federal taxation as well as placing the national debt on the road to extinction. By 1807, circumstances dictated that Jefferson take some actions which seemed to contradict his ideals. From 1808 to 1817, threats to the United Statess strength as a nation and domestic and political struggles, forced James Madison to also veer away from the ideology that he initially preached. Both men exhibited a conflict between idealogy and arrange of that idealogy. B ibliography1. Ellis, Joseph. J, American Sphinx The Character of Thomas Jefferson.New York Vintage Books, 1996.2. Ellis, Joseph. J Maier, Pauline, et al. Thomas Jefferson Genius of Liberty.New York Viking Studio, 2000.3. Ketcham, Ralph. James Madison a Biography.Charlottesville University Press of Virginia, 1990.4. Peterson, Merrill, D. The Portable Thomas Jefferson.New York Penguin Books, 1975. 5. Rutland, Robert A.,ed. James Madison and the American Nation, 1751-1836 An Encyclopedia.New York Random House, 1994

Ciminal Insanity Essay -- Judicial Criminal System

A judges ruling today that an Irvington babysitter who stabbed her 5-year-old nephew 57 times is not guilty by reason of dementia was followed by screams of agony from the dead childs father. (Juri, 2009)This woman will be locked up, but in a maximum security psychiatric facility not a prison. Is this simply? Is this fair? It may be. What if this woman did not know that the child was what she was stabbing? What if she saw a dog that was attacking her, or maybe she was even far removed from reality. This is the difficulty with criminal insanity cases. Sometimes, even if the person is mentally ill a murder is a murder theft is theft. Should criminal insanity be a useable defense in Canadian court systems? Through the history there have been three basic definitions of legal insanity. offset printing was the MNaghten Rule. This rule stated that a person was only considered legally insane if they were incapable of appreciating his surroundings(Montaldo, 2010) due to a mental illness. This is a quite austere definition without much room for special cases. It caused a black and white view of criminal insanity cases. The MNaghten Rule lasted until the 1950s when in the shorthorn v. get together States case the court ruled that would not have committed the criminal act but for the existence of a mental disease or defect.(Montaldo, 2010) the Durham method got a lot of criticism because it was very lenient on the definition of criminal insanity so that it almost depended on the judge to get back if the person was to be considered criminally insane or not. To address this problem a third method was created by the American Law Institute and was promulgated as part of the Model Penal Code. The Model Penal Code provided a standardized idea of crimina... reus. Retrieved from http//, K. (2008, May 16). Criminal insanity . Retrieved from http// Dryden-Edwards, MD, R. (2010). Schizophrenia. Retrieved from ht tp// dementia praecox/page3.htmFarlex, . (2010). Insanity defense. Retrieved from http//, . (2010). The insanity defense history and background .. Retrieved from http// Juri, C. (2009, January 06). Judge accepts insanity defense from babysitter in irvington childs slaying. Retrieved from http// Montaldo, C. (2010). The insanity defense. Retrieved from http//

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

The Destruction of Willy Loman in Arthur Millers Death of a Salesman :: Death Salesman essays

The Destruction of Willy Loman in Arthur Millers Death of a Salesman Willy Loman is a change of location salesman who has worked for the Wagner firm for 34 years. He is now 61 years old and his job has been taken off salary and put on commission. He has a family and he boasts to them that he is vital in New England, but in fact he isnt vital anywhere. Willy has many strong beliefs that he strives to achieve. He wants to take his own business and he wants to be bigger than Uncle Charley and especially he wants to be a great success and he tries to emulate Dave Singleman. He wishes to die the Death of a Salesman and have many buyers and salesmen mourn for him. He also tries to be a good father, and husband. However Willys aims in sprightliness have been useless as he hasnt really achieved anything. He got fired by Howard, his sons are both failures and they abandoned him in a restaurant toilet. His relationship with his wife is plagued by his guilt for committing adultery. He has to borrow $50 a week from Charley. He cant even keep his mind on one thing for a long time. He cant drive a car. Willy gets so fed up with all of these things that he wants to commit suicide and eventually, he does. This topic suggests that Willys deterioration occurs because the principals he believes in. To a large extent this is true. After 34 years of Willys life, he loses his job. To a normal person under normal circumstances, being retrenched is a time when you feel useless. But for Willy, since everything else is going wrong at the same time, he feels like a useless old man. Willy thought that just because he named his boss, that he would have a secure future with the social club but as Charley said them things dont mean anything? You named him Howard, but you cant sell that. Even though Willy wasnt even acquire paid a salary, Howard didnt want him to even represent the company in case Willy cracked up again. Although Willy is mostly destroyed by his own ideals there are other things that destroy him as well, like Howard, Happy and Biff. Willy is emotionally destroyed when Howard fires him. Then, both of his sons disown and abandon him in Franks Chop House.

The Destruction of Willy Loman in Arthur Millers Death of a Salesman :: Death Salesman essays

The Destruction of Willy Loman in Arthur Millers Death of a Salesman Willy Loman is a travelling salesman who has worked for the Wagner firm for 34 years. He is now 61 years old and his hypothesise has been taken off salary and put on commission. He has a family and he boasts to them that he is vital in New England, but in feature he isnt vital anywhere. Willy has many strong beliefs that he strives to achieve. He wants to own his own business and he wants to be bigger than Uncle Charley and especially he wants to be a great success and he tries to emulate Dave Singleman. He wishes to die the Death of a Salesman and have many buyers and salesmen mourn for him. He in like manner tries to be a good father, and husband. However Willys aims in life have been useless as he hasnt really achieved anything. He got pink-slipped by Howard, his sons are both failures and they abandoned him in a restaurant toilet. His relationship with his wife is plagued by his guilt for committing adulter y. He has to borrow $50 a week from Charley. He terminatet even keep his mind on one thing for a long time. He cant drive a car. Willy gets so fed up with all of these things that he wants to commit suicide and eventually, he does. This topic suggests that Willys declivity occurs because the principals he believes in. To a large extent this is true. After 34 years of Willys life, he loses his job. To a normal person under normal circumstances, macrocosm retrenched is a time when you feel useless. But for Willy, since everything else is going wrong at the same time, he feels like a useless old man. Willy thought that honorable because he named his boss, that he would have a secure future with the company but as Charley said them things dont mean anything? You named him Howard, but you cant sell that. Even though Willy wasnt even getting paid a salary, Howard didnt want him to even represent the company in case Willy cracked up again. Although Willy is mostly destroyed by his own ideals there are other things that destroy him as well, like Howard, Happy and Biff. Willy is emotionally destroyed when Howard fires him. Then, both of his sons disown and abandon him in Franks Chop House.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Summit Series

The 1972 gain series is a ice hockey series amid Canada and the Soviet Union. It took buns during the time of the Cold War when the East and West were combat to prove who was bettor. The 1972 Summit Series proved that we are the greatest hockey rural area creating great communityalism in Canada despite that it was part of the cold war. It showed that Canada is the greatest hockey nation, the Summit Series brought all the people of Canada in concert and it took attribute at a time during the Cold War. These points will be further explained in the following paragraphs.Firstly, the 1972 Summit Series proved that Canada is the greatest hockey nation ever. The NHL long regarded itself as the realisms elite, but the overwhelming superiority of the Soviet Union in international amateur play in the 1960s led to a dramatic 1972 summit series between Team Canada (Canadian NHL players) and the Soviet national team, (Columbia encyclopaedia, sixth edition). This tells us how before the series the Soviet Union was known as the best international team ever. This series came into play to show who was truly better. Canada ended up winning so it turns step up that we are a better hockey nation. Heres a shot. Henderson makes a wild stab for it and falls, Foster Hewitt breathlessly described. Heres another shot. Right in front. They add Henderson has scored for Canada (1972summitseries. com). This quote is when Henderson scored the goal that would put them ahead in the final game of the serious and the goal that would make them win the series This proves that Canada is the greatest hockey nation because they won the series with this goal. What that team did, I dont think there has been a greater feat in sports. It was an unbelievable comeback against a great Russian team.Ive never seen anything like it, said Bobby Orr (1972 Summit Series Quotes). This quote came from one of the greatest hockey players of all time, so that makes it very special. Bobby Orr is explaining how the Russians were a very strong team but we took them down in an amazing series. So it tells us that Canada is better because we beat the amazing Soviet Union team. In conclusion, Canada has earned the title of the greatest hockey nation ever. Secondly, this great series created great nationalism between all Canadians in this beautiful country. There was no such thing as francophone or aWesterner, or anything else. We were all Canadians. The series brought us all together. It brought an entire country together. It was Canada playing, not team Canada. It was us against them and every(prenominal) Canadian somehow seemed to have a sense of ownership of that team. I guess war is the only thing that could bring a country together like that series did, said Paul Henderson (1972 Summit Series Quotes). This quote shows us that this series brought every Canadian together. No matter the race or nationality of the person, they all gathered together to support out country in the 1972 Summ it Series.Erik Floren says During the series, kids and adults skipped school studies and workplace to amass around radios or TVs. Far from a friendly exhibition- the games exploded into war on ice. The sheer intensity galvanized Canadians of all creeds, colour, and both official languages. (www. 1972summitseries. com) The Summit Series must have been really essential to all Canadians because this quote tells us how every Canadian, however if they don like hockey, skipped out on there duties to watch this exciting seven game series. In Canada today, the Summit Series remains a source of much national pride, and is seen by many as a landmark issue in Canadian cultural history (Global Oneness Encyclopaedia II). The 1972 Summit Series meant a lot to all Canadians, and still does. It is still an important part of our past and of all time will be. For those who were alive at the time when this occurred, they will definitely never forget this amazing series. This series brought Canadia ns together like no other event could. Everybody took pride and honour from this victory whether they were hockey fans or not.Lastly, the Summit Series was a part of the Cold War. The Cold War is when the West and East of the world were fighting to prove who was better. A member of the team Canada, Phil Esposito says, It was a war, our society vs. theirs (1972 Summit Series Quotes). He means that it was a war between socialism and democracy. Our society is a democratic society, and people over here think that it is better then communism. The Soviet Union is a communist country and they were fighting to show that they were better. By the early 1970s, the Soviet Union was at the peak of its power.The Communist Party remained the sole political force in the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union attempted to assert itself as the worlds dominant superpower (Cold War (1972-1989) the Collapse of the Soviet Union). The East was starting to become even more powerful and the West didnt know what to do to stop them. For every time that Russia had a great accomplishment, the U. S or the West would incur a step back instead of forward. The Summit Series helped slow down the East on their rise to the top and gave the West a enlarged step on becoming better. It was war and yes, hell for us whether we wanted it or not (1972 Summit Series Quotes) said Phil Esposito. This means that team Canada could not back out of this series even if they wanted to. It was a big part of the Cold War and meant so much to all the people in the West. So the players basically didnt have a choice, they had to play and win or else people would have been angry and it would not have turned out well. This series came alive at a time during the Cold War and helped the West to become the better side of the world.This great hockey serious which took place in 1972, showed the entire world that Canada is the best hockey nation in the world and that no other country can even compare. The 1972 Summit Series also brought every Canadian together, no matter what race, religion, or gender together like no other event or thing could. Lastly, this grand battle took place at the time of the Cold War, when there was a feud between communism and democracy. They were fighting to prove who was better, the East or West. The 1972 Summit Series could possibly be the most defining point in Canadian history and it will never be forgotten.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Arthur Miller’s The Crucible: Gaining Integrity through Failure Essay

Integrity is achieved through and through the gaining of firmness the gaining of wisdom is a direct result of failure. Arthur Miller wrote the honourableisation drama, The crucible, in this play the main character conjuring trick monitor lizard was amiss(p)ly accused of witchcraft and served the death penalty along with two others. The story of tush funding an eye on was indirectly summarized by the American author William Saroyan when he said, Good people be proper because theyve come to wisdom through failure, meaning that a person ordaining to sacrifice for his beliefs is pricey because although he has failed, by non according to his moral codes he has gained integrity and the ability to disavow to live a life of hypocrisy further, prank proctor is good because he died refusing to lie in order to live. observe failed because his commitments wavered depending upon his experience person-to-person needs. Miller demonstrated proctors failure, and later redemption an d goodness throughout the text by means of characterization, conflict, and theme.Miller uses the literary element of characterization to show washstand follows transformation from failure to goodness. There is a definite contradiction in monitoring device addition in ally, he says that he loves his wife but, he adulters her as curtly as she becomes ill. Also he does not attend church because he dislikes the way in which empyrean Samuel Parris g everyplacens the church, as well as the way he preaches. Proctor abhors how Parris uses donations for the church to buy superfluous things, When I look to heaven and see my money glaring at his elbows- it hurt my prayer, sir, it hurt my prayer (69).Proctors commitment wavers depending upon his own personal needs. Arthur Miller characterized him as one with weak theology and one who struggled with personal commitment, in Puritan society holiness is valued highly and those who dont follow Puritan rules are not accepted and alienated by s ociety. Salem citizens considered Proctor a ghostly failure. He was not able to recite the Ten Commandments when asked by Reverend Nathaniel Hale further, as Proctor was failing to find the tenth commandment, his wifeElizabeth utters delicately, Adultery, John (71). Ironically, Proctor was able to identify all the commandments except the one that he was betraying. Reverend Hale pointed out Proctors other ghostlike shortcomings, he discerned that Proctor rarely attended church, In the book of record that Mr. Parris keeps, I note that you are rarely on church on Sabbath day (68).Proctor first argues that Hale must be wrong, then he replies that his wife was sick so, finally after all of his excuses failed, he resorted to saying that he did not attend church because he did not like Reverend Samuel Parris, Reverend Hale continued to point out Proctors fallacies, Hale far-famed that and two of Proctors three sons had been baptized, How comes it that only two are baptized (69). Procto r claims that this is because he dislikes Reverend Parris, I like it not that Mr. Parris should lay his hand on my baby. I see no light of immortal in that man. Ill not conceal it (69). Proctor proves himself to be religiously disloyal additionally, since Samuel Parris was a preacher he must have the light of God is in him according to Puritan beliefs. Proctor challenges Hales accusations, I nailed the roof upon the church, I hung the door- (69). Proctor is willing to work for the church, but is not willing to attend it like society expects him to he unquestionably contradicts himself atthis point.Because of these religious weaknesses and inauthentic wefts Proctors faith in God is weakened. Proctor reaches wisdom through failure, he overcame his shortcomings and was eventually able to redeem himself in the eye of society as well as in the eyes of God. When he being frustrated by the imitative accusations of the court he proclaimed, I say- I say- God is dead (125). Proctor believe s that God is dead and that everyone will burn in Hell together. Later he gains goodness as he realizes that God knows that he is a sinner and that that is all that matters, God does not need my name nailed upon the church He sees my name God knows how black my sins are It is adequacy (149). Also, Proctor was tortured for three months, the Salem judges attempted to get him to purge a confession, but to no avail. Proctor knew that if he gave a false confession it would blacken his brain more than anything else would. Elizabeth questioned him prior to his hanging, You-have been tortured? Proctor responded, Aye. They come for my life now. (141).Proctor was tortured for three months and was determined bolster up his ideals by showing a cold heart to the judges, here he exemplifies firmness and perseverance. Proctor began as one whose commitment was based on his personal needs, but was transformed to one willing to die for something he believes in, he was changed from a failed person to a moral man. Proctor knows that what the Salem judges were doing was wrong and he refused to be victimized by them. The dynamic characterization of John Proctor throughout The Crucible shows that he is a good person because he is willing to die celebrateing his beliefs although, he agrees to confess and abandon his previous ideals, he has a change of heart and hangs. Proctor was wrestling with his conscience over whether to confess to witchcraft an action that would savehimself from the gallows. The judges and Hale almost convinced him to do so, but the last stumbling block is his signature on the confession, which he could not bring himself to give.In part, this unwillingness reflects his desire to honor his fellow prisoners he would not be able to live with himself knowing that other innocent, sacred people died while he faltered at deaths door and fled. Also he would not sign the false confession because of his children he did not want them to live knowing that their father was a as well as timid to stand up for his principles, I have three children- how may I apprise them to walk like men in the world, and I sold my friends? (150). Proctor also hesitated to sign his false confession for fear of losing his tarnished, but all central name, Because it is my name Because I cannot have another in my life Because I lie and sign myself to liesHow may I live without my name? (150). He knew that he could only have one name, and if he sign the false confession people would always look down on him as someone who was too cowardly to bolster his beliefs,Still another literary element used by Miller is that of theme. The idea that reputation can greatly effect a characters thought process is a very important theme throughout the play. Reputation is tremendously important intheocratic Salem, where habitual and private moralities are one and the same. In an environment where reputation plays such an important role, the fear of guilt by association becomes particu larly harmful. Focused on maintaining public reputation, the townsfolk of Salem must fear that the sins of their friends and family may tarnish their own names. John Proctor based his actions on the desire to protect his reputation. Proctor seeks to keep his good name from being damaged moreover, he attempts to quiet Abigail on the subject of theirprevious relationship in order to protect his good name. He tells Abigail to forget about their relationship because he has reformed and wants nothing to do with her, Wipe it out of mind. We neer touched, Abby (24). Personal office is another major(ip) theme throughout The Crucible Miller exemplifies Proctors transformation from failure to morality through his failed personal responsibilities.As a citizen of Salem, Proctor has the responsibility of attending church weekly also, he has the responsibility of having his family follow Puritan religious rules. His youngest son is not baptized, Proctor argues that he does not think that Revere nd Parris is the right man to baptize his son. Proctors largest failed responsibility is that of his loyalty to his wife, Elizabeth. He had with Abigail during his wifes sickness. Proctor failed because his commitments wavered depending upon his own personal needs, he was in need of companionship and his wife was sick and therefore unable to fulfill his needs, so he abandon his previous ideals. Proctors inauthentic choice to lecher his wife contributed to his failings.Elizabeth expressed grief regarding Proctors lechery, she was dismayed when she learned of Johns sin, Youll tear it free-when you come to know that I will be your only wife, or no wife at all (66). Another theme that plays a large role in transforming Proctor from a person of failure to a man with moral philosophy is that of intolerance of opposition. The Crucible is set in a theocratic society, in which the church and the state are one, and the Puritan religion is very austere. Because of the theocratic nature of the society, moral laws and state laws are one and the same sin and the status of an individuals soul are matters of public concern. There is no room for variation from social standards, since any individual whose private life does not conform to the established moral laws represents a holy terror not only to the public good but, they pose a threat to the rule of God and true religion as well. In Salem, everything and everyone belongs to either God or the Devil opposition is not merely unlawful, it is associated with satanic activity. This division between good and evil, God or the Devil, functions as the profound logic behind the witch trials.The witch trials are the ultimate expression of intolerance and, hanging witches is the ultimate means of restoring the communitys purity. The trials categorize all social deviants with the disgrace of devil-worshiping and thus require their elimination from the community. Proctor conformed to societys ways and hid his sins. Proctors failings we re represented by the themes of reputation, intolerance, and personal responsibilities, he was unable to fulfill his societal duties but, he hid his weaknesses in order to keep his social status white. He covered up his affair with Abigail and his religious inadequacies. Proctor adultered Elizabeth and he was unable to live a normal life because of his sins.Proctor also had a chance to put a stop to the girls accusations but, his desire to deliver his reputation keeps him from testifying against Abigail, Proctor tells Elizabeth that he wants to think on the idea of testifying against Abigail because he fears that he may falsely accuse Abigail of fraud, but in actuality he is thinking on it because he does not want to bring adultery charges on himself by testifying against Abigail, he does not want to raise lechery suspicions from Elizabeth, I have good reason to think before I charge fraud on Abigail, and I will think on it (57). However, Proctors desire to keep his good name lead s him to make the heroic choice not to make a false confession and to go to his death without signing his name to an imitation statement, he proclaims to the court, I have given you my soul leave me my name(150). By refusing to surrender his name, he redeems himself for his failureand therefore dies with integrity. Elizabeth expresses true feelings toward John because she knew that they major power never speak to each other again. She explained to John that she was one who was wrong, she said that she should not have been suspicious of John, Suspicion kissed you when I did I never knew how I should say my love. It were a cold house I kept (144). Proctor surely has his integrity when Elizabeth exclaims to Judge Hathorne that John is a moral man, Do what you will. simply let none be your judge. There be no higher judge under Heaven than Proctor is Forgive me, forgive me, John- I never knew such goodness in the world (144). Through the trials Proctor realized the conformists of soci ety, and how people surrender to altering their own beliefs. When John is facing death he is redeem and gains integrity. Elizabeth looks past Johns adultery and recognizes that has transformed into a respectable man.The literary element of conflict is frequently used throughout The Crucible to show John Proctors transition from ethical failure to moral success. The external conflict between John and Elizabeth shows John in as a failure, their conflict was caused by Johns affair with Abigail. Elizabeth expressed her grief upon learning of Johns lechery, I will be your only wife, or no wife at all She Abigail has an arrow in you yet, John Proctor, and you know it well (66). Another external conflict exists between John and society, particularly, the judges and governors. The Salem governors convince Proctor that the right way to go is to give a false confession further, he would spare his life, and religiously relinquish himself of sin by confessing. Here, Proctor failed. He chose t o give a false confession, he chose to wrongly admit to witchcraft instead ofstanding by his morals like Martha Corey and Sarah Good did before him. Along those same lines, John failed himself.Internally he was struggling with the same the decision of giving a false confession. Proctor failed through both internal and external conflicts. He was convinced to falsely confess, and he also adultered his wife. Proctor was redeemed internally he found wisdom from within and reformed. Proctor realized that adultery greatly troubledhis relationship Elizabeth and also his public reputation, and redeemed himself by means of admitting his sins to Elizabeth and saying that he takes his own sins upon himself, no one elses, No, I take my own sins, my own (144). Proctor also became conscious of the fact that integrity is much more important than reputation.He shows this recognition through deciding not to give a false confession. By not giving a false confession he redeemed himself and reached vir tue. In the end, he was hanged and showed his goodness through his willingness to sacrifice his own life defending something that he believes in. Instead of being used by the court to shit witchcraft, he went against the court, and did the opposite of what they wanted him to do. By not conforming to the courts requests of a false confession he showed once more his integrity and morality.Furthermore, Arthur Miller depicts John Proctors goodness by showing that he has integrity, morals, and ideals. The American author William Saroyan said, Good peopleare good because theyve come to wisdom through failure. Someone who is willing to sacrifice for his beliefs is a good person because although he has failed, by not according to his moral codes he has gained the integrity and the ability to refuse to live a life of hypocrisy. The Crucible is directly related to the McCarthy hearings of the 1950sand 1960s.Senator Joseph McCarthy fought the growing Communist party during the Red Scare, when America was vulnerable to the growing threat of Communist invasion. McCarthys hearing is directly related to The Crucible because like the McCarthy hearings The Crucible sends a timeless message. Joseph McCarthy stood up to American society to publicly defend his reputation, as well as the reputations of others additionally John Proctor did the same in The Crucible as he refused to shame himself by lying and winning the easy way out when others died for their morals.Works CitedMiller, Arthur. The Crucible. New York Penguin Books, 1953.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Green culture in Mexico Essay

Today humanity uses the equivalent of 1.5 planets to provide the resources we use and absorb our waste. This means it at once takes the Earth one year and six months to regenerate what we use in a year. Mexico City generates more than 12,500 tons per day of solid waste and the % 50 of the waste are from the houses. In Mexico, people dont have a parkland culture to protect the environment because the people dont consider their ecological footprint, dont know the impact of their activities, and they think that natural resources impart last forever. Footprint accounts reveal the ecological demand associated with residential consumption, the production, and the generation of exports. The Ecological Footprint is a resource accounting tool that helps to know whats the impact of the activities of the people.In Mexico the ecological footprint calculated in 2003 was 2.6 hectares per person. This means that we use more than the Earth can give us. The second reason for Mexican people dont hav e a green culture is because they dont know the impact of their activities. One example is that in Mexico City the main contaminant is carbon monoxide emitted by cars. The persons used any day a car and sometimes for short distances. The consequences of the pollution that people produce are reflected not only in health, also in the disappearance of ecosystems.The Mexican people think that natural resources will last forever. Today, the population growth generates more food production as result the ecosystems are converted into agricultural, livestock and urban areas. Recently, large-scale industrial developments, including oil development in Mexico and timber and mineral extraction, have increased the threat to lumbers. Mexico has lost 25% of forest and jungle areas. The consequences of loss of ecosystems are scarcity of natural resources and species loss. People should have environmental awareness for preserving biodiversity and the environment that provides resources. In conclu sion, Mexican people dont have environmental awareness. It is important have a green culture because the Earth gives us all that we need. If we dont protect the Earth, the natural resources will be less that we have now.SourcesFAO. The Global Forest Resources Assessment. Roma FAO, 2005. Print GlobalFootprint Network. Footprint for Nations Global Footprint Network U, 2011. Web. 17 March, 2012. Semarnat. Y el medio ambiente? Problemas en Mxico y el mundo. Mxico Semarnat, 2007. Print

Friday, May 24, 2019

Media and Foreign Policy

POLITICAL SCIENCES MEDIA AND FOREIGN POLICY SUBMITTED TO MR. IJAZ BUTT SUBMITTED BY AYESHA SADDIQUE (01) SADIA ABBAS (29) MISHA ZAIDI (12) INSTITUTE OF COMMUNICATION STUDIES PUBJAB UNIVERSITY LAHORE B. S (HONS. ) 3RD SEMESTER (MORNING) FOREIGN POLICY AND MEDIA DEFINITION OF FOREIGN POLICY Foreign Policy can be defined as Relations between monarch states. It is a reflection of domestic politics and an interaction among sovereign states.It indicates the principles and preferences on which a country destinys to establish relations with another country. WHY IT IS NECESSORY FOR A COUNTERY? No country today can think of a life independent of other nations. E real country has to develop relations with other countries so as to meet its requirements in economical, industrial and technological fields. It is thus needful for every country to formulate a sound unlike form _or_ system of government. Foreign policy is necessary for a country to * Promote sovereignty & national interest Cop e up the problems of environment, Terrorism and many others. * Solve the issues of poverty, underemployment, and Unemployment * Strengthen territorial reserve & security fairness of country * Get International resources for countries domestic socio- economic context such(prenominal) as trading. DETERMINANTS OF THE FOREIGN POLICY The following are the determinants of the external policy of Pakistan- administrativeTroika Administrative Troika comprises the President of Pakistan, The Prime Minister rand Chief of Army Staff. It plays very important office staff in formulating foreign policyIt can love or disapprove the foreign policy of Pakistan President Or can make any change in it. However, it is very difficult to deviate from the preceding foreign commitments made by Troika. Chief of prime Army staff minister MinistryofForeignAffairs The ministry can play very important role in formulating the foreign policy. It comprises the specialists and experts of foreign policy and the b ureaucrats of high level. They prepare foreign policy, keeping in belief the basic objectives and principles of the policy.They formulate the policy, plans and programs regarding the priorities of foreign policy, and fully cooperate with Troika for its preparation. In accordance with new constitutional amendment, the Troika has been replaced by the National SecurityCouncil. IntelligenceAgencies Pakistans intelligence agencies also play very effective role in the formulation of foreign policy by providing full information about the objectives of other countries foreign policies. Keeping in view these in formations, Pakistanformulates its foreign policy. PoliticalPartiesandPressureGroupsRelated essay Disadvantages of Foreign Workers in MalaysiaThe political parties and pressure groups have deep impacts on the formulation of foreign policy. The political parties include the priorities of foreign policy in their manifestoes, and after their success in the election, they force the gover nment to change the priorities of foreignpolicy according to the changing scenario in the light of their view points. Likewise the pressure groups can also ascertain the foreign policy. Parliament The Ministry of Foreign Affairs usually prepares the foreign policy according to the directions of executive and puts itbefore the Parliament for approval.After discussion and debate the parliament gives approval to it or suggests some FOREIGN POLICY AND ROLE OF MEDIA Recent events in world have intensified speculations about the role of traditional mass media as well as communication technologies in pliant political events and cultures crossways the world Media do not necessarily influence policymakers directly, but may work through frequent vox populi by shaping what people cut and believe about foreign politics. Public opinion, embodied in predominant political views or in election results, can have considerable influence on policymakers that need approval from the electorate.Inf luence of media on foreign policy Accelerant to positive action * Political decision-making process in the light of a new or ongoing issue * Speeds the parliamentary process and deployment process of an already mandated issue Impediment to positive action * Where coverage of an incident will degrade public will and support for an ongoing operation or diplomatic initiative * Slows the parliamentary process and deployment process of an already mandated issue * As a menace to operational and national security Agenda Setting Agency Raises an unknown issue to a position where it produces political pressure for action According to the researchers Mody represents a strongly normative perspective, arguing that an informed citizenry is necessary, although not sufficient, for preventing conflict and humanitarian crises. In her argument, media influence foreign policy by putting issues on the public agenda and by framing them in a way that catches the attention and sympathy of a large audie nce, which then demands action from their elected representatives.Philip Seib from the University of southerly California discusses new media, in particular satellite television and the Internet. Seib posits that the media are indeed able to change the status quo of foreign policy by shaping international and domestic public opinion. Seibs main idea is the virtual state disperse communities achieve an unprecedented cohesion that puts them on the political role internationally. Satellite media and the Internet foster virtual sovereignty by cultivating a shared identity among disperse members of ethnic or religious communities.This is relevant for foreign policy because virtual states can affect the stability of traditional states and regions. Media can also alleviate tensions and conflict by providing new perspectives to an unprecedentedly large audience. Seib recommends that, if policymakers want to take advantage of the medias power to create communities, cooperation is a better a pproach than competition, and international media, such as Voice of America and Deutsche Welle, become relevant tools of foreign politics.PAKISTAN FOREIGN POLICY Pakistanis the second largestMuslimcountry in terms of percentage of population (afterIndonesia), and its status as adeclared nuclear power, being the only Islamic nation to have that status, plays a part in its international role. Pakistan has a fierce independent foreign policy, especially when it comes to issues such as development of nuclear weapons, construction of nuclear reactors, foreign military purchases and other issues that are vital to its national interests.Pakistan has a strategic geo-political location at the corridor of world major maritime oil supply lines, and has close proximity to the resource and oil rich central Asian countries. Pakistan is an important member of theestablishment of Islamic Cooperation(OIC), amajor non-NATO allyof the war against terrorism, and has a highly disciplined military, which is the worldseighth-largeststanding military force. Basic Goals of Pakistans Foreign Policy * Maintenance of territorial integrity. Maintenance of its political independence. * Acceleration of social and economic development. * Strengthening its place on the globe. * Keeping cordial and friendly relations with all countries. ROLE OF MEDIA IN PAKISTAN FOREIGN POLICY Pakistan has developed a vibrant and free-wheeling media in the last decade . Yet Pakistani journalists continue to face pressure both from the regimen and militant groups when reporting on terrorism and its impact on the country and this effect its foreign policy.Senior Journalist, Zahid Husain spoke on Pakistani media and its impact on foreign policy. He was of the view that Pakistani media is much to a greater extent candid, opaque and vocal regarding foreign policy. One of the major problems of print media, he said, is its division in English and Urdu. English newspapers cover issues related to foreign and security policy while there are hardly any such issues available in Urdu newspapers. This dichotomy is an underlying reason of our conflicts over various issues and inability to reach consensus.What should be the role of Pakistani media * Play role from watch dog to withstander * Awake the people in a right way * Provide authentic and sincere information to people * Impartially shape public opinion CONCLUSION So all of this proves that Pakistan media is just playing the role of watch dog in the formation of Pakistans foreign policy. it needs to much more mature. in order to make a perfect policy Pakistan media have to play its real role of awaking the people. Above discussion posit that the media shape foreign policy by shaping public opinion.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer

Geoffrey Chaucers The Canterbury Tales is more than just an entertaining collection of stories and characters it is a representation of the society Chaucer lived in. In the late fourteenth century England the traditional feudal system was changing as the church was losing its importance and more people were becoming part of the emerging middle class. Chaucers Canterbury Tales is a microcosm of this society because it demonstrates the social divisions known as the Estates, it illustrates the growth of the middle class and the decline of the feudal system, and it shows the corruption and power of the Church, and it embodies most aspects of the Middle Age.Feudal society was traditionally divided into leash estates, which were roughly equivalent to social classes. The First Estate was the Church, the Second Estate was the Nobility, and the Third Estate was the Peasantry. The rigid division of society into the three traditional estates was beginning to break down in the late 14th centur y England, and by the time of Chaucer, there was a rise of the middle class. In The Canterbury Tales, Chaucer is highly conscious of the social divisions known as the Estates. While the genre of The Canterbury Tales as a whole is a frame narrative, the General Prologue to The Canterbury Tales is an example of Estates Satire, a genre which criticizes the abuses that occur within the three traditional Estates.Geoffrey Chaucers The Canterbury Tales embodies most aspects of the Middle Ages, whether it is in the form of immoral religious clergyman, poor, virtuous farmers, or the honorable knight. any these characters provide excellent examples of the many omnipresent themes of the Middle Ages. The prevailing values and themes of the Middle Ages included violence and revenge, religion and corruption, and social status and hierarchy.The times in which Chaucers The Canterbury Tales is set are tumultuous and are filled with suffering, conflict, and general animosity as such, the ideas of re venge and thus violence are fairly prevalent. In a great many of Chaucers tales, this theme is framed perfectly. An example near the end ofthe Reeves tale after the miller dis incubates the scholars treachery. He the miller grabbed Allan by the Adams apple, and he, in return, roughly grabbed the miller and hit him on the nose with his fist (Chaucer 83). In this instance, not only a quick resort to violence is exhibited, but violence is used as revenge as the miller attacks Allan after realizing that he has slept with his wife. Evidenced by this, violent tendencies were often the most common, and the most appropriate response.In all of England, violence was seen as something of a way of life Curtis Gruenler, in a literary analysis, states, Violence on a large scale held English attention as spectacular victories against the cut early in the Hundred Years War were followed by a series of costly, disastrous campaigns (Gruenler). War was a profession of many people in England includin g a character of Chaucers, the Knight had fought in at least 15 battles and had essentially built out his entire livelihood based upon the battles he was called upon by his lord to take part in. In essence, violence was a universally recognized form of justice and retribution something that was explicitly pointed out in Chaucers stories.Yet another(prenominal) theme is the presence of religion, or more specifically, the presence of corruption within religion. Many members of the pilgrimage learn ties to religious office, and all but the Parson mystify in some way violated their vows or otherwise acted somewhat out of their bounds as a high ranking member of the Church. Chaucer illustrates this elegantly in the form of the Pardoners prologue where he states make an offering to my relics in this church . . . make an offering in the name of God, I shall absolve them by the dominance of which was granted to me by papal bull (Chaucer 288).After telling the pilgrims of this trick, clea rly aimed at pocketing a good deal of money, he explains, By this trick I have gained a hundred marks year after year since I became a pardoner (Chaucer 288). The Pardoner is not, however, the only immoral religious character gnarly in the pilgrimage. The Friar, for example, has broken his vows as a clerical member of the Church, most prominently his vow of chastity.The Friar has engaged in relationships that have violated this vow, and when a child comes as a result of this interaction, he has gone so far as to marry the woman to herlover so as to cover his own tracks. All of these aspects of church corruption in The Canterbury Tales ultimately come down to a desire for pleasure and money, something that plagued the legitimacy of the Catholic Church and eventually led to the religious reformation.Among the characters a sort of social hierarchy became quickly apparent in the midst of these many travelers. A general character emerged that stray the pilgrims based upon their econom ic and social standings. There was a rather large contrast between the richest of the travelers and the poorest. For example, the Franklin was an owner of a large estate and lavish face-to-face goods. Although he is deeply in debt, his social status is still far higher than that of say, the Plowman. The Plowman is one of the poorer members of the pilgrimage, but despite this he is one of the more cheerful and charitable members of the pilgrimage. This can be seen as Chaucers means of expressing his feelings toward the social hierarchy of the times.Chaucer also weighs in on feudalism, the socioeconomic system of the time. Chaucer represents the feudal recording of society . . . around the figure of the knight as a conception of nobility, and around the labourer a conception of commonality (Morgan 8). Chaucer seems to see feudalism as a system that divides people into the wealthy nobles and the poor laborers. Chaucer also seems to recognize the presence of a middle class that seems to rise out of feudalism. For example, the figure of a merchant who gains his wealth by his own accord, specifically money trading, and is almost entirely independent of the feudal system.The Merchant is described in the general prologue as a responsible man who kept his wits about him . . . Nevertheless he was really a worthy man (Chaucer 6). In short, Chaucer saw the social coordinate of his time and saw certain things he had disapproval of, but indeed, he saw some other parts of it as beneficial to the betterment of society.To close, Chaucers masterpiece The Canterbury Tales exhibits many prevalent themes and in such a way paints a picture of the times. He does this by talk of violence, religious corruption, and social structuring, all of which were in truth pertinent bits of society in the time as they all formed a system thatis looked back on and interpreted through works of position and fiction such as The Canterbury Tales.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

How is love portrayed in Romeo and Juliet? Essay

Shakespe atomic number 18 portrays cut in Romeo and Juliet in many rooms. Their love is portrayed by images of light and dark and is juxtaposed against death, and he sets next to Romeo and Juliet the love associated with sight and appearances. In all, their love is of another world.The love of Romeo and Juliet is portrayed as supernatural and heavenly. They argon star-crossed lovers, with their destiny pre-determined they and other humans have no control. Instead the control lies with fate and God. The lovers are fortunes fools. This dependency on fate and otherworldly powers lend their love a sense of being something heavenly, hanging in the stars. With their love, they are able to rise above their world and everyone else. Their love is a kernel to escape the world of reality and to create their own world of darkness. This world of darkness is their consequential deaths, because their love is death-marked. Their love is too passionate and powerful to uphold in their world, rul ed by family hate and force play.Shakespeare describes love in terms of sight and appearances. Romeo and Juliets love is blind, they first meet at a ball, where Romeo is cover in an antic face and Juliets identity is unknown to him. Their first meeting is love at first sight. Romeo has neer saw trustworthy beauty till this iniquity and this shows their loves dependency on sight. During their second meeting at the balcony, Juliet asks Romeo to doff thy name, as names are also a type of disguise and mask. Romeo in turn replies that he is hidden from their sight, so that his appearance is seen only by Juliet, who has the mask of darkness on her face. Despite both of them admitting that they love each other, their love is heavily depended on their sight and the appearance of the other person. This theme is an important element of Shakespeares portrayed love because the play itself is based on sight, appearances and masks like the family name.In the play, a common theme is contrastin g images of light and dark. Shakespeare uses these images of light and dark a good deal in terms of light and day. Most of Romeo and Juliets meetings happen at night. At the Capulets ball, Romeos first description of Juliet is that she doth teach thetorches to burn bright. To Romeo, Juliet, the fairish sun will be forever associated with light. But to Juliet, she links Romeo, bescreened in night, with darkness and the moon. In the morning after their wedding night Romeo and Juliet beg whether it is light or dark. If it is dark, they are able to stay with each other for longer, but since it is the lark, the herald of the morn no nightingale, the light separates them. Light reveals and exposes, and before the light can expose the truths and realities of their relationship, they are forced to separate. Light and dark can neer coexist, and symbolising their love as that show how it can never survive in reality.Throughout Romeo and Juliet, Shakespeare employs opposing factors. One o f the most potent contrasts is how he sets love next to death. Their love has sprung from my their only hate. This juxtaposition emphasises their love and how out of place it is in their society they live in. Both love and death are very strong themes all through the play and are linked. Juliet often refers to death, almost subconsciously. If she does not meet Romeo, she thinks that her grave is like to be my her wedding bed. Juliet orders that when Romeo dies, he should be cut out in infinitesimal stars. These are not only foreshadowing the lovers imminent deaths, but the constant link between love and death in the play. They spend one night together, and the next morning Juliet comments how she imagines him dead at the bottom of a tomb and that he lookst pale Romeo replies that so does she.Exactly a day later, they are untruth together again, dead in the tomb. Their love is so passionate and intense, but violent delights have violent ends. Instead of being that type of love that pushes and protects them from violence and death, their type of love pushes them towards it. The violent ends are the lovers suicide, they must finally meet death to preserve their love. Shakespeare does not want to portray the sweet, gentle and almost adolescent love, like the love Romeo thought he had for Rosaline. Instead he wanted to portray Romeo and Juliets love as powerful, violent, passionate, and as intense as death.Because of the way in which Shakespeare employs images and common themes, the play records Romeo and Juliets evolving love, from their metaphorical andheavenly meetings at the ball with torches to their literal and dramatic deaths in the darkness of the mausoleum. In the space of quad days, Shakespeare has encompassed a lifetime.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Skema Answer Manufacturing Proces 2

FACULTI OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG BMM3643 (Sem II 2012/13) Assignment 2 1. a) Define the various regimes of cold workings,warm working,and hot working in terms of the melting point of the material being formed. b) Indicate many of the advantages of cold working relative to warm and hot working. c) What are some of the negative aspects of hot working? (8 marks) Answer a) The temperatures required for hot working generally exceed 0. 6 times the melting point of the material on an absolute temperature scale.Cold working generally requires temperatures below 0. 3 times the melting point, and warm working is the transition region, between 0. 3 and 0. 6 times the melting point. b) Advantages of cold working are i) better accuracy, ii) better surface finish, iii) increased strength due to work hardening, iv) possible directional properties due to grain flow, and v) no heating of work required. c) Disadvantages associated with hot working involve the reactions which may be promoted by elevated temperature, such as rapid oxidation.Tolerances are poorer and the metallurgical mental synthesis will be nonuniform if the amount of deorganization or thermal history varies throughout the product. 2. a) What is the difference between open- give way and impression-die hammer? b) Explain the reasons why the sporty assists in die filling, especially in hot forging. c) Why are heated dies generally apply in hot-press forging operations? (8 marks) Answer a) Open-die forging does not ricochet the flow of metal in all directions, so the final shape is dependent upon the manipulation and skill of the equipment operator.Impression-die forging operations confine metal flow in all directions to provide good repeatable control of size and shape. b) The fool is excess metal which is squeezed out from the die perdition into the outer space between the two dies. The flash cools faster than the material in the cavity due to the full(prenominal) a/h ratio and the much intimate contact with the relatively cool dies. Consequently, the flash has higher strength than the hotter workpiece in the die cavity and, with higher frictional resistance in the flash gap, provides greater resistance to material flow outward through the flash gap.Thus, the flash encourages filling of complex die cavities. c) Heated dies are usually employed in press forging because the long time of die contact with the hot workpiece would otherwise permit considerable surface cooling and could produce cleft of the surface. 3. d) List some of the products produced on a rambleing mill. e) In rolling of steel, what are the differences between a bloom, a slab, and a line of reasoning? f) Rolling may be described as a continuous forging operation. Is this description appropriate? Explain. (8 marks) Answer ) Rolled products include flat sheet and plate stock, daily round bar and rod stock, rails, structural shapes such as Ibeams and channels. b) A bloom is a rolled steel workpiece with a square click section of closely 150 mm by 150 mm. The starting work unit for a bloom is an ingot heated in a soaking pit. A slab is rolled from an ingot or a bloom and has a rectangular cross section of about 250 mm by 40 mm. A billet is rolled from a bloom and has a square cross section of about 40 mm by 40 mm. c) This is a good analogy. pick up the situation of forging a block to a thinner cross section through ncrements (as in incremental forming). As the number of stages increases, the operation finally approaches that of the slip of paper profile in rolling. 4. g) Distinguish between direct and indirect extrusion. h) What is centerburst defect? How would you go about preventing centerburst defects in extrusion? i) What are some of the engaging features of the extrusion process? (8 marks) Answer a) In direct extrusion, also known as forward extrusion, a metal billet is loaded into a container, and a force back compresses the material, forcing it to flow through a die opening at the opposite end of the container.In indirect extrusion, also known as backward extrusion, the die is incorporated into the ram, and as the ram compresses into the metal billet, the metal is forced to flow through the die opening in a direction that is opposite (backwards) of the ram motion. b) Centerburst defects are attri stilled to a state of hydrostatic waxy stress at the centerline of the deformation zone in the die. The two major variables affecting hydrostatic tension are the die pitch and extrusion ratio.These defects can be reduced or eliminated by lowering the die angle, because this increases the contact length for the selfsame(prenominal) reduction and thereby increases the deformation zone. Similarly, a higher extrusion ratio also increases the size and depth of the deformation zone, and thus will reduce oreliminate the formation of these cracks. c) The extrusion process offers a number of attractive features. Almost any crosssectional s hape can be extruded, including many that could not be achieved by rolling. coat limitations are few. No draft is required, and the amount of reduction in a single step is limited notwithstanding by the capacity of the quipment. Frequently only one die is required for a product. Because only a single die castrate is required to change products, small production quantities are economically feasible. Dimensional tolerances are quite good. 5. j) What is wire drawing and bar drawing? k) Why are multiple passes usually required in wire-drawing operations? l) cite the important process variables in drawing, and explain how they affect the drawing process. (8 marks) Answer a) Wire and bar drawing are bulk deformation processes in which the cross section of a wire or bar is reduced by pulling (drawing) it through a die opening. ) Because the reduced section of material is subjected to tensile loading in the wire drawing process, the possible reduction is limited by the onset of fracture . In order to affect any significant change in size, multiple draws are usually required. c) The important variables include * Yield stress, Y it directly affects the draw stress and die life. * Die angle, ?. The die angle in the deformation zone affects the redundant work in the entry area, the die angle is important for encouraging lubricant entrainment. * Friction coefficient, ?. The friction coefficient affects the frictional component of work and, hence, the draw stress. Reduction in area. As described, there is a limit to the reduction in area that canbe achieved in drawing. * Lubrication condition. Effective lubrication reduces friction, but also may lead to a rough surface due to the orange peel effect. 6. m) Estimate the roll force and power for annealed low-carbon steel strip cc mm wide and 10 mm thick, rolled to a thickness of 6 mm. The roll radius is 200 mm, and the roll rotates at 200 rpm. Let ? = 0. 1. n) Plot the force vs. reduction in height curve in open-die forgin g of a solid cylindrical, annealed copper specimen 2 in. high and 1 in. n diameter, up to a reduction of 70%, for the cases of (a) no friction between the flat dies and the specimen, (b) ? = 0. 25, and (c) ? = 0. 5. Ignore barreling and use average-pressure formulas. (Given For annealed copper we have K = 315 MPa = 46,000 psi and n = 0. 54) Answer a) The roll force can be estimated as below L=R? h=2004=28. 3 and have=10+62=8 mm From Table 2. 3 on p. 37, K = 530 MPa and n = 0. 26. The strain is ? =ln106=0. 5108 The average yield stress can be obtained from Eq. (2. 60) on p. 71 as Y=K? n+1n+1=530(0. 5108)1. 261. 26=180 MPa and Y=(1. 15)Y=180 MPa Therefore, F=L?Y1+? L2have =0. 02830. 2(207)1+0. 1(28. 3)2(8) =1. 38 MN The power per roll is given by P = ? FLN60,000=? (1. 38 ? 106)(0. 0283)(200)60,000 or P = 409 kW. b) For annealed copper we have K = 315 MPa = 46,000 psi and n = 0. 54. The flow stress is Yf=(315 MPa)? 0. 54 where the absolute value of the strain is ?=lnhoh From volume co nstancy, we have ?4r2ho=? 4r2h or r=ro2hoh Note that = 0. 5 in and ho = 2 in. The forging force is given as F=Yf1+2? r3h(? r2) Some of the points on the curves are the following % Red. Forging Force, MN ? = 0 ? = 0. 25 ? = 0. 5 10 0. 053 0. 055 0. 058

Monday, May 20, 2019

Part Four Chapter I

Lunacy5.11 At common law, idiots ar subject to a permanent legal incapacity to right to vote, but persons of unsound mind may vote during lucid intervals.Charles Arnold-BakerLocal Council Administration,Seventh EditionISamantha Mollison had now bought herself any three of the DVDs released by Libbys popular boy band. She kept them hidden in her socks and tights drawer, beside her diaphragm. She had her story ready, if Miles spotted them they were a gift for Libby. sometimes at work, where business was slower than ever, she searched the internet for pictures of Jake. It was during one of these trawling sessions Jake in a suit but with no shirt, Jake in jeans and a livid vest that she discovered that the band was playing at Wembley in a fortnights time.She had a friend from university who lived in West Ealing. She could stay over, sell it to Libby as a treat, a venture to spend time to over stupefyher. With more genuine excitement than she had mat up in a long time, Samantha m anaged to grease ones palms cardinal very expensive tickets for the concert. When she let herself into the house that evening, she glowed with a delicious secret, almost as though she were coming home from a date.Miles was already in the kitchen, liquid in his work suit, with the phone in his hand. He stared at her as she entered, and his expression was strange, difficult to read.What? give tongue to Samantha, a little defensively.I cant work over hold of Dad, said Miles. His fucking(a) phones engaged. Theres been a nonher post.And when Samantha looked nonplussed, he said with a trace of impatience, Barry Fairbrothers Ghost another(prenominal) message On the council web stationOh, said Samantha, unwinding her scarf. Right.Yeah, I met Betty Rossiter just now, coming up the street she was full of it. Ive check up on the message board, but I cant see it. Mum mustve taken it down already well, I bloody hope she has, shell be in the firing line if Bends-Your-Ear goes to a lawyer. About Parminder Jawanda, was it? asked Samantha, her tone deliberately casual. She did not ask what the accusation had been, first, because she was determined not to be a nosy, gossiping old bag akin Shirley and Maureen, and secondly, because she thought she already k new that Parminder had caused the death of old Cath Weedon. After a moment or two, she asked, sounding mistily amused, Did you say your mother might be in the firing line?Well, shes the site administrator, so shes conceivable if she doesnt loaf rid of defamatory or potentially defamatory statements. Im not sure she and Dad catch how serious this could be.You could defend your mother, shed like that.But Miles had not heard he was pressing redial and scowling, because his fathers brisk was still engaged.This is getting serious, he said.You were all quite happy when it was Simon Price who was getting attacked. Whys this any different?If its a campaign against anyone on the council, or standing for council Samantha tu rned aside to hide her grin. His concern was not closely Shirley after all.But why would anyone write stuff close you? she asked innocently. You havent got any guilty secrets.You might be more bloody interesting if you had.What about that letter?What letter?For Gods Mum and Dad said in that location was a letter, an anonymous letter about me Saying I wasnt fit to fill Barry Fairbrothers shoesSamantha open up the freezer and stared at the unappetizing contents, aware that Miles could no longer see her expression with the door open.You dont ring anyones got anything on you, do you? she asked.No but Im a lawyer, arent I? There might be people with a grudge. I dont see this kind of anonymous stuff I mean, so far its all about the other side, but there could be reprisals I dont like the way this things going.Well, thats politics, Miles, said Samantha, openly amused. Dirty business.Miles stalked out of the room, but she did not thrill her thoughts had already returned to chis elled cheekbones, winged eyebrows and taut, tight abdominal muscles. She could sing along with most of the songs now. She would buy a band T-shirt to wear and one for Libby too. Jake would be undulating mere yards away from her. It would be more fun than she had had in years.Howard, meanwhile, was pacing up and down the disagreeable delicatessen with his mobile phone clamped to his ear. The blinds were down, the lights were on, and through the archway in the wall Shirley and Maureen were busy in the soon-to-be-opened cafe, unpacking china and glasses, talking in excited undertones and half listening to Howards almost monosyllabic contributions to his conversation.Yes mm, hmm yes Screaming at me, said Shirley. Screaming and swearing. Take it bloody down, she said. I said, Im taking it down, Dr Jawanda, and Ill thank you not to swear at me.Idve left(p) it up there for another couple of hours if shed sworn at me, said Maureen.Shirley smiled. As it happened, she had chosen to go and make herself a cup of tea, leaving the anonymous post about Parminder up on the site for an extra forty-five minutes before removing it. She and Maureen had already picked over the topic of the post until it was ragged and evident there was plenty of scope for further dissection, but the immediate urge was sated. Instead, Shirley looked ahead, greedily, to Parminders reaction to having her secret spilt in public.It cant have been her who did that post about Simon Price, after all, said Maureen.No, obviously not, said Shirley, as she wiped over the fairly blue and white china that she had chosen, overruling Maureens preference for pink. Sometimes, though not directly involved in the business, Shirley like to remind Maureen that she still had huge influence, as Howards wife.Yes, said Howard, on the telephone. But wouldnt it be better to ? Mm, hmm So who do you think it is? asked Maureen.I very dont know, said Shirley, in a genteel voice, as though such knowledge or suspicions were beneath her.Someone who knows the Prices and the Jawandas, said Maureen.Obviously, said Shirley again.Howard hung up at last.Aubrey agrees, he told the two women, waddling through into the cafe. He was clutching todays edition of the Yarvil and District Gazette. Very weak piece. Very weak indeed.It took the two women several seconds to recollect that they were supposed to be interested in the posthumous article by Barry Fairbrother in the local newspaper. His ghost was so much more interesting.Oh, yes well, I thought it was very execrable when I read it, said Shirley, hurriedly catching up.The interview with Krystal Weedon was funny, guffawed Maureen. Making out she enjoyed art. I suppose thats what she calls graffiti-ing the desks.Howard laughed. As an excuse to turn her back, Shirley picked up Andrew Prices spare EpiPen from the counter, which Ruth had dropped into the delicatessen that morning. Shirley had looked up EpiPens on her favourite medical website, and felt fully c ompetent to explain how adrenalin worked. Nobody asked, though, so she put the small white tube away in the cupboard and closed the door as noisily as she could to refine and disrupt Maureens further witticisms.The phone in Howards huge hand rang.Yes, hello? Oh, Miles, yes yes, we know all about it Mum saw it this morning He laughed. Yes, shes taken it down I dont know I think it was posted yesterday Oh, I wouldnt say that weve all known about Bends-Your-Ear for years But Howards humorousness faded as Miles talked. After a while he said, Ah yes, I see. Yes. No, I hadnt considered it from perhaps we should get someone to have a look at security The sound of a car in the darkening square outside went virtually unremarked by the three in the delicatessen, but its number one wood noticed the enormous shadow of Howard Mollison moving behind the cream blinds. Gavin put his foot down, eager to get to bloody shame. She had sounded desperate on the telephone.Whos doing this? Whos doing it? Who hates me this much?Nobody hates you, he had said. Who could hate you? Stay there Im coming over.He parked outside the house, slammed the door and hurried up the footpath. She opened the front door before he had even knocked. Her eyes were puffy with tears again, and she was wearing a floor-length woollen medical dressing gown that dwarfed her. It was not at all seductive the very antithesis of Kays scarlet kimono, but its homeliness, its very shabbiness, represented a new level of intimacy.Marys four children were all in the sitting room. Mary gestured him through into the kitchen.Do they know? he asked her.Fergus does. Somebody at school told him. Ive asked him not to tell the others. Honestly, Gavin Im about at the end of my tether. The spite It isnt true, he said, and then, his curiosity getting the better of him, is it?No she said, outraged. I mean I dont know I dont really know her. But to make him talk like that putting the words in his mouth dont they c are what its like for me?She dissolved into tears again. He felt that he shouldnt hug her while she was wearing her dressing gown, and was glad that he had not, when eighteen-year-old Fergus entered the kitchen a moment later.Hey, Gav.The boy looked tired, older than his years. Gavin watched him put an arm around Mary and saw her lean her head against his shoulder, mopping her eyes on her baggy sleeve like a child.I dont think it was the same person, Fergus told them, without preamble. Ive been looking at it again. The style of the message is different.He had it on his mobile phone, and began to read aloudParish Councillor Dr Parminder Jawanda, who pretends to be so keen on looking after the poor and needy of the area, has always had a secret motive. Until I died Fergus, dont, said Mary, slumping down at the kitchen knock back. I cant take it. I honestly cant. And his article in the paper today too.As she covered her face with her pass on and sobbed silently, Gavin noticed the Ya rvil and District Gazette lying there. He never read it. Without asking or offering, he moved across to the cupboard to make her a drink.Thanks, Gav, she said thickly, when he pushed the glass into her hand.It might be Howard Mollison, suggested Gavin, sitting down beside her. From what Barry said about him.I dont think so, said Mary, dabbing at her eyes. Its so crude. He never did anything like that when Barry was - she hiccuped - alive. And then she snapped at her son, Throw that paper away, Fergus.The boy looked confused and hurt.Its got Dads Throw it away said Mary, with an edge of hysteria in her voice. I can read it off the computer if I want to, the last thing he ever did on our anniversaryFergus took the newspaper off the table and stood for a moment watching his mother, who had buried her face in her hands again. Then, with a glance at Gavin, he walked out of the room still holding the Gazette.After a while, when Gavin judged that Fergus was not coming back, he put out a consoling hand and rubbed Marys arm. They sat in silence for some time, and Gavin felt much happier with the newspaper gone from the table.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Arab Americans

The biggest servant in any effort to infiltrate the community is the legal and ethical issues that would govern those actions. Immigrants charter practiceds and they essential be respected in the country. Its definitive that these people would know that the government respects them as persons and as citizens of America. There are constitutional rights that must non be broken otherwise, no immigrant in the country would ever feel safe. There are already many crimes against their race and I wouldnt want to add to that list. I opine in getting their trust in order for them to assist and become loyal to the country.Loyalty cant be bought nor can it be forced. It has to be their decision to show up loyalty to a country that treats them well. Ethical issues need a worry be taken into account. For instance, would it be right for me to tap into peoples conversations even if those persons are exemplary citizens and have been positive contributors to the community? If on that point are times when it is absolutely necessary to spy on every person in the immigrant population, whence, it pull up stakes be done so long as needless deaths allow be prevented. As for send agents, I believe it is a must to have undercover people among them in order to tense up come in the rotten tomatoes.The undercover works goal is to identify, without a doubt, who are propagating extremist ideas in the community. Once identified, these people provide be given the appropriate punishment under the equity. The most important role I could play in the community is to make sure that even the immigrants and the Arab Americans will non become unwitting in like mannerls of terrorists. 2. Based on the reading assignments, what status, rights and protections would you afford someone who was an American citizen captured in the united States in the act of terroristic abandon?How about someone who was a overseas subject area engage in terrorism in the United States? An American citiz en fights American forces abroad? A foreign national, but non a member of a nations military, combat American forces abroad? Would torture of any of these subjects ever be justified if it could save lives? American Citizen An American citizen captured in the country committing terroristic violence will be captured and remand under the rules of law. Since it can be considered treason to commit acts of terror in ones country, then that person will not have the rights of a common captive.Foreign National A foreign national committing terroristic activity in the country will be detained depending on the Attorney Generals mandates, and will be tried either inside the country or outside it. The hearing would likely be originally a military tribunal. American Citizen Fighting American Forces Abroad If the American citizen fighting American forces abroad will be captured, he will be treated as a prisoner of state of strugglefare provided that he meets the criteria provided for in the Geneva Convention. He will have the rights of a POW and will be treated accordingly.Foreign National Fighting American Forces Abroad A foreign national who is not a member of a military unit will be accorded a prisoner of struggle status until such time that his status will be determined by the appropriate tribunal. If the foreign national turns out to be a terrorist, then, he will be punished the way terrorists should be punished in accordance to law. 3. What are the different perspectives concerning yet War? Can the war on terror be properly characterized as a just war? Under what circumstances would fighting terrorism cease to be just?Why? The different perspectives of Just War are Just War is however permissible as a last resort when all other non-violent government agency have been exhausted. A war can only be just if it is conducted by who society deems to have the authority to do so. Just war happens to remedy the wrong committed against society. To fight a war that does not have a chance of succeeding is not just. The ultimate goal of just war is the re-establishment of peace. It is just war if the violence in the war is proportionate to the injury endured. A just war does not target civilians and all efforts must be made so as not to constipation civilians. The war on terror can be considered just because the proper authorities are out to get the villains in order to make the society safe for the citizens. Terrorists do not discriminate in the midst of military and civilian targets, as such, they must be stopped to avoid the killings of civilians. Fighting terrorism ceases to be just when the country has endangered citizens in the process. For example, if the U. S.will engage the whole of Afghanistan in war just because the Al Qaeda had its beginnings in that country wont be just. Its not fair to derive that every Afghanistan is a terrorist. Also, war will become unjust if the wrong people are targeted by the authorities. Say for example that every person coming from the Middle East and who looks like Osama bin pissed will be detained by authorities because of how they look, then, that action is not just anymore. It is already a unlikeness against individual persons. 4. How serious is the problem of anti-Americanism here at home?Should people be accountable for inciting violence when they glorify violent acts against America but themselves do not engage in it? What remedies are getable to the government, if any, to deal with schools, mosques, and charities that in indicately support terrorism while not actually engaging in it? What should the remedies be? Anti-Americanism in the United States is often on issues that involve the presence of troops in Iraq, the operations in Afghanistan and global warming. Many Americans do not want the American troops to continue being in Iraq.There are constant protests and demonstrations asking the government for the troops withdrawal. At the same time, the governments stream let in Afghanistan is viewed by many citizens to be unreasonable and should be stopped. Many American Muslims believe that pose all of the blame on Osama bin Laden and his group is not right. There are also a lot of demonstrations and protests calling for the government to do something about global warming. Meanwhile, Pipes (2005) reports that some American Muslim schools have been teaching things that tantamount to being anti-American.As an example, an American-Muslim student told the Washington Post in 2001 that for him, being American is just about where he was born, and it does not define him. Some schools are also teaching things against the Jews, while promoting the supremacy of Islam. Pipes relates that a textbook in a Muslim school in Virginia has stated that only Islam is the true religion, and all others are false. First graders are easily influenced and reading this text would make them believe that people who are not Muslims are inferior to their race.The government, es pecially the education ministry, has to take a direct control over what materials are being taught in schools. The schools must not be allowed to focus too much on religion. There must be a law prohibiting minority schools to engage in activities or teach lessons that would indirectly support and promote terrorism. 5. Give your overall assessment of the ground forces nationalist ACT. Do you think it has contributed to the lack of terror attacks in the United States since 9/11? If you were in Congress, would you choose to re radical the act as is?Would you change anything? Why or why not? Before the USA loyal shape was passed into law, electronic surveillance had to undergo a lot of red tape before it can be approved. Sharing of information between intelligence units and law enforcement agencies was very limited because the law does not say to what extent should information be shared. This could have resulted to missed opportunities to prevent acts of terror in the country. When t he Patriotic Act was enforced, every ground rule was established on how information will be obtained and shared.Surveillance of every information, financial or otherwise, became permissible. Even phone conversations can be tapped into. Because of this, the terrorist groups have to devise new ways of communicating, which possibly thwarted further acts of terror after 9/11. In this sense, the Patriotic Act is able to curtail further terroristic activities in the country. There are, however, some parts of the Act that speaks of human rights violations. For instance, vague detention of immigrants is not reasonable. It would strike fear in the hearts of those who are being loyal and grievous citizens of America.While the innocent would fear the Act, it would make terrorists wary of committing acts of terror. They would have to be very clever to go unnoticed. Overall, the Patriotic Act has served its purpose despite flaws in some of its contents. If I were a member of Congress, I would vote to renew the Patriotic Act. It may not be perfect but it has kept the country relatively free of terror attacks after 9/11. However, there would be some changes on the Act, which addresses controversial issues like indefinite detentions, secret trials, and giving vast powers to the executive branch.As a democratic country, it is important that the laws of democracy would not be forgotten in the quest to end terrorism. References Ferraro, V. Principles of the Just War. Mount Holyoke College. Retrieved August 17, 2008, from http//www. mtholyoke. edu/acad/intrel/pol116/justwar. htm Pipes, D. (2005, March 29). What atomic number 18 Islamic Schools Teaching? New York Sun. Retrieved August 17, 2008, from http//www. danielpipes. org/article/2489 USA Patriot Act (H. R. 3162). Retrieved August 17, 2008, from http//www. personalinfomediary. com/USAPATRIOTACT_Text. htm

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Social, economic and cultural factors

Describe the complaisant, economic and cultural factors that will disturb on the hold waters of on that point be many social, economic and cultural factors that will impact on the give outs of the electric razorren and young person people that we whitethorn work with. Personal choice about families decide that they do not wish to live or act in a way in which is viewed from the outside the social norm for example world a travel family or a churl having same genders parents.If a Child is from a travelling family here is a possibility that their exploitation at trail whitethorn be delayed pay qualified to macrocosm transferred from teach to school. Children also make personal choices. The choices they make can sport a noteworthy impact on their life and development. If children dont have support from copers they wont have rules set and may be able to do what they want much(prenominal) as drugs, smoking and drinking. This will hugely impact on their life.Childre n pick out to be encouraged or be given guidance on their life, it is very important for children to have good role models in their life Poverty People are poor for many reasons, it could be d take in to drug and alcohol ependency, family breakdown, poor parenting, or a culture of worklessness. Growing up in poverty means being cold, going hungry, not being able to Join in activities with friends or being able to afford after school clubs etc. Families living in poverty are almost twice as likely to live in bad housing which has significant set up on both their physical and mental health, as well as fosteringal achievement.Families that live in poverty are more likely to suffer mental and physical problems. Housing and community Children that live in Overcrowded, low quality and poor housing situations, i. e. thats damp, has mould and/or infested can have a negative impact on a child or young persons development but particularly their health. Children living in these condition s are more likely to have respiratory problems, to be at peril of infections, and have mental health problems.Living in these conditions also affects a childs ability to learn, which can have a lasting impact on a childs chances of succeeding in life. Poor housing conditions increase the lay on the line of severe ill-health or disability by up to 25% during childhood and early adulthood. (Shelter leaflet) In areas where children and young people are xposed to ch all toldenging and anti-social behavior, this too can have a negative effect themselves to make unnecessary themselves away from the challenging and anti-social behaviour, this can affect social development.Some families that display offending or challenging anti-social behaviour, may end up with their children being taken into care or going into prison. Educational environment A non-regulated educational facility may create an environment for a child that does not meet a childs needs, thus stunting a childs developmen tal potential drop. Having an engaging environment will make a child want to ork. If an environment is dull and boring a child wont want to learn and will recur interest.Health status Children that are unwell may spend a lot of clock time in hospital or attending hospital appointments, this will have an impact on the childs development because they miss school or pre-school, this can affect education on all aspects of development such as ruttish and social aspects, making friendships etc. Having asthma may mean you cant play outside for as recollective as other children- meaning you may be picked on for being lazy. Being on medication can make you drowsy and so ffect on your school work and concentration.Having time off school can also affect their social skills as they arent spending much time around children their own age. There are some older children that look after parents that are ill, this is a huge impact on the young person social life and a lot of responsibility at such a young age. Disability if there is a parent or a child in the family that has a disability, this could affect the family especially if the child is used as a carer for their parents.In some cases respite care may be needed for families with family members that are disabled nd this can cause family disruptions and inconsistency in a young persons care especially if the respite care is for overnight visits away from home. Whilst a child or family member is receiving support for a health issue this could possibly affect continuity of care, education, development and income. Addictions Children that live with adults that are addicts may be relied upon by the adults at multiplication to be their main carer.At times these young people may feel isolated and unable to tell people what they are experiencing at home, they may experience stressful situations and may be living in the poverty that the adults that are upposed to be caring for them have caused. In some situation where a y oung child is suffering insult or neglect they would be taken into care. Bereavement and loss If a family loses a member of the family or a close friend this could affect the mental and in turn physical health of a family.Adults that have lost their partners may find the emotional strain difficult to cope with and may hence find it more difficult to care for other children in the family. Family expectations and encouragement Many parents have different parenting styles and can offer different levels of support to their children. Many of these parenting styles tend to vary amongst different cultures. If a child is subject to inconsistency and a lack of support this in turn could lead to a child suffering low support their children they can have low confidence and low self-esteem and sometimes a change in behaviour, seeking for attention.When too much pressure is put on someone to do well this can result in them getting stressed and afraid of failure. Families may have conflict between parents and children. This will impact on their lives as they have to spend a lot of time around family and if they dont like them it will be hard. With divorced families, children may spend time travelling between parents and so dont have time to concentrate on their school work. The parent they live with may also take out all their stress on the child.If a parents has died the child may feel very depressed and not concentrate on their school work. Religious beliefs and customs Has the potential to influence many aspects of development, as it effects a childs (and adults) way of thinking, dietary needs, clothing, how often they are taken to obey their beliefs, which may result in them missing out at school, pre-school, clubs etc. A apparitional way of life can be transmitted between generations and grandparents maintain a significant influence. Some parents see passing on their faith as an important part of parenting.A religious identity at home can most certainly cause c onfliction with other pressures on their children, including negative portrayals of religion in the media. Ethnic beliefs and customs Ethnic belies and customs can also affect a childs clothing, customs, dietary needs, education and other areas of their lives. Many adolescents from non-English speaking backgrounds face the challenge of dealing ith the tasks of adolescence while growing up between two cultures with not only two languages but often very different behavioral and social expectations.There may be great variation in cultural values and norms regarding the central tasks of adolescence such as developing a sense of identity and independence. Young people may have different forms of attire, do them to be teased or bullied. Their culture may view interaction between men and women in a different way and the young person will struggle to recognise what is acceptable at school as it differs to ome. This could cause them to come into conflict with school rules or to be percei ved as a trouble maker.Marginalisation and exclusion marginalisation and exclusion can happen for a variety of reasons like, being poor, unemployed, family status, discriminated against, or being disabled by a society that wont work around the problems of impairment they all bring with them the risk of exclusion. Being excluded from economic, social and political means of promoting ones self-determination can have unfavorable effects for individuals and communities alike.

Friday, May 17, 2019

Is Technology Making Us Stupider

Nicholas Carr starts his essay with the observation that his win book reading and long condition writing habits induce suffered immensely due to lack of concentration which can be attributed to the time being spent on the internet. He goes on to say that the gentle beings are developing a natural reading habit which he doesnt think is best suited given that there is much little concentration and plain lesser contemplation. While commenting on how the future researcher will non do a roach of reading, Carr paints a sad picture of the new generation of readers.While accepting that his work has o backing from neurology and other brain related science, Carr presents a theory that unlike the tycoon to speak, which he says comes naturally, the ability to read has to be taught. Here in he says the internet is doing no good to that incident ability. Carr makes a reference to the great German philosopher Nietzsche and his use of the typewriter. He quips nigh how the typewriter had do the philosophers work even more abrupt. Carr then reaches the central topic of his essay the effect of internet on the cognitive ability of man.He says that man had a series of intellectual tasks in his daily routine all of which stupefy straightway been taken over by the internet He further adds that the style of the internet has been adopted by other media as well, further denting mans cognitive ability. Another key aspect of the internet that Carr says has dumber down the homophile brain is the conversion of an abstract concept to a concrete knowledge. This he says was previously done by the serviceman being as an intellectual exercise but has now been taken over by the computers.Carr ends his essay on the note that in the past some great hinders such as Socrates and Sacrificing fork over expressed similar concerns about new ideas such as the written language and printed working. On this note, he leaves the question open to the reader (Carr). Steven Johnson bases his bo ok on denying the argument that pop culture has affected human intelligence negatively. He first refers to the sleeper curve to make a point that even the purchase order that existed before us had not discovered how cream pies could be a nutritious diet.However here he denies that just the fact about sleeper curve, which itself he draws from the movie Sleeper, can exhaustively prove his argument. He then goes on to suggest that the video games of today, contrary to popular perceptions Of spreading addiction through raging and vulgar content, are instead addictive because of their structural superiority. He says the games give the mind a lot to think and organize a task previously not natural to the human cognitive process. He further speaks about television and says that the TV has taken the find outing of the emotional quotient to a higher level.He gives the utilization of reality shows and says that these shows have got a realistic understanding of the complex human engagemen ts and relationships. While speaking about the evolution of films, Johnson says that stories are no more being spoon-fed to the audience. Symbolic references made to help the audience understand moments like flash-back have reduced and it is now assumed that the audience will understand what is going on. This he says has helped the people explore and express their cognitive self much more than in the past (Johnson). Studies have found that the human brains evolution ceased over a thousand eld ago (Connors).The technological advances that have been made in recent history have merely served to compensate in the declining intellect of the human mind. While people who live between 2000 to 6000 years ago had to depend greatly on their cordial strength to solve problems, the current availability of technology and inventions eliminates this need greatly. However, the decline in intellect itself is not associated with the advent of technology but to deterioration in human genes (Connors ). Neither of the two theorists Carr and Johnson have made scientific adduces in their arguments.These arguments however are presented in a logical format with each claim being justified by significant arguments. Critics have remained vastly dismissive of both the arguments, calling the latter(prenominal) an absolution for couch potatoes and the former a little too mournful too early. It is therefore authorise that a real understanding of the effect of internet on the human mind can only be justified through neurological correlations and studies. However, human intellect has witnesses a decline for several thousands of years and hence it cannot be solely attributed to technology.