Monday, September 30, 2019

Higher Learning

In this essay I will discuss hat It Is Like to counsel the character Remy from the movie â€Å"Higher Learning† (Singleton, 1995). I will give an overview of the movie and character, the presenting Issues of the character, my approach and role to counseling the character, and the characters cultural framework Influence on why I chose to Intervene to counsel him. Cultural Skills Students from different countries, races, social and culture background are forced to integrate with each other when they all enroll in Columbus university College. They all have real life issues, such as finance, harassment, personal safety, and self-doubt.However, the college campus life seems to be causing a problem for everyone evolving around the issue of racism. The students are already under pressure to perform in the classroom, on the track, or in front of their friends, are beginning to face obstacles such as prejudice, and misunderstanding of each other on many deferent levels. Remy Remy chara cter plays an important role to the flow and overall point of racism in the movie. His character is a driving force for the slow transition of how an individual can go from a cracked mental state of mind into a total broken state of mind.Remy slowly becomes alienated from his peers. Remy at the start has no identity of who he is so he's very confused and lost. Remy is taking a close look at his diverse peers, trying to find ways to be the same or similar with the hopes of becoming accepted to a social group he can be comfortable with. He comes in as an engineering major, and a son of a â€Å"survivalist† father who use to abuse him. Remy throughout the movie shifts from alienated loner to a motivated Nazi skinhead. At this point Remy has given up trying to fit in until the Nazi leader Scott befriends him.They Immediately alcove him to their circle without hesitation, to which Remy says thanks and shaves his head. Remy further starts to fall Into a pit of frustration and self- hate, due to the advice given by the Nazi leader Scott who brainwashes Remy Into thinking that the world needs to be taken over by â€Å"White America† therefore this Is where the character Remy starts to display mental disorder Like symptoms. Presenting Issues/ My Approach In the movie, Remy displayed many different emotions ranging from crying, emptiness, self-inflicting behavior and a high need to fit In.However, when he did not it in he felt hopelessness and alone so he turned towards a reckless group of people people that accepted gave him a new way of thinking. As a counselor my approach to Remy would be compared to dealing with an individual with Borderline Personality Disorder issues. According to the Journal â€Å"Symptoms of borderline personality disorder predict interpersonal (but not independent) stressful life events in a community sample of older adults†, Individuals with borderline personality disorder can often experience stressful life events at a hig her frequency than those without it.Only borderline personality pathology was related to an increase in the frequency of interpersonal stressful life events. Three specific symptoms of this disorder were connected with unstable interpersonal relationships, impulsively, and chronic feelings of emptiness (Powers, 2013). So looking at how BAD can have a direct correlation between stressful events in life and past issues, it is easy to see how Remy could be seen for this disorder. The initially start of the sessions with Remy would revolve around first breaking down the barriers of his past issues with his abusive father.But as a counselor one would have to ask does childhood abuse have a connection with Borderline Personality Disorder or their characteristics? Although childhood abuse, BAD traits, and internal and external symptoms were all correlated, the connection between childhood abuse and BAD traits stems from findings that are consistent with the widely held assumption that chil dhood abuse causes BAD, and they suggest that BAD traits show in adults as they get older ( Broadleaved, 2013).So once again as a counselor, asking Remy questions about his childhood could give him answers as to why he feels these emotions apart from dealing with the issues of not fitting in and his feelings of emptiness. Because his father was a â€Å"survivalist† which focuses around the belief that eventually society will collapse through social or political disorder and only the self-sufficient will be able to survive. The skills that survivalists have are some such as wilderness survival, first aid and self-defense with either weapons or hand-to-hand combat.So seeing that his father was abusive, he could very much have desensitizing Remy with this belief that he had, which possibly dead to the abuse as his father's way of making him stronger. My reason for Intervention My reason for Intervention for Remy looking at his cultural framework, is that many children grow up in homes that are strict, have military backgrounds, violence and other matters that can damage a child even Just by witnessing or living through it. In the movie, Remy stated â€Å"Were going to war man this is the opening stage of World War 3† (Singleton, 1995).Remy felt that he was in a race war when in fact he's really in a war with himself and the fact that he feels that he has no purpose in the world, ex.'s lost. My intervention process would rely on getting him to focus on the point that he initially went to school as an engineer and he should finish and become what he started out to be. Getting him to realize healthy choices and advantages of getting his degree from college in engineering and the opportunities that are ahead for him that could make a huge impact in his life is the angle that would be taken.In order to help Remy, he would have to realize his self-worth instead of believing the views that his father raised him in. Remy believes at this point in what his N azi leader friend Scott as instilled in him which is â€Å"White Power†, a reality that his race has to take over to is proved to be useful with dealing with BAD. Implementing DEBT in the treatment of college students with complex issues, including suicidal ideation, severe depression, and BAD features.DEBT is a principle-based treatment that is flexible enough to apply to the severe and complicated issues increasingly seen across an individual. DEBT focuses on teaching skills such as, emotion regulation, distress and tolerance that are developmentally relevant to college students. DEBT was designed for chronically suicidal individuals which suggest that chronically suicidal students are more likely to benefit from comprehensive treatment approaches and may actually experience positive effects with very brief forms of treatment.College students with BAD traits differs from community BAD individuals, and the treatment targets of DEBT can be altered to address college students' specific clinical needs. For example, college students are less likely than community BAD individuals to engage in recurrent suicidal threats suggesting that DEBT treatment for this population may focus more on kills acquisition than stabilizing an individual (Pictorials, 2012). Conclusion In my opinion of treating Remy, this type of therapy can benefit him in many ways.In the movie he started to commit suicide in his room when he thought to himself life would be better dead. However, he did not do it which at that point I would intervene before that point and get him on track to thinking in a different mindset. In the movie Remy ended up sadly committing suicide shooting himself in the head after he shot a few students from a rooftop. The point of mental health counselors in our field is to et to the root of the issue before it gets to that point with the hope of getting the client on track to a healthy way of thinking.Remy would have been a very interesting character to counsel d ue to the fact he had childhood issues which lead to even bigger adult issues. The attitude of his father believe it or not reflected in his behavior with the â€Å"survive by any means necessary mentality'. However, Remy was not strong enough mentally which Scott the Nazi leader preyed on Remy as his puppet to mold him into what he wanted him to be. As a counselor we have to member that we do not know what state a client's mind is in mentally so we have to be careful ourselves in our approach to make sure we do no further harm.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Intimate And Sensate Spaces Film Studies Essay

Do memorable experiences permeate architectural boundaries to give us a sense of belonging, and to what extent does the content of memory exist in familiarities of darkness, aroma and topographic point? As our lives become entwined with the physical occurrences in this universe we seek a sense of comfort in the topographic points we most closely associate with. Familiarities of darkness, aroma and topographic point along with their intangible properties stimulate our memories of past experiences and reaffirm our presence in this universe. In clip these topographic points become hoarded wealths of memories and weave through our reinforced environments structuring our journey and doing it meaningful.Introduction1 ) Historic illustrations of how Gothic Cathedrals and Egyptian temples became symbols of clip and experience. 2 ) Analyzing the decreasing animal familiarities and duologues between infinites and our lives and the transparence tendency in modern edifices today. 3 ) Phenomenology as looking at architecture through our ain witting experiences and the undertaking of Architecture to construction and happen our being in this universe 4 ) The purpose of this essay to research the content of what makes topographic points memorable by understanding the relationship between familiarities of darkness, aroma and topographic point.BodyA Intimate infinites and Geometry of Feeling in Phenomenology of Architecture Contemporary readings of brilliantly illuminated infinites and overexploitation of transparence in infinites decreasing our sense of intimate life. The human as a traveler, as a place inhabitant, as a melancholiac and how memories of topographic point infuse him with feelings of familiarity. B 1 ) Familiarity of Darkness Different personifications of darkness in literature, art The Significance of the Shadow How darkness constructions nostalgic images of the yesteryear. The nexus between darkness and memory Symbolic nature of Mental imagination of darkness The ability of darkness to rise the power of other senses. 2 ) Familiarity of Aroma Sense of odor and its ability to transport the individual to different kingdoms of clip Link between darkness and sense of odor Experiencing architecture through the sense of odor The connexion between memory and olfactory property 3 ) Familiarity of Topographic point The nexus between sense of odor and topographic point Sensate topographic points as powerful contents of memory Building and its intimate relation to its context Genius Loci and the phenomenon of topographic point Atmosphere and character of a topographic point 4 ) Design as an appropriate medium of look in being able to retrieve our past experiences and reaffirming our presence in this universe. 5 ) Using Design as a museum of clip, poignance and recollection in carry throughing our desires for intimate connexions and associations with this universe. 6 ) How we translate intimate spacial and centripetal experiences into the cloth of Architecture Tactile stuff looks Treatment of visible radiation and shadow Journey through infinites and altering spacial experiences Establishing a strong contextual relation between the edifice and its environment 7 ) Reviewing the practical possibilities through built illustrations and instance surveies of Architects like Peter Zumthor and Alvar Alto. DecisionIntroductionAs our lives become entwined with the physical occurrences in this universe we seek a sense of belonging in the topographic points we most closely associate with. ‘What is losing from our homes today are the possible minutess between organic structure, imaginativeness and environment ‘ Kent C Bloomer and Charles W Moore. ( as quoted in Pallasmaa 2005: P 41 ) How cognizant are we of the function of Architecture as a topographic point of memory in our lives? Architecture over coevalss has portrayed legion aspects of our physical being in this universe, be it emotion, faith, civilization or recollection. Our perceptual experiences of infinites are influenced by our figments of imaginativeness and recollections of past experiences, be it chapters of a novel, scenes of a movie, glances of a metropolis or narratives of loved 1s, all soaked with times of familiarity and nostalgia. Historic illustrations of such environments have borne testament to this though t in the signifier of Egyptian temples where we witness the silence of the dead and Gothic cathedrals where the eyes are drawn upwards along the arches to the mighty image of God as among the legion wonders of architectural experiences. However, modern infinites of today seem so subtle in their ability to travel us and raise within us wonders of clip and memory. Or is it this turning accent on transparence and openness in modern architecture that has led to decreasing sensitivenesss towards the perceptual experience of infinites as being an confidant and sensate representation of our lives. For the grade to which we observe elements of shadow and the feelings they construe in us, hints of odor and their ability to transport us to different kingdoms of clip and the ambiance of a topographic point, is deserving oppugning. The theory of Phenomenology explains the ethos of architecture as being tasked with non mere physical building of signifiers and maps but besides the manifestation of human experiences and emotions in the edifices we reside in. In kernel our intent as interior decorators is to carry through our interior desires of topographic points that comfort us and make an intimate bond between worlds and their reinforced environments. Contentment in design exists in the individual sing the architecture in all its kingdoms and our environments would be uncomplete representations of our lives if they are barren of memories and experiences. This essay aims to analyze the complex kingdom of familiarity in darkness, aroma and topographic point that have pervaded the really cloth of architecture in the yesteryear and go component and indispensible elements of memorable infinites, therefore taking me to oppugn whether memorable experiences permeate spacial boundaries to give us a sense of belonging, and if so so how do we animate such experiences in the context of modern spacial design.Intimate and Sensate SpacesIntimate infinites are a sense of realisation of the affectional, sensate and memorial features of a topographic point. They reach out and prosecute with our innermost desires of seeking comfort within a home. Architecture ‘s undertaking lies non merely in the physical manifestation of the edifice but besides in the intimate journey of the individual sing the architecture in all its signifiers. Intimate experiences habituate our being in this universe and embody deeper significances and apprehension of mundane life. As competently suggested by Pallasmaa, ‘It is clip that we considered whether signifiers or geometry in general can give rise to architectural feeling ‘ ( P410 ) As mentioned earlier the great wonders of architectural experiences such as Gothic cathedrals and Egyptian temples ne'er failed to travel us and shock us at their magnificence. We realize that they so played close attending to the significance of shadow and visible radiation which were important design elements in the experience they aimed to incarnate. So how so do we inculcate familiarities, enigmas, inquiries, nostalgia and melancholia in our modern twenty-four hours opposite numbers when they seem so vivacious, crystalline and unfastened in their visual aspect? As appropriately suggested by Luis Barragan ‘We have lost our sense of intimate life, and have become forced to populate public lives, basically off from place ‘ ( quoted in Pallasmaa 2005, P47 ) Ultimately the homes we reside in are meant to convey us closer to our reinforced environments, construction our being and non detach us and do us distant animals in the chase of void. Multisensory infinitesFamiliarity of DarknessDarkness more frequently seen as the absence of visible radiation has been associated with many different intensions that have played an influential function in the manner we perceive a dark infinite ; in short darkness has its ain narrative. Panic and offense scenes in literature, memories of the past captured in vintage frames, nostalgic lonely scenes described in poesy and more frequently than non an creative person ‘s picture expresses a deep apprehension of the contrast between dark and light. Further lucubrating on the personification of darkness in literature, a notable illustration would be the significance of darkness portrayed by Shakespeare in his tragic drama Macbeth which in many important scenes depicted the dark sky as a cloak of privacy that the supporter ‘s call upon when perfidy and slaying befall them. Another illustration would be from Junichiro Tanizaki ‘s in congratulations of shadows wherein he desc ribes the symbolic representation of a lacquer dish as being tantamount to savoring the darkness of the room. ( Pallasmaa, 2005 ) These illustrations are of import landmarks of mentions when we begin to chew over over the avenues that darkness as an component has opened up in our twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours lives and moreover introduced into it a personal spacial dimension. Example from the architectural uncanny. Our perceptual experience of darkness is affected by the mode in which the oculus observes analyses and visualizes the material objects around us. The oculus has the ability to divide what we want to see from what we prefer non to see, which is strongly manipulated by the strength of visible radiation in a infinite. The sense of vision determines our connexions with infinites, signifiers and stuffs likewise, and ignites our ideas, imaginativeness and emotions. Darkness so is no longer merely an ambiance of concept in the physical dimension of infinite but it starts to pervade and unify with the darkness of the head even. Therein develops a new continuum of perceived dark infinite, more merely understood as symbolic imagination of darkness, which exists in the boundaries of our phantasies, dreams and imaginativeness. The intimacy of these connexions is straight affected by the contrast of visible radiation and shadow in a infinite, as noted by Pallasmaa ( 2005, p46 ) ‘During ove rmastering emotional experiences, we tend to shut off the distancing sense of vision ; we close the eyes when dreaming, listening to music, or fondling our darling 1s ‘ He farther goes on to explicate the significance of shadows and darkness in chanting down the acuteness of vision and in bring oning our inner ideas and feelings that otherwise seem elusive and hibernating. ( Pallasmaa 2005 ) Obviously plenty, darkness structures our immediate sensate and intimate experiences of minutes gone by or enfold our head with new found associations of clip and infinite. We chose to either remain confined to the darkness of physical infinite or in bend explore the boundaries of fanciful dark infinites. Memories are the consequence of these geographic expeditions within our heads that take topographic point in the presence of elusive visible radiation and deep shadow infinites. Memories are like scenes in a drama or chapters of a book that journey from one facet to another making a assortment of experiences for the individual walking through the infinite. As claimed by Pallasmaa that streets of old towns and metropoliss with their dim lit scenes appear more challenging than modern overly lit streets and towns oftoday. ( Pallasmaa, 2005 ) It about seems as if darkness and shadow play an instrumental function in raising up images of past experiences and exciting our ideas. Reaffirmed herein by Pallasmaa once more when he explains ‘The human oculus is most absolutely tuned for dusk instead than bright daytime. Mist and twilight rouse the imaginativeness by doing ocular images ill-defined and equivocal ‘ ( 2005, P46 ) More frequently than non we enjoy and gaze with admiratio n at the simple admirations of the dark sky, be it a star lit sky, a cloudy sky, a full Moon dark. Memories resonate in these infinites, infinites that give us the chance to be a portion of the admirations of nature, or experience times that we long for. When we begin to understand these elaboratenesss in the look of visible radiation and shadow, or duologues between atmosphere and our organic structure we begin to oppugn the elaboratenesss and duologues between our yesteryear and nowadays and look frontward to determining of new memories in the hereafter. The functions of visible radiation and darkness are interestingly linked yet absolutely balanced and it is for those grounds that we begin to develop new found associations with infinite that in many ways seem intimate and fond to our being. Memorable topographic point experiences are profoundly infused with infinites we most closely associate with. Darkness and shadow in their ain manner create a sense of purdah and enigma that all right tune the character and ambiance of a topographic point to comfort our senses and comfort us in times of demand. Many a clip ideas in our head have a inclination to look in an equivocal and unorganised manner, likewise shadow excessively creates an atmosphere of obscureness and wonder that spurs our imaginativeness and memories. On the contrary, topographic points of bright visible radiation and utmost strength weaken our esthesis of topographic point and personal experience. ( Pallasmaa 2005 ) As farther critically explained by Pallasmaa that the be st manner of subjecting people to insanity is with the usage of utmost degrees of visible radiation strength which erases any hint of personal infinite and idea. ( Pallasmaa 2005 ) Darkness in its confidant and sensate characteristic goes a measure farther to convey to illume the other senses in our organic structure. Darkness subdues the ocular esthesis of the oculus, automatically exciting the power of other senses such as touch and odor. It is in the presence of deep shadow that we depend on the heightened power of our other senses to see and closely prosecute with a infinite.Familiarity of AromaAroma, besides termed as an olfactive sense though preponderantly a ignored facet in architecture, is in fact one of the strongest centripetal characteristics in our organic structures and the deepness of experience and experiencing it covers is although unseeable but enkindled clip and once more through built-in tactile and ocular qualities of a infinite. It is an indispensible constitutional component of spacial design, raising up ocular imagination and personal penetrations of memories and infinites, transporting us to different kingdoms of clip. More simplistical ly set frontward, scent engages dialogue with nature through air current, H2O, location, flora as portion of the external environment and duologue with infinite through furniture, stuffs, and ocular entreaty in the interior environment. We ever trace ourselves back to a topographic point in clip through our sense of odor be it elusive or overmastering. As notably marked by Barbara and Perliss that olfactory property constitutes a powerful content of memory, perforating our inner ideas and exciting our emotions. Furthermore they bring back and refresh forgotten or hibernating minutes and experiences from within us. ( Barbara and Perliss 2006 ) Even though aroma by itself is a powerful tool in the remembrance of memory, it best exists when supported by the other senses, working in tandem to make a multisensory experience.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

A Brief History Of Emirates Marketing Essay

A Brief History Of Emirates Marketing Essay In 1974, three years after independence, the rulers of the UAE decided to establish a joint flag carrier: Gulf Air. However, a tense relationship between the airline and the Dubai government existed ever since its inception, as the latter re fused to give in to Gulf Air’s demands to abandon its open-skies policy. In reaction, Gulf Air reduced frequencies and capacities to and from Dubai by more than two thirds between 1984 and 1985 without advance notice (Wilson 2005). Since foreign carriers proved unable or unwilling to fill the gap, Dubai’s then ruler, Sheik Mohammed bin Rashid Al-Maktoum, convened a team of experts – headed by Maurice Flanagan and later joined by Tim Clark and the ruler’s then 26- year old son, Sheik Ahmed bin Saeed Al-Maktoum – to devise an emergency plan. The group’s recommendation to set up a home carrier for Dubai was quickly accepted by the ruler, but he imposed two conditions: The new airline should meet the highest quality standards and there would be no additional capital injections from the government other than the agreed USD 10 million start-up capital. On October 25th, 1985, Emirates’ first flight departed to Karachi, using an A300, wet-leased from Pakistan International Airlines. The rest is history: in 1987, Emirates began to serve it first two European destinations – London Gatwick and Frankfurt -, from 1995, it has operated an all wide body fleet, and in 2001, 2003 and 2005 Emirates placed some of the largest aircraft orders ever. As of October 2007, Emirates’ route network extends to 91 destinations on all continents. In its last business year, ending March 31st, 2007, the airline transported 17.5 million passengers and 1.2 million tons of cargo on 102 aircraft. Currently, 118 aircraft are on firm order (of which 20 will be all-freighters), including 55 A380 and 43 B777. 1.2 The Emirates Group Emirates Airlines (including its cargo subsidiary Emirates SkyCargo) is only one division of the Emirates Group, a state-owned globally active travel and tourism conglomerate, which provides a plethora of aviation related ancillary services. Finally, the Emirates Group owns 43.6 percent of Sri Lankan Air lines. 1.3 The Dubai Government’s aviation- Related Activities Viewed from an even higher level of aggregation, the Emirates Group, in turn, is only one element in a comprehensive bundle of aviation-related activities, all of which come under the responsibility of Sheik Ahmed bin Saeed Al-Maktoum: (1) The Dubai World Central Consortium (activity: to build Jebel Ali Airport City including Dubai’s new mega-airport) (2) Dubai’s Department of Civil Aviation (activities: all aviation-related regulatory functions, operator of DXB airport, of Dubai Duty Free and Dubai Cargo Village) (3) Dubai Aerospace Enterprise (activities: aircraft leasing, airport planning and management, consulting, maintenance and aviation-related education and tr aining). Marketing Strategy Mission â€Å"An effective mission statement defines the fundamental, unique purpose that sets a business apart from other firms of its type and identifies the scope of the business’s operations in product and market terms. It is an enduring statement of purpose that reveals an organization’s product or service, markets, customers, and philosophy.† (John A. Pearce II & Fred David, 2006). Emirates Airlines or rather Emirates Group mission statement is simply â€Å"Committed to the highest standards in everything we do.† Being a vast enterprise by itself – Emirates group – the group has been quiet successful in embodying the mission of â€Å"committing to the highest standard† onto its one of its two core corporation (Emirates Airlines) – the other being DNATA, by marketing the brand of Emirates as the pinnacle emblem or a luxury standard throughout the world as an emerging Global Brand.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Identity Theft Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Identity Theft - Essay Example It has become necessary for people to be adequately educated about the risks involved and the necessary preventive measures. Identity theft is a crime in which an imposter tries to pretend to be someone else by means of using some key identification data of the victim. This may include social security numbers, credit card numbers etc. When communicating online it becomes even easier to appear to be someone else since the communication is not face to face but online and the distance between the two persons or parties gives advantage to the criminal. The crime may be committed to seek monetary or social or any other form of benefit. Recovery from an identity theft may be easier in certain cases of small thefts involving individuals but it may become very grave if reputed organizations are victimized and they end up spending large sums in repairing the damage caused to their goodwill (World Privacy Forum, 2012). The crime is very diversified and innovated in the present day. The old-fas hioned methods of rummaging through the rubbish bins or picking pockets have been replaced by software, viruses and programming scripts. Computer viruses have proved to be efficient ways of committing identity theft in which all possible identity material of any person or organization may be extracted and put to use in another part of the world and the victim remains oblivious to such activities. Identity theft may range from simply posing to be someone else to more lethal actions such as financial identity theft, child identity theft, medical identity theft to seek medical care or drugs while pretending to be someone else or identity cloning in which the criminal assumes the complete identity of a victim in daily life (Compton, 2012). The identity thieves operating online usually work by tricking you into providing your personal information to them through various methods such as phishing, luring with job opportunities, money scams or fake fraud alerts. Phishing involves an email s ent to a victim which redirects him to a fake website where you are required to fill up a signup form with your personal information. Similarly job opportunity forms are sent and personal information is extracted. Fake fraud alert emails are sent which seem to be legitimate mail from the victim's bank. The victim is informed that someone has tried to fraudulently access his account so he must send certain personal information for verification (Federal Trade Commission, 2006) Today the society is very susceptible to falling for such tricks of criminals since the spoofed websites developed by criminals are so similar to the original ones that an average person cannot identify and differentiate between the real and fake. A simple change of address form may be filled up by someone and the utility bills of the victim will end up somewhere else resulting in nonpayment of a charge and a bad credit report. Furthermore, the personal data commonly available on social networking websites may b e used by criminals to communicate with a victim's contacts and seek financial benefits while pretending to be him. An ATM or a credit/debit card may be duplicated and money drawn from a victim's account. Thus it is clear that every individual and organization must educate itself and others about the seriousness of the implications this crime can have. To address the crimes of identity theft, all countries and states

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Summary Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 4

Summary - Essay Example At next stage the company may ensure its web presence through a corporate website. This web presence is then used to provide details of company’s products or services. At the next level of B2C e-business implementation the company may accept online orders and integrate it with its finance department and later on customer may be enabled to make online payments. This requires an integration of website with company’s financial system. In today’s global markets customer acquisition, retention and extension are ensured through used of Customer Relationship Management Systems (CRMs). A B2B e-commerce system facilitates interoperability between supply chain organizations and other business organizations. It is also integrated with local information systems of the organization. These systems are supplier-facing and are known to be Supplier Relationship Management (SRM) systems. The performance of these systems is analyzed in terms of time they take to complete a procurem ent process. B2B e-commerce systems have significantly squeezed the delays and most of the activities are automated and processed online. Closely related to e-commerce is the procurement process, this process is usually considered to cover all activities of supply chain process and it has a separate model for e-procurement process. Examples of e-business and e-commerce systems Chapter 8: Knowledge & Systems for Communicating Online Knowledge is the purified form of information. We come across information in our routine life very frequently and by processing this information we accumulate knowledge that has some value to us. Using information is an important aspect of our daily life. It is important to know how to deal with information we come across and embed it with our previous knowledge to purify existing knowledge. Imagination is the other source of knowledge and we tend to imagine whatever we need to know. Imaginati on is a very important tool used for enhancing our knowledgebase. Knowledge management is essential for its systematic acquisition and various fields of knowledge are combined to make a new field of knowledge. Our professional knowledge is a combination of theoretical, empirical, personal, procedural knowledge and practical wisdom. Practicing several knowledge domains with varying depths formulate professional competence. Sharing, collaboration, participation and building knowledgebase are common functions to generate, acquire and retain knowledge. ICT technologies have contributed a lot towards building and enhancing all these knowledge functions. Wikipedia, e-mails, blogs, forums are few to mention the contribution of ICT technologies. Knowledge Management (KM) is an important organizational objective to utilize the scattered knowledge resources like experiences, insights, and various information systems and databases to ensure learning and sharing from existing knowledge. Knowled ge Management can be utilized to create a competitive advantage, to avoid repetition of mistakes and to achieve sustainable growth and improvement at organizational level. KM can also give powerful and useful inferences form an organizational CRM to make intelligent and aware business decisions. Examples of Knowledge and online Communication Systems

The Boston Tea Party Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

The Boston Tea Party - Research Paper Example The first part is an overview of British colonization of America to show the relationship between ruled colonies and the ruling Empire. The second part summarizes the relationship between business and government in the colonies that led to abuses. The third part explores the role that taxation of tea, an ordinary beverage, played in the conflicts between the Crown and its colonies. The fourth part briefly discusses the protests that led to the Tea Party and the reactions of the British colonizers. The final part shows the link between the Boston Tea Party and American independence. The first English settlers sailed to America in the early 17th century, founding the colonies of Virginia in 1607. Despite harsh conditions of climate and violent resistance from natives, English settlers continued arriving in droves: settling in Plymouth in 1620, Massachusetts Bay and New Hampshire in 1629, Maryland in 1630, Rhode Island and Connecticut in 1636, New Haven in 1638, North and South Carolina in 1663, New York and New Jersey in 1664, Hudson Bay in 1670, and Pennsylvania in 1681. Colonial settlements were established in Delaware in 1702, Georgia in 1732, and West Florida in 1763 (Innes 5-7). Each of these colonies was established either as a chartered company colony or a proprietary colony, which differentiates the way the colony is managed, its relations with the British government or Crown, and how revenues from trade and commerce in and out of the colony is shared with government. A chartered company is managed by business interests in behalf of the Crown, while civil servants appointed by the Crown manage a proprietary colony. Most chartered company colonies were not as well managed as proprietary colonies, so colonies such as Virginia, Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay were eventually turned into proprietary colonies, with the Crown appointing settlers from England as governors (Innes 11-13). America was a conglomeration of rich and

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Arguments Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Arguments - Essay Example The beaches in San Diego are beautiful and famous, and the city has several other attractions such as zoo, wild Animal Park, Sea World, and Balboa Park with all the museums. Similarly, this beautiful city is distinguished for the availability of world-class goods and services, and it is one of the richest and safest cities in the United States. It is important to realize that Forbes magazine has rated San Diego as the fifth-wealthiest city in the United States and the 9th safest city in the top 10 list of safest cities in the nation. (Clemence) The city was also rated in 2006 as the fifth-best place to live in the United States, and there are several favorable conditions for happy and peaceful living in the city, including the weather, the beaches, opportunities for cultural events, availability of world-class goods and services, etc. Therefore, it is indubitable to claim that San Diego is a great place to live in. In a reflective analysis of the favorable conditions to live in San D iego, it becomes evident that the city is blessed with comfortable weather, the beaches, opportunities for cultural events, etc. The weather of the city, which is comfortable year round, is the most important reason to claim that it is a great location for happy living.

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Learning and Development (HRM) Managing Training Operations in Essay

Learning and Development (HRM) Managing Training Operations in Training Department - Essay Example By employing this kind of method for training, the training department can cut down costs of hiring an external trainer to do so. The coaching/mentoring method that is being used here is one of the most efficient and easiest of imparting training to the employees, while having no loss faced by the usual traffic of work. In this method a trained senior officer is attached to the trainee, this way the trainee can get hold of his own mistakes and learn from the teachings of the trainer. In this case study, we can see that the intended trainee is attached with the senior trainer, who ends up getting those technical courses. This is although a slow method, but it produces better results than other kind of training. Through this kind of training the trainee grasps the ropes of the trade far more easily and as well as realistically because the person is attached to the experts and there can learn very easily as you are getting the training through practitioners themselves. In this case the trainees gain a hand on experience as to what is right and what is wrong, what should be avoided while imparting training and what tactics and techniques to be used to make the training more affective. The best way to learn about anything is to learn through the practical application of the thing and here the trainers get that experience by being attached to a senior trainer, this will help them observe the way they are giving out training and help them in realizing the key points, that should be taken care of while giving the training. This method is a slow method of training personnel, but in this case it is the most suitable method that the company can use. The other types of training methods are case study method, briefing, in basket training, job instructions training and the job rotation. All these training methods are very subjective sort of methods, while coaching and mentoring can prove to be quite helpful as it would be by far the most practical approach to guide the train ers to be trained for the more technical courses. Such practice will also help create a level of equality among the trainers with respect to the choice of courses and the freedom to select any course that they want rather than doing the one that is left for them. This method is also cost effective as the company does not need to hire extra trainers or other equipments that will facilitate the training process. The coaching and mentoring method will prove to be more useful because the trainees will be able to get hold of the subject quite easily. It is mentioned in the case that the trainees are handed over the materials in advance so that they can prepare for the class. They are given three days to prepare and apply their own learning as trainers to look for innovative ideas, The training that is being imparted here is in-house and work-specific, which means that the training is being done to improve the skill sets of the employees and to enhance the level of understanding. Work spe cific training are usually skill up gradation techniques as the trainees here possess skills to impart training the only thing that they lack is the prowess to handle the technical training course which was generally avoided by them. Word count: 597 1.1 How are different learning styles taken into account? According to the case the model that has been applied is the learning style model by David Kolb, the approach that

Monday, September 23, 2019

Fingerprints history Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Fingerprints history - Coursework Example Factors that are contributing to the fingerprint occurrence are skin pliability, pressure, slippage, texture of the surface of materials, and the likes. Types of fingerprints are exemplar that is use in instances like enrollment, latent that is being used in forensic investigation, patent that is the mark made by flour and the likes, plastic by holding the very material, and electronic recording that is assisted with technology to identify the fingerprints purposely (Manchester Evening News 2010). Three historical people have contributed to the science of fingerprints. They are Marcello Malpighi (1628 – 1694), Edward Henry (1850 – 1931), and Henry Faulds (1843 – 1930). Although there were also numerous historical people who have contributed to the science of fingerprints, the selection of the three are due to their distinctive contribution to one another as the rest tend to overlap with their works. It is also a selection based on chronological discoveries. Marce llo Malpighi. Marcello Malpighi was an Italian physicist whose famous contribution was the â€Å"Malpighian Tubule System.† Marcello had studied anatomical studies and published books on anatomy. In one of his books, he illustrated the detailed ridge structure of the fingers.

Sunday, September 22, 2019

The Psychometrical Properties of the De-Sypher Personality Questionnaire Test Essay Example for Free

The Psychometrical Properties of the De-Sypher Personality Questionnaire Test Essay Introduction   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Psychometrical Psychology is concerned with the measurement of human behavior through tests. Psychometrists design and administer intelligence, aptitude, and personality tests and analyze statistical data derived from these tests.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Personality is a person’s characteristics behavior pattern. Many people think of personality as being made up observable traits such as shyness, friendliness, and initiative. However, such traits are only the outward expression of various inner conditions and processes such as intelligence, attitudes, interests, and motives. Many psychologists include these inner elements in their definitions of personality.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Normal persons develop relatively consistent personalities that are distinguished by certain dominant traits. Persons belonging to the same cultural group—such as family or nation—have many traits in common. But each person exhibits different traits under different circumstances, and each has unique traits as well as those he or she shares with others. It is also known that personalities develop throughout life, and may even undergo fundamental changes as a result of psychotherapy or other treatment (Moskowitz, 2005).   For these reasons, psychologists do not believe that personalities can be rigidly classified according to type. Background How Personality is formed   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Personality is produced by the interaction of heredity and environment. Inborn qualities affect the individual’s response to the outside world, and the environment influences the way in which inborn capacities develop. However, the precise reasons why one person develops certain personality traits, while another develops other traits, are not known.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Studies of personality origins are limited by the difficulty of making controlled experiments on human behavior. Except for identical twins, no two persons have exactly the same biological inheritance, and even identical twins do not share exactly the same biological inheritance, and even identical twins do not share exactly the same environment. Parents and others respond to each twin differently, providing each with a unique emotional setting. Inherited Traits   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Inherited traits such as structure, skin color, and type of hair—play a part in personality only if given a meaning by the environment. For example, an extremely tall boy may develop either shyness or self-confidence, according to whether he is teased because of his height or praised for using it to advantage in playing basketball.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The structure and function of the nervous and glandular systems are inherited qualities having a more direct effect upon personality. Intelligence, talents, and skills are largely dependent upon these systems. However, the effects of even these qualities can be modified by the environment (Dana, 1999). External Influences   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   External Influences include both physical environment (climate, geography) and social environment (other individuals, and human institutions). Social influences are considered to be a greater importance in personality formation. Most psychologists believe that basic personality traits are acquired in early childhood, and that the family is therefore of primary importance in forming an individual’s personality.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Wider cultural groups such as tribes and nations set up rules, values, and goals, and thus influence personality formation. Diversity within large groups is produced by subcultures such as social and economic classes and religious groups. III. Discussion Definition of personality   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Psychologists have approached these tasks using a wide variety of research methods (Craik, 2005). Knowledge about people’s personalities can be obtained from their everyday conduct, as is the case in field studies. People also reveal themselves through the products of their imaginations, and this technique is used when personality tests known as projective tests are given to people. A straightforward approach to gathering personality data is to ask people to fill out self-report inventories about their characteristics. With this method, two risks are apparent: People may not be fully aware of what they are like; and if they are, they may wish to cover up some of the flaws they perceive. We gain information of a different sort about personality when we ask others for their impressions of specific people. This technique is known as the use of observer reports in research. Life histories, such as those biographies and autobiographies, and archival material, such as Van Gogh’s letters, provide a rich source of data on particular individuals for the study of personality. Clinical case histories, on which many of the major theories are based, fall into this category. The most carefully controlled information is maximized in laboratory studies; it is sometimes at the expense of naturalistic experiences.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   No single source of information about personality is the ideal, correct source. All these methods are important for obtaining information about personality. Published research on personality, however, relies heavily on self-report inventories and laboratory studies with limited samples of people. Between 1990 and 2000, 85% of the research published in major journals used these two methods, and approximately two thirds of the research used undergraduate samples (Craik, 2005). However, there has been a trend in recent years toward greater use of biographical material, sometimes referred to as psychobiography, in the study of personality (Alexander, 2000). Assessment of personality   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Most people have implicit views of what personality is, just as they have implicit definitions of intelligence. Many different theories of personality exist. Different theories of personality have been based on different assumptions about human nature; on studies with diverse populations—clients seeking treatment, healthy, and happy adults, rats and pigeons; and on different focuses of analysis, such as emotions, behaviors, and cognitions.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Assessment of personality characteristics therefore depends heavily upon which type of personality theory is selected as the focus of study.   Psychoanalytic theorists, for example, who subscribe to notions of the power they believe that major elements of personality are hidden even from the individual under study, only indirect methods of assessment are appropriate. Behaviorists, on the other hand, are likely to approach personality directly by observing characteristics behaviors. Psychoanalytic theorists are more likely to look for traits; behaviorists are more likely to look for situational measures for personality. The assessment of personality is, therefore, a complicated business. Indeed, the enterprise of assessing personality is big business. There are now hundreds of tests designed to measure aspects of human personality (Piotrowski, 2004). Self-Report Inventories   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The most frequent used instruments for assessing personality are self-report inventories, which require individuals to answer a series of questions about themselves. One assumption underlying self-report inventories is that people know themselves better than anyone else knows them, and that they are therefore in the best position to provide personality information. Self-report inventories often contain a very large number of items that can be grouped into various categories of personal functioning (Janis, 1999). The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The most widely used self-report inventory is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, or MMPI, which we briefly described earlier. The MMPI consists of more than 500 statements the individuals must respond to as being either â€Å"true† or â€Å"false† with respect to themselves, or indicate that they â€Å"cannot say.† The items cover a very large territory, ranging from family and marital issues to psychosomatic symptoms and political attitudes. Three sample items are:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   At times I fell like swearing.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   I like to flirt.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   I believe I am being plotted against.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The MMPI yields scores on the 10 subscales and 3 response-tendency subscales. The MMPI is described as an empirical scale, which means that the items actually differentiate among groups of people. The MMPI differentiates between those who have been diagnosed as abnormal and those who have not. The procedure for establishing an empirical scale is fairly straightforward. A group of clinical patients is selected to take the test. Their pattern of answers to the questions is compared to that of a group of normal individuals who also take the test. Items that differentiate between the two groups then form the basis for that subscale. With the MMPI, for example, paranoid patients are much more likely than normal people to answer true to the item â€Å"I believe I am being plotted against.† There is often some logic to the grouping of items, as in the preceding example; however, as long as they differentiate between the grouped empirically, items can be included on the subscale whether or not demonstrate any theoretical relevance (MacDonald, 2004).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The MMPI has proved to be an enormously popular test that has gone beyond its original purpose of differentiating between individuals. Today it is frequently used as a test of personality functioning for normal populations. The subscales consist of items grouped under misleading or even obsolete labels, however. Because of the purposes of the test have shifted, and because technical problems with the test and its standardization have arisen, the MMPI has undergone revision. Items have been updated and reworded to eliminate sexist language. The original item pool has been supplemented with about 150 new items, and the entire test is being standardized in two forms, one for adolescents and one for adults (Anastasi, 2000). New items on the adult form address areas of psychopathology that were not covered in the original, and the adolescent form covers specific problems of adolescence. Other Self-Report Inventories   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   A host of other self-report inventories assess characteristics that are related to personality. These include personality inventories for use with normal individuals, such as the California Psychological Inventory; sex-role inventories, such as the Bem Sex-Role Inventory; values scales, such as the Allport-Vernon-Lindzey Study of Values; and even scales designed to assess the need for thrill seeking, such as Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scale. All self-report inventories are similar in that individuals fill out the scales about themselves. They also share a common problem in that many of the characteristics can be faked (Korchin, 2001). It is usually obvious which answer is most socially desirable, so that an individual who is motivated to do so can choose only the desirable answers, in order to look good.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In some cases an individual might even want to pick the answers likely to make him or her look bad, as in the case of a person charged with a crime who wanted to be judged insane. Some self-report inventories, most notably the MMPI, contain a â€Å"lie scale,† several items that almost everyone who is telling the truth would answer as false. (Potential lie-scale items might be â€Å"I never tell a lie† or â€Å"I have never been angry with a close relative.†) A person who answers a large proportion of these items as true is assumed to be lying on the other parts of the test as well. The MMPI â€Å"correction score† is composed of a set of items that indicate attempts by the test taker to fake a good score (Morgan, 1999). Conclusion   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Self-report inventories are easily administered and provide a quick assessment of some aspects of personality. Their very ease of use has led to a problem of overuse. Some employers, for example, require personality tests such as the MMPI before an employee can be hired. The test was never designed as a screening device for employment and should not be used for such purposes. The availability of computer-based scoring and interpretation of the MMPI increases the risks for such abuse, because interpretation is complex and should be done only by trained clinicians. Reference: Alexander, I. (2000). Personality, psychological assessment, and psychobiography.   Journal of Personality, 56, 265-294. Anastasi, A. (2000). Psychological testing (10th edition). Evolving concepts of test validation. Annual Review of Psychology, 37, 1-15. Craik, K. (2005). Personality research methods: An historical perspective. Journal of Personality, 54, 18-51. Dana, R.H. (1999).   The Rorschach. In O.K. Buros (Ed.). The eighth mental measurement yearbook (pp. 1040-1042). Highland Park, NJ: Gryphon press. Janis, I.L. (1999). Personality: Dynamics, development, and assessment. New York: Harcourt, Brace World. Korchin, S.J. (2001). The future of clinical assessment. American Psychologist, 36, 1147-1158. MacDonald, K. (2004). Bridging the gap: Parent-child play interaction and peer interactive competence. Child Development, 55, 1265-1277. Morgan, A.H. (1999). A method of investigating fantasies: The Thematic Apperception Test. Archives Neurological Psychiatry, 34, 289-306. Moskowitz, D. (2005). Comparison of self-reports, reports by knowledgeable informants, and behavioral observation data. Journal of Personality, 54, 294-317. Piotrowski, C. (2004). Pscyhodiagnostic testing in APA-approved clinical psychology programs. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 15, 450-456.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Recycling Behavior Among University Students

Recycling Behavior Among University Students The purpose of our study is to find the factors affecting multimedia students to recycle. We have four independent variables which are health consciousness, health consciousness, rewards convenience, and one dependent variable which is students recycling behavior. What appears unavailable is documentation on critical issues involved and how to address them. This paper, therefore, examines the attitudes portrayed by students towards recycling. We used survey questionnaire to collect data from 100 respondents. The government and the community can use our findings to find ways to make people recycling more and save energy. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Chapter Overview This chapter clearly provides much insight into the importance of the current research. It begins with a quick study on the background of the research. It includes the question in detail and how to get to the answer or solution. There will be an interpretation of what this study is all about and also the scope of the study. This chapter will finally conclude with a brief overview of the research. Background of the research Recycling is a much needed thing in order to keep this planet from turning into a trash dump. A lot of people feel that recycling is a waste of time and insignificant, but it takes less than a minute to throw a paper in a recycle bin just like it take a minute to open a wrap and eat a sweet. But they should know that whatever recycling they do can make a difference for instance one aluminum can saves enough energy to run a T.V for 3 hours, a single glass jar saves enough energy to light a light bulb for 4 hours.    So for everything you recycle it does save energy.   In Malaysia tones of waste are produced, 19000, and all them end up in landfills and there are 230 landfills in Malaysia. And 80 percent of this landfills will be filled in two years, which is really bad because if the landfills reach that capacity in only two years, what capacity would they be in another two years to come?(David Gutierrez, December 2010) What people believe is that not many things can be recycled; maybe years ago it could be believed to be true but not today. Nowadays anything can be recycled; paper can be bound into newspapers, manuals, school books and paper boxes, metals like aluminum, sauce cans and tins, plastics, glass, beverage cartons etc. And there are companies in Malaysia that encourage recycling and they provide recycling machines SMIC (M) Sdn Bhd which provide recycling services of waste, Nikkhsin Sdn. Bhd. Which recycles Aluminum Claddings Automotive Engines : Export Automotive Parts Accessories : Export Disposal Services Garbage Disposal Service, Lian Hong Trading, Kent Soon Recycle Centre Sdn. Bhd, Ganapathy Metals, GMS Purna Impex and Edar Bagus. Mentioned above are the recycle centers that could be found in Malaysia. Recycling is a lesson that one should be taught in a young age, but I shows that most people know about recycling when they are old enough to understand and able to make their decisions. MMU would find ways in which to get through to the students and how the students respond to the information is up to them, thats what our research would be mostly looking, how Multimedia students respond to the education given about recycling. Recycling  does not cost anything, it takes only a little extra time, and one can make an amazing difference to the world. In many regions  recycling boxes  are not provided which people can use to collect recyclable materials for collection at the same time as their domestic waste. 1.3  Objective The research question and also the objectives are established in order to provide a sense of direction on the topic that is being investigated. The research question of this study is to find out: What are the factors affecting MMU students to recycle? The main objective or the reason why we are doing this research is for us to examine the To determine problems faced by students in recycling? To identify factors affecting students to recycle 1.4 Scope of study In accordance of the topic we are studying which is recycling; since this topic is wide we have to narrow it down to the students studying in Multimedia University. The main focus of this study is to find out the effects of recycling, as in the positive of recycling and also the negative of recycling among the students. This study is limited to students only. The geographic scope is limited to the country of Malaysia. These limits nevertheless offer a reasonable base and rationale for the scope of study. The data was collected through a questionnaire survey which was completed by students with the intention of measuring the effects of recycling among students in MMU. Organization Research This part is going to make more factual information by using the following chapter that are given by the textbook and also an order from our perspective lecturer/tutor. Chapter 1: The research is lead by studying the effects ofà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ which are related to the research objectives and justifications. And it may lead us to a conclusion why recycling is important to our environment and also to our health. Chapter 2: This chapter is going to present a review of the definition of recycling and ways to increase education relating to reuse reduce and recycle, basically programs adopted by MMU to encourage its students to recycle. Chapter 3: This chapter will present the research methodology that was employed in the research, it clarifies how we get the data, and analysis this raw data to organize it into a useful and easy way to make others fully understand it. Chapter 4: The major findings and insights that are emphasized by us in this research which are to discover the basic reasons why some students recycle while others do not recycle at all, and the effectiveness of the programs that were offered by the university in encouraging recycling. Chapter 5: This is the final chapter, conclusion from the research findings and discussions. And also it highlights the limitations associated with the research and a proper recommendation for future research in the specific area, because nowadays everything can be recycled therefore there wont be any excuse students will give for not recycling and many programs provided to learn about recycle and how to do it. 1.6 Justification for Research Looking at the fact that not so many people do not recycle, and thats because the majority do not know anything about recycling , it could that some of them do not know the importance of recycling and finally some will want to recycle and because of lack of resources that will be hindered. That is why we do this study to find the answer to all those questions and to put the 3R perspective .into use. This 3 concept are the main purpose of the recycling which is 3R. From this perspective, we intend to study the recycling behavior among the MMU students. Nowadays, almost all universities is applying environmental friendly concept. Due to this concept, we are looking deeply into these experiences, to learn from the MMU undergraduates and start revealing how the students can inform us to move into the realm of wide-spread institutional transformation. The reason we agreed together to have recycling as our project is mainly because nowadays almost all universities in the world had organize several campaigns about the recycling. MMU also joined in organizing campaign relating to environmental friendly. For example, MMU Convocation 2010s ConvoFests theme is green. Hence, our objective is to know how actively MMU undergraduates feel towards environmental-friendly concept. Apart from it, we will use survey method to gather information that needed by collecting raw data from MMU undergraduates. For the importance, recycling no doubt is really vital nowadays. This is because this will affect the industry future and the environment. At current, we are mainly focused on the undergraduates in the university. If we found out that undergraduates are actively involved in this field, shows that in future there would be more people involved in recycling. This will contribute to environmental-friendly. Our study will benefit a lot of people mostly the government and the community in the vicinity will be benefited. The government will be benefited in terms of the fact that now the environment will be less polluted thus more industries will be built,   The more materials recycled, the less energy is expended to create new materials, the more resources conserved and the more trash and pollutants are kept from entering the environment. Recycling helps to keep water and air clean, saves the wildlife and keeps trash off the streets.   Recycling also helps to control Municipal Services Fees by reducing the total amount of trash to be taken to landfills. And the community will be benefited in terms of clean air to breath and less trash in their streets, good health will also be a benefit to the community because the trash now is recycled rather than being thrown all over. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 definition of recycling is processing used materials into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution by reducing the need for conventional waste disposal, and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to virgin production. Or plainly it is returning an item back to its original condition so that it can be reused. Recycling behavior includes environmental consciousness, health consciousness, rewards and convenience. Some of these attributes can be measured objectively while others, in our case, are measured according to students perception. Recycling is so important to the welfare of our community.Majority students already know that recycling helps conserve natural resources, and also know that recycling saves space in our landfills. On the other hand, few know that recycling waste products conserves water, energy, trees, and helps reduce pollution in our drink ing water and air. But for some products its crucial to conserve them example conserving energy by way of recycling is a crucial environmental benefit because it takes far less energy to make new products and put them into working order using recycled waste than it does to make them from entirely new material. In dealing with students more reinforcement should be taken into consideration, like ways to encourage them to recycle, and research shows that rewards work for students. Nevertheless, it seems hard to match the evidence that the reward reinforcement is one of the most effective promotion techniques (Geller et al., 1975; Witmer and Geller, 1976; Luyben and Bailey, 1979; Hamad et al., 1980; Vining and Ebreo, 1990; Needleman and Geller, 1992. 2.2 Definition of students recycling behavior From todays perspective, modern recycling behavior would appear to have commenced in the seventies, when households were exhorted to save paper, cardboard, metals and other materials in an attempt to combat the energy crisis (Ackerman, 1997). The recycling drive involved not only a general urge to take action and reduce wastefulness, but also more specific reactions to the spread of litter, and to the threat of pollution from landfills. Hence, it seemed logical to assume that recycling was not only a high involvement form of behavior but also that there would be many differences between recyclers and non-recyclers (Lansana, 1992). The recycling behavior of students differs with every student, some recycling because they fill it is important in their lives and some of them do not recycle because they see no need to recycle. Recycling behavior is considered as a high commitment since it is considered a environment conduct and in addition the predominant environmental literature emphasizes the idea that individuals who are reluctant to recycle, or who neither recognize the importance of, nor express interest in, recycling waste are the same individuals who are most interested in extrinsic stimuli such as prizes, gifts and financial rewards (Vining and Ebreo, 1990; Oskamp et al., 1991; Dahle and Neumayer, 2001) the study explains that some students recycling behavior is encouraged by rewards or extrinsic value rather than recycling because it is the right thing to do. Study shows that students who behave (focus on external reinforcement) that way have less information about recycling. To be more specific, the response to the reward technique is explained by pointing out that consumers have not assimilated good enough knowledge and evaluations, such as ecological conscience (Bohlen et al., 1993); beliefs ab out recycling (Scholder, 1994); ecological concern (Dunlap and Van Liere; 1984; Bohlen et al., 1993); a favorable attitude toward recycling (Biswas et al., 2000) and recycling involvement (McGuiness et al., 1977; Black et al., 1985. 2.3 factors affecting students to recycle There are lots of factors that affect students to recycle; some factors can be controlled while others cannot be controlled, these factors include collection method (segregated or mixed materials) ,space for collection and storage of reusables and recyclables ,geographical location, particularly in relation to markets for reprocessing materials ,size of institution and volume of recyclable material ,other important factors include local authority facilities, charging structure and support  only to name a few. In fact, consumers learning requirements regarding recycling are easily satisfied since beliefs about recycling have already been acquired by the average citizen and the waste-collection system has reached a high standard of convenience which reduces its perceived cost (Ackerman, 1997). Study shows that educating students about recycling could help also, the factors given above could all exist but when students do not know anything about recycling then everything becomes vague. Education on recycling in fact is one of the major factors affecting recycling, the knowledge gained by students through that education can help them choose whether they want to recycle or not. The question is whether or not recycling continues to be of the high involvement category, and if it is not, whether to assume that responders and no responders to the reward technique display significant differences in terms of knowledge and evaluations. To understand this seemingly paradoxical framework it must be appreciated that nowadays recycling is often not high involvement behavior, since recycling has long since become part of contemporary culture and is no longer regarded as a novelty (Rogers, 1995). 2.4 Relationship between recycling and students behavior Nevertheless, according to recent research, the high involvement decisions model is not the only one which is valid for explaining both ecological (Hartmann et al., 2002) and recycling behaviors (Ratneshwar et al., 2003) and it therefore seems possible to represent recycling behaviors by using other hierarchies of effect (Diaz and Beerli, 2004). Such approaches are based on the fact that (1) much previous evidence points to the existence of associations or correlations, and not of cause and effect relationships, in recycling adoption models (Schlegelmilch et al., 1996) and (2) no works have been found that contradict the protocol of classic effects. Basically the above writers explain that there is a difference between recycling and the behavior of students or their attitude. Some students or in this case majority feel there is an importance in recycling and they want to learn more about recycling because they will like to recycling in the future. But because of less education given about it they Havre no choice but not to recycle. Another group is those students with negative attitude; they feel there is no need to recycle because is none of their business to recycle but some of them need a nudge or a push for them to recycle. And to push students to recycle is through extrinsic benefits or rewards, they need that for them to change their attitude towards recycling, and research shows that rewards are a good way to make students recycle and they respond to that more than anything else involved. According to Petty and Cacioppos elaboration likelihood model, the individual is not motivated to think about recycling but about the promised reward. Therefore, responders engage in recycling via the so called peripheral route and thus show little interest in recycling itself (Young, 1984; Katzev and Pardini, 1987; Vining and Ebreo, 1989).The predominant environmental literature emphasizes the idea that individuals who are reluctant to recycle, or who neither recognize the importance of, nor express interest in, recycling waste are the same individuals who are most interested in extrinsic stimuli such as prizes, gifts and financial rewards (Vining and Ebreo, 1990; Oskamp et al., 1991; Dahle and Neumayer,2001). CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction This chapter explains about the design and research method. Firstly, research question has been identifying by the review, hypotheses and theoretical framework. The dependent variable of the research is recycle behavior while the independent variables are; environmental consciousness, health consciousness, rewards/ incentives, nearness or convenience. Second part of this chapter, it will discuss the hypothesis development. 3.2 Research Framework Environmental consciousness STUDENTS RECYCLING BEHAVIOUR Nearness/convenience Rewards/incentives Health consciousness Based on the theoretical framework, it have total of 4 independent variables which will be analyzed towards one dependent variable in this study. The dependent variable which is, Recycle Behavior would be affected in a positive or negative manner based on the independent variables influences. 3.3 Hypothesis Development Hypothesis 1: H0= Environmental Consciousness does not influence Recycle Behavior. H1= Environmental influences Recycle Behavior. Hypothesis 2: H0= Health Consciousness does not influence Recycle Behavior. H1= Health Consciousness influences Recycle Behavior. Hypothesis 3: H0= Rewards/ Incentives does not influence Recycle Behavior. H1= Rewards/ Incentives influences Recycle Behavior. Hypothesis 4: H0= Nearness or Convenience does not influence Recycle Behavior. H1= Nearness or Convenience influences Recycle Behavior. Dependent Variable Dependent Variable is a variable that can be change by the Independent variables or the variable that is being measured in an experiment. Recycle Behavior is our study dependent variable. A habit had by the people to process used material into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful material. It saves a lot of sources. (Environmental Assistance Office (EAO), Infrastructure, Design, Environment, and Sustainability (IDEAS) Center, UNC Charlotte, 2009). Independent Variable Independent and dependent variables are related to one another. The Independent part is what you, the experimenter, changes or enacts in order to do your experiment. The dependent variable is what changes when the independent variable changes. The dependent variable  depends on the outcome of the independent variable. From the study we have 4 Independent variable; Environmental Consciousness, Health Consciousness, Rewards/ Incentives, and Nearness or Convenience. Environmental Consciousness: mean that there is no better measure of environmental responsibility than direct observation of young people, over a significant period where people are minimizing their environmental impact, reducing consumption and reusing and recycling materials. (Bill Hampel and Roger Holdsworth, 1996). H1= Environmental Consciousness influences Recycle Behavior. Health Consciousness: recycle behavior relationship for health consciousnesses is for good health. (Debasmita Chanda, 2006) Example: To have a better life environmental with less pollution problem. H1= Health Consciousness influences Recycle Behavior. Rewards/ Incentives: the expectation of reward when you to do the recycle. Example: Jenny take the 1kg of the tin to recycle, there have a return of RM 3 for the 1kg tin as the reward. H1= Rewards/ Incentives influences Recycle Behavior. Nearness or Convenience: Convenience was determining when students will recycle or not. (Environmental Assistance Office (EAO), Infrastructure, Design, Environment, and Sustainability (IDEAS) Center, UNC Charlotte, 2009) H1= Nearness or Convenience influences Recycle Behavior 3.4 Data Sources We are collecting our study data sources through the internet. Variable Name Description Sources Recycle Behavior A habit had by the people to process used material into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful material Environmental Assistance Office (EAO), Infrastructure, Design, Environment, and Sustainability (IDEAS) Center, UNC Charlotte, 2009 Environmental Consciousness there is no better measure of environmental responsibility than direct observation of young people, over a significant period who are minimizing their environmental impact, reducing consumption and reusing and recycling materials Bill Hampel and Roger Holdsworth, 1996 Health Consciousness recycle behavior relationship between the health consciousness for good health Debasmita Chanda, 2006 Rewards/ Incentives the expectation of reward when you to do the recycle Nearness or Convenience Convenience was determining when students will recycle or not Environmental Assistance Office (EAO), Infrastructure, Design, Environment, and Sustainability (IDEAS) Center, UNC Charlotte, 2009 3.5 Data Collection Method Data collection is simply how information is gathered. There are various methods of data collection such as personal interviewing, telephone, mail and the Internet. There are several data collection methods, each with its advantages and disadvantages. Data was gathered through questionnaires. The items for the questionnaire have formulated according to the questionnaire design. A questionnaire is a set of the question which to record the respond of the answers. According to this research, we decide to use questionnaires that we personally administer to suit the topic of our study. Through the knowledge, we know that questionnaires are popular means of collecting data, but difficult to design and often require many rewrites before an acceptable questionnaire is produced. A questionnaire is composed of questions or statements. A way to learn how to write questionnaires is to look at other samples of questionnaires. Questionnaires may be designed to gather either qualitative or quantitative data. Quantitative questions are more exact then qualitative. Any question must be carefully crafted, but in particular questions that assess a qualitative measure must be phrased to avoid ambiguity. Qualitative questions may also require more thought on the part of the participant and may cause them to become bored with the questionnaire sooner. In general, we can say that questionnaires can measure both qualitative and quantitative data well, but that qualitative questions require more care in design, administration, and interpretation (Schmidt, H. J., 2000) Our study is finding out the recycle behavior among the student, therefore we have formulated the questions to the student in MMU. 3.6 Questionnaire Design Our questionnaire has been distributed to the student in MMU. The questionnaire has been divided into three parts: Part A, B, and C. As Part A of the questionnaire is focus on the personal detail of the student, however the second part is look on the student frequency of recycle. Part C is the independent variables of the study. 3.7 Sampling Method Sampling is the act, process, or technique of selecting a suitable sample, or a representative part of a population for the purpose of determining parameters or characteristics of the whole population. From the study, we decide to use convenient sample as our sampling method. A convenience sample results when the more convenient elementary units are chosen from a population for observation. 3.8 Sample Size We are selecting our study sample size is 100 of MMU student. We felt it was the best and was suitable for the population this is so because in research it has been stated that a sample size between the range larger than 30 and less than 500 is appropriate. The smaller the group size, the harder it is to be certain that the normal curve assumptions have not been violated (Todman and Dugard, 2001). Sample size is one of the four inter-related features of a study design that can influence the detection of significant differences, relationships or interactions (Peers, 1996). 3.9 Unit of Analysis In our study we are interested and gather the information of MMU students. In case of our research we will be focusing to collect the data from the MMU student. Unit of analysis of our research is an individual. 3.10 Pilot study This study is conducted among 4 random students to find out whether it is easily understand by the respondents. The study also knows the recycle behaviour of the respondent. It helps the young generation to create a better future and save the resource to re-use. This study was very successful, because all students understand the questionnaire without confusing when the respondent questioning. The only issue through the study is some of the questions are quite like similar, but meanings of the questions are difference. 3.11 Data analysis Techniques Once the questionnaire is completing gather, the data is done according to the dissertation. We are using SPSS software through the computer to do the data analysis. Regression and correlation analysis was applied to analyze data. The data after the analysis we show it in the table in the next chapter of this. CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Introduction We have distributed 100 copies of questionnaires for our survey. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the data. Frequencies for each demographic variable were computed. We are using Cronbachs Alpha to assess our reliability (Cronbach, 1951; Hayes, 1998). Higher Alpha coefficients indicate higher scale reliability (Santos, 1999). In addition, Nunnally (1978) suggests that scales with 0.70 Alpha coefficients and above are considered acceptable. Demographic Profile of Respondents Respondents for this study are typically undergraduates of Multimedia University (MMU). As described in Table 4.1.1, majority of the respondents are male (54%), their age is between 21-30 years old (65%). Apart from that, they are taking undergraduate program in MMU (94%), and their income is below RM1000 (59%).Most of them are Malaysian (85%). Besides the race of Chinese (31%), from the Faculty of Business and Laws (79%), are single (99%). From the Table 4.1.2, generally, Majority of the MMU student are recycling (80%). Most of them recycles every month (45%), recycles for years (50%). In Addition, mainly for them to recycle is to save the environment (90%). Most of them recycle plastics (72.5%). For MMU students, they often (29%) recycle in campus. For those who are not recycling, (85%) of them will start to recycle. TABLE 4.1.1 GENERAL OVERVIEW OF THE SAMPLES DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE Variable Frequency Percent (%) Gender Male 54 54.0 Female 46 46.0 Age Below 21 years old 35 35.0 21-30 years old 65 65.0 Education SPM / STPM / equivalent 5 5.0 Diploma / Degree / equivalent 94 94.0 Master / Doctorate / equivalent 1 1.0 Income RM1000 and below 59 59.0 RM1001-RM2000 30 30.0 RM2001-RM3000 9 9.0 RM3001 and above 2 2.0 Nationality Malaysian 85 85.0 Non-Malaysian 15 15.0 Ethnicity Malay 37 37.0 Chinese 31 31.0 Indian 19 19.0 Others 13 13.0 Marital Single 99 99.0 Married 1 1.0 Faculty FOSEE 1 1.0 FBL 79 79.0 FIST 10 10.0 FET 8 8.0 Others 2 2.0 Table 4.1.2 PORTRAYS AN OVERVIEW OF THE SAMPLES DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE Variables Frequency Percent (%) Do you recycle? Yes 80 80 No 20 20 If yes, How often do you recycle? Every day 9 11.3 Every week 23 28.8 Every month 36 45 Every year 12 15 How long have you been recycling? Days 3 3.8 Weeks 7 8.8 Months 30 37.5 Years 40 50 Why do you recycle? To save the environment 72 90 For fun 4 5 For tradition (my family does it) 4 5 Others 0 0 What do you recycle? Plastic 58 72.5 Paper 5 6.3 Cardboard 8 10 Cans 6 7.5 Bottles 3 3.8 Others 0 0 If you dont recycle, will you start? Yes 17 85 No 3 15 If you ever lived on campus before(i.e. dorms), how often did you recycle when you live campus? Never 12 12 Rarely 19 19 Often 29 29 Always 23 23 I have never lived on campus or recycling was not available 17 17 4.2 profile of respondents Figure 4.2.1 shows the gender of respondents, and according to the pie chart the most respondents are males with 54% secondly is females with 46%.Reason being that the study way conducted inside the university and Multimedia University is dominated by males than females. Figure 4.2.2 shows the age of respondents, and according to the pie chart the most respondents are those who age from 21-30 . The second largest age of respondents are those whose age is below 21 . Basically all of the respondents age from 21-30 the reason being that all of the respondents are students as the research was conduted in MMU. Figure 4.2.3 illustrates the Educational level of the respondents; most of the respondents of the questionnaire survey are doing degree the reason being most of the students in Multimedia University are from Secondary school and they are not at that satge of doing masters or doctorate yet. is shown by the pie chart just a few number of respondents are doing SPM or they already did their them. F

Thursday, September 19, 2019

michael jordan :: essays research papers

Michael Jordan   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Michael Jordan is married, and he and his wife Juanita have 3 kids, named Jasmine, Jeffrey and Marcus. He has been on two Olympic Gold Medal teams. Once as a college player in 1984 and the second time on Dream Team I in 1992 in Barcelona.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Michael Jordan, is one of the two most creative dunkers of all-time, the other was Dr. J. He has won the Slam Dunk Contest Twice (1987 and 1988), then retired from the dunk competition. Michael wears a brand new pair of Air Jordans for each game, usually donating the pair after the game.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jordan's father, James, was killed in a robbery in 1993. This harsh event Michael's life was a large reason for him leaving the NBA. He said that basketball held no more challenges for him. He turned to Baseball for a challenge where he played in the White Sox organization. He was quick, and could play defense, but he just couldn't produce much offense. His return to basketball came on March 19, 1995 against Indiana. The Bulls retired Jordan's number 23 on November 11, 1994.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  When Michael returned he wore number 45, but soon returned to his normal number 23. After a slow return at the end of the 1995 season only scoring 26.9 points per game, he was back in to normal for 1995-96, winning another scoring title. He was named the MVP for the fourth time in 1996 and won his fourth NBA Championship and won his fourth NBA Finals MVP Trophy. Jordan was only the second person, the other was Willis Reed in 1970, to win the MVP for the regular season, Finals and All-Star Game. Jordan did it in 1996 after making his return and leading the Bulls to an NBA record 72 wins.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jordan led his Bull's to a sixth NBA Championship in 1998, and he added a fifth MVP Trophy in 1998, after Karl Malone won it the previous year in 1997. He also beat Karl's Jazz for the championship that year. Jordan joins Kareem Abdul Jabbar and Bill Russell as the only five time winners of the MVP, Jabbar has actually won it six times. Jordan was named MVP in 1988, 1991, 1992, 1996 and in 1998. In 1996 he was also selected to be on the All-Interview team, along with Malone, Barkley, Magic and Jayson Williams. He was a repeat on the All-Interview in 1998 when everyone asked him about

How far were economic factors to blame for the Pilgrimage of Grace? Ess

Sparked in Lincolnshire in October 1536 and expanding rapidly through Yorkshire and the far north, the Pilgrimage of Grace was a popular rising that presented a â€Å"major armed challenge to the Henrician Reformation† . Historians have argued endlessly about the true causes of the Pilgrimage. But, it is fair to say that the rising incorporated a mixture of political, religious, social and economic issues. Therefore, economic factors were only partly to blame for the Pilgrimage of Grace. Firstly, politics was partly to blame for the Pilgrimage of Grace. By early 1527 King Henry VIII sought a divorce from Catherine of Aragon. Though, it is hard to pinpoint exactly why, the most plausible explanation is his belief that â€Å"his marriage was barren because of its illegality† . This is because Henry argued that it was blasphemous of him to marry his brother’s widow. Understandably, any hopes of the divorce being granted were dashed because Henry was a Roman Catholic and the head of this church was the Pope based in Rome. More importantly, the Roman Catholic faith believed marriage was permanent; therefore, only widowers could remarry. Accordingly, a change in strategy intended to â€Å"separate the English church from the larger Catholic Church† in order to get the divorce without any right of appeal to the Pope. In effect, the foundations began with the Pardon of the Clergy in January 1531, carried on with the Submission of the Clergy in May 1532, and accomplished with the declaration of the royal supremacy in 1534. However, by far the most important was the Act in Restraint of Appeals ratified in April 1533, which allowed the divorce to be granted by the Archbishop of Cranmer. As a result, anger ar... ...tting the downfall of the Cromwellian regime. As a result, it is fair to say that once the rebellion began, Robert Aske and Lord Darcy, â€Å"for their own reasons: self-advancement, principle, fear-dabbled in treason† . But, Elton’s argument is useful in the sense that it gives a helpful view on popular attitudes during this period. Works Cited C. S. L. Davies, ‘Popular Religion and the Pilgrimage of Grace’ in Order and Disorder in Early Modern England, eds. Anthony Fletcher and John Stevenson Ethan H. Shagan, Popular Politics and the English Reformation Michael Bush, ‘Up for the Commonwealth’: the significance of tax grievances in the English rebellions of 1536, English Historical Review Barrett L. Beer, Rebellion and Riot: Popular Disorder in England during the reign of Edward VI R. W. Hoyle, The Pilgrimage of Grace and the Politics of the 1530s

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

The Changing Definition of Jihad Essay -- Jihad, Terrorism, Terrorists

Jihad and the Crusades Every great historical moment, leader and religion is focused around a uniting influence. Saladin, a great Kurdish Muslim warrior during the time of the Crusades, and the Muslim armies employed the lesser, or violent jihad to fortify support and power in the Holy Lands. Throughout the eleventh and twelfth centuries the term â€Å"jihad† was used in several different contexts with varying meanings and intentions. Saladin used a favorable definition and interpretation of Jihad in order to unite the Muslims and create a massive army to defend Islam from the Christian Crusaders. In order to completely understand the word, its origins, and its uses, the original passages from the Qur’an must be analyzed and interpreted. Islam, as a faith, is supposed to be peaceful and preaches inner strength. Violence of any kind is in direct contradiction to the teachings of Mohammad and the Islamic faith. The only exception in using violence is in the case of a declared jihad, or holy war for the protection of Islam. The reasons for this exception for violence and its proper uses are controversial in that there is little reassurance that Allah would support or deny support for a war. However it is clear that the meaning and use of jihad was manipulated during the Crusades for the benefit of Islam, as it can be argued that Saladin fought not for Allah, but out of anger towards the Christians and to protect and grow his own wealth and lands. In the present day the term jihad is used more and more in the press however the meaning of the word has gained an increasingly violent connotation over time. While jihad has been bastardized over time it’s origins appear to be pure and devout to the Islamic faith. The history and origins of jihad are found in the Qur’an and the teachings of the Prophet Mohammad who died in 632 AD. Throughout the Qur’an there are several references to jihad as a personal and inner struggle to become a better person. The Islamic faith is based upon striving for a life that is worthy in God’s eyes. A personal jihad is basically the struggle to avoid temptations and stay on the right path to salvation and for God, which is what the prophet Mohammed preached throughout his life. One scholar writes, â€Å"Muslims for centuries have engaged themselves and the world in pursuit of inner jihad. This has been their way of ... inner struggle to follow the teachings of Islam remains a core value in Muslim faith. While Saladin’s interpretation of Jihad changed the religion of Islam, it was not nearly as radical as the present day alterations. Works Cited Gabrieli, Francesco and E. J. Costello, trans. Arab Historians of the Crusades. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1969. "History of Jihad." News on Terror. News on Terror, 04/15/2010. Web. 15 Apr 2010. . Ibn Al-Qalanisi. The Damascus Chronicle of the Crusades. Trans. H. A. R. Gibb. London: University of London Historical Series V, 1932. "Inner Jihad". The Canadian Society of Muslims. 3/29/10>. "Jihad: Holy Struggle or Holy War". CARM. 3/29/10 holy-war>. The Hoy Bible. Revised Standard Version. New York, NY: Meridian, 1962. The Qur'an (Oxford World's Edition, revised 2008 paperback edition) Usamah ibn Munqidh. An Arab-Syrian Gentleman and Warrior in the Period of the Crusades. Trans. P. K. Hitti. New York: Columbia University Press, 1929. The Changing Definition of Jihad Essay -- Jihad, Terrorism, Terrorists Jihad and the Crusades Every great historical moment, leader and religion is focused around a uniting influence. Saladin, a great Kurdish Muslim warrior during the time of the Crusades, and the Muslim armies employed the lesser, or violent jihad to fortify support and power in the Holy Lands. Throughout the eleventh and twelfth centuries the term â€Å"jihad† was used in several different contexts with varying meanings and intentions. Saladin used a favorable definition and interpretation of Jihad in order to unite the Muslims and create a massive army to defend Islam from the Christian Crusaders. In order to completely understand the word, its origins, and its uses, the original passages from the Qur’an must be analyzed and interpreted. Islam, as a faith, is supposed to be peaceful and preaches inner strength. Violence of any kind is in direct contradiction to the teachings of Mohammad and the Islamic faith. The only exception in using violence is in the case of a declared jihad, or holy war for the protection of Islam. The reasons for this exception for violence and its proper uses are controversial in that there is little reassurance that Allah would support or deny support for a war. However it is clear that the meaning and use of jihad was manipulated during the Crusades for the benefit of Islam, as it can be argued that Saladin fought not for Allah, but out of anger towards the Christians and to protect and grow his own wealth and lands. In the present day the term jihad is used more and more in the press however the meaning of the word has gained an increasingly violent connotation over time. While jihad has been bastardized over time it’s origins appear to be pure and devout to the Islamic faith. The history and origins of jihad are found in the Qur’an and the teachings of the Prophet Mohammad who died in 632 AD. Throughout the Qur’an there are several references to jihad as a personal and inner struggle to become a better person. The Islamic faith is based upon striving for a life that is worthy in God’s eyes. A personal jihad is basically the struggle to avoid temptations and stay on the right path to salvation and for God, which is what the prophet Mohammed preached throughout his life. One scholar writes, â€Å"Muslims for centuries have engaged themselves and the world in pursuit of inner jihad. This has been their way of ... inner struggle to follow the teachings of Islam remains a core value in Muslim faith. While Saladin’s interpretation of Jihad changed the religion of Islam, it was not nearly as radical as the present day alterations. Works Cited Gabrieli, Francesco and E. J. Costello, trans. Arab Historians of the Crusades. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1969. "History of Jihad." News on Terror. News on Terror, 04/15/2010. Web. 15 Apr 2010. . Ibn Al-Qalanisi. The Damascus Chronicle of the Crusades. Trans. H. A. R. Gibb. London: University of London Historical Series V, 1932. "Inner Jihad". The Canadian Society of Muslims. 3/29/10>. "Jihad: Holy Struggle or Holy War". CARM. 3/29/10 holy-war>. The Hoy Bible. Revised Standard Version. New York, NY: Meridian, 1962. The Qur'an (Oxford World's Edition, revised 2008 paperback edition) Usamah ibn Munqidh. An Arab-Syrian Gentleman and Warrior in the Period of the Crusades. Trans. P. K. Hitti. New York: Columbia University Press, 1929.